Ataru Kuroiwa

Fukuoka University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (15)21.52 Total impact

  • Shin’yu Liou · Ataru Kuroiwa · Hong Yan · Akihiko Eshita
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    ABSTRACT: Hochu-ekki-to (HOT) has long been used for treatment of the elderly complaining of severe weakness. In this study, we examined its immunopharmacological effect on 16 elderly patients, aged 76.5 years on average and complaining of general fatigue. They were administered orally 7.5 g of HOT every day for at least 120 days (4 months), which provided them with a noticeable improvement of their physical condition. From the immunological point of view, during the observation period, the total number of circulating leukocytes remained unchanged, as well as the ratios between CD3+T- and CD20+B-cells and between CD4+T- and CD8+T-cells. However, as verified on day 30 as well as on day 120 after the administration of HOT, the activity of NK against K562 target cells was significantly enhanced. Also, on days 30 and 120, there was a significant increase in serum IFN-γ level which is thought to be associated with NK activity. From these results, it may be concluded that the oral administration of HOT to the elderly may help them ameliorate, at least partially, their immunological capacity as well as their physical condition.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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    ABSTRACT: In general, the elderly show a significant age-related decline in their immune response, thus leading to an increased vulnerability to infections or to an increase in the occurrence of malignant tumors. In this study, we examined the effect of Hochu-ekki-to (HOT or TJ-41) on the immunological capacity of the elderly. A group of elderly patients complaining of general fatigue or weakness were orally administered 7.5 g of HOT everyday for at least 120 days (4 months), whereas another group of aged patients mainly complaining of a loss of appetite were daily given 7.5 g of Anchu-san (TJ-5) during the same period and served as a control group. From the immunological point of view, the total number of circulating leukocytes remained unchanged, during the observation period both in the HOT and Anchu-san groups, as well as the ratios between CD3(+) T and CD20(+) B cells and between CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells. In addition, no differences were observed in the expression of CD25 antigen, which represents an activated state of T cells. However, as verified on day 30 as well as on day 120 after the administration of HOT, the natural killer (NK) activity against K562 target cells was significantly enhanced, in comparison to the results on day 0 in the HOT group, as well as to that activity on days 0, 30 and 120 in the Anchu-san group. In addition, on days 30 and 120 in the HOT group, there was a significant increase in the serum IFN-gamma level, which is thought to be associated with the NK activity, whereas no significant changes in that level were observed in the Anchu-san group, during the study period. From these results, it may be concluded that the administration of HOT to elderly people may help them improve, at least to some degree, their immunological capacity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · International Immunopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between active compared to inactive lifestyles and immunocompetence in men. Subjects, all male volunteers, regularly exercising moderately were separated into three age groups: young (20-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years) and elderly (more than 60 years). Age-matched sedentary male subjects served as controls in each group. Immunological assessments were, total leucocyte count, lymphocyte subpopulation counts, natural killer cell activity and neutrophilic phagocytosis. Total leucocyte and T-cell (CD3+) counts were not significantly different among the groups. Among T-cell subsets, there was a slight increase in helper T-cell (CD3+CD4+) and a decrease in cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell (CD3+CD8+) concentrations in the older sedentary subjects, resulting in an age-associated significant increase in the CD4:CD8 ratio among those control groups. However, among the exerciser groups, no such increase and decrease in the T-cell subpopulations or an age-related increase of the CD4:CD8 ratio were observed. Considering the components of innate immunity, the concentration of NK-cells (CD16+CD56+) significantly increased in the elderly exercisers, compared to that of the age-matched control subjects, or of the young group. The phagocytotic activity of neutrophils showed an age-associated decline, but of lesser degree in the elderly exercisers than in the elderly controls. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual and moderate training in later life is associated with a lesser age-related decline in certain aspects of circulating T-cell function and innate immunity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Arbeitsphysiologie
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    ABSTRACT: A thin film of titanium dioxide (TiO2, anatase crystalline form) coated on a glass plate inactivated Lactobacillus casei PL-1 phages suspended in a buffer solution, when the reaction mixture was illuminated with a black-light lamp (maximum wave length, 365 nm) and shaken gently. When the reaction mixture was not illuminated, the TiO2 film exhibited no phage-inactivating activity. TiO2 was not photoexcited by white (fluorescent)-light lamp. The degree of phage inactivation was directly proportional to the surface area of the TiO2 film. The phage inactivation approximately followed first-order reaction kinetics. The phage inactivation by photoexcited TiO2 film was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and D-mannitol, and accelerated by hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the phage inactivation is due to the active oxygen species generated on the surface of TiO2 film under the black-light illumination. Electron microscopic observation of the negatively-stained preparation revealed that about 43% of the phages treated with photoexcited TiO2 film were converted into ghost-particles with empty heads.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000
  • Nobuo Okabe · Ataru Kuroiwa · Ariaki Nagayama

    No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The binding of complement C3 to the cell surface of Klebsiella pneumoniae exposed to human serum complement after treatment with or without sub-MIC of antibiotics was examined by double diffusion immunoprecipitation against anti-human complement C3, and the production of oxygen-derived radicals by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by complement-opsonized K. pneumoniae after treatment with or without sub-MIC of antibiotics was measured using the chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Complement C3 bound to the cell surface of K. pneumoniae treated with cefodizime was detected after exposure to human serum complement. The CL response induced by complement-opsonized bacteria after treatment with cefodizime was much higher than the response induced by nontreated bacteria or complement-opsonized bacteria after treatment with other antibiotics. These findings indicate that treatment with sub-MIC cefodizime make K. pneumoniae more susceptible to opsonization by complement and promotes the specific phagocytosis mediated by complement receptors.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1997 · Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of microwave irradiation on the survival of bacteriophage PL-1, which is specific for Lactobacillus casei, was studied using a commercial 2,450 MHz microwave oven. The phages were inactivated by microwave irradiation according to almost first-order reaction kinetics. The rate of phage inactivation was not affected by the difference in the continuous or intermittent irradiation, nor by the concentrations of phages used, but was affected by the volume of phage suspensions, which prevented the loss of generated heat. Microwave irradiation of phage suspensions produced a number of ghost phages with empty heads, but fragmentation of the tail was hardly noticed. The breakage of phage genome DNA was primarily caused by the heat generated by microwave irradiation, whereas the phage DNA was not affected by the same temperature achieved by heat from outside. Thus we concluded that the phage-inactivating effect of microwave irradiation was mainly attributed to a thermal microwave effect, which was much stronger than a simple thermal exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1995 · Microbiology and Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: A bacterial strain FP2001 isolated from the exudate of land reclaimed for municipal waste was identified as Pseudomonas paucimobilis. Cells of strain FP2001 were mobile by means of polar monotrichous flagellum, only when rhamnose was added as a carbon source in the liquid medium. The replacement of rhamnose by arabinose, galactose, glucose or xylose did not lead to the formation of flagella.
    Preview · Article · Feb 1995 · Microbiology and Immunology
  • Shuichi Nomura · Ataru Kuroiwa · Ariaki Nagayama
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of the sub-MIC of antibiotics on the surface hydrophobicity and charge of Staphylococcus aureus were examined by the contact angle method and by microscopic electrophoresis, and the production of oxygen-derived radicals by mouse peritoneal macrophages was measured by a luminol-chemiluminescence assay. The treatment of the bacterial cells with antibiotics induced an increase in hydrophobicity and a decrease in the negative charge of the bacterial surface. The chemiluminescence of the macrophages stimulated by S. aureus treated with antibiotics was significantly higher than that obtained with the untreated bacterial cells. These findings suggest that the antibiotics caused an increase in the hydrophobicity and a decrease in the negative charge of the surface of S. aureus, resulting in the enhancement of nonopsonic phagocytosis of S. aureus by macrophages.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the mechanisms of increased nonspecific immunity in pregnant women, the effect of various hormones on the phagocytic activity was estimated by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) response during phagocytosing opsonized zymosan. The CL response of whole blood supplemented with exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) increased significantly in all the male and female subjects and pregnant women. An approximate two- to fourfold increase was observed in comparison with the unsupplemented control in each subject at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 IU/ml after 48 h of incubation (P less than 0.05). Progesterone slightly stimulated the CL response in female subjects only, but had no effect on male and pregnant women. Estradiol (E2) did not stimulate the CL response in any subject. The expression of Fc and C3b receptors on the surface of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in pregnant women was also investigated by measuring the immunofluorescence stained with monoclonal antibody to Fc and C3b receptors, respectively. The relative numbers of Fc receptors increased significantly in the third trimester compared to those of female control (P less than 0.05). Those of C3b receptor also increased in the second and third trimester (P less than 0.005). These results suggested that the nonspecific immunity represented by phagocytic activity in pregnant women increased with both oxidative metabolic responsiveness and the expression of membrane receptors. Besides, the increased phagocytic activity of the maternal host is probably due to the stimulatory effect of both endogenous and exogenous hCG on their peripheral blood phagocytes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1991 · American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989)
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrathin sections of the cells of Lactobacillus casei infected with or without PL-1 phages were observed by the rapid-freezing and substitution-fixation method. Phage-head-like particles were first observed in the nuclear region. The region was seen more widely dispersed in the cytoplasm than that observed by the conventional chemical fixation method. The features of cells just broken open by the infected phages were observed by the sedimentation method devised by us. The bursting occurred in more than one place in the cells with liberation of progeny phages.
    Preview · Article · Feb 1990 · Microbiology and Immunology
  • A Kuroiwa · K Miyamoto · N Okabe · T Shibuya
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the differences in oxygen metabolite generation, using a chemiluminescence (CL) assay, in peripheral blood phagocytic cells from various donors including healthy young volunteers, patients with acute or chronic inflammation, pregnant women, and elderly persons. The CL response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after stimulation with serum-opsonized zymosan was increased in patients with acute inflammation due to infection and in pregnant women as compared with that in controls. Monocytes from those patients also showed a slight increase of the CL response. In contrast, CL of monocytes from patients with chronic inflammation (Crohn's disease patients) and elderly persons was significantly enhanced, whereas that of their PMN remained in the range of control values. The significance of these results was discussed.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1989 · Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology
  • T Shibuya · K Izuchi · A Kuroiwa · N Okabe · K Shirakawa
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    ABSTRACT: The total number of circulating leucocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women progressively increased with advance in gestation because of neutrophilia. When the phagocytic activity, representing nonspecific immunity, was estimated by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) response during phagocytosing opsonized zymosan, we observed that the CL response of whole blood and Ficoll-Paque separated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) significantly increased throughout the pregnancy (P less than 0.01). The CL responses of mononuclear leucocytes (MN) and monocytes also increased and reached peak levels in the third trimester (P less than 0.05). These findings suggest that the phagocytic activity in pregnant women increases, not only with regard to the number of phagocytes but also with regard to individual cell function, from a relatively early stage of the pregnancy, and that this increased nonspecific immunity may compensate in part for a weakened specific immunity of the maternal host. Attention should be directed to effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) relative to the increased CL response during pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1987 · American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology
  • N Okabe · A Kuroiwa · K Fujita · T Shibuya · T Yao · M Okumura
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative metabolic activity can be measured by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay. To investigate the phagocytic activity of blood cells, CL responses were assessed in 26 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 26 healthy controls, using heparinized peripheral blood. Significantly (p less than 0.005) increased CL responses of whole blood cells were found in 26 patients with CD. However, CL activity was not directly related to disease activity nor to other clinical parameters. The CL responses did not correlate with the number of white blood cells, neutrophils nor monocytes. In consideration of the increased CL, there is the possibility that functional abnormalities in some components of blood cells leads to elevations in CL responses of whole blood cells. To obtain support for this proposal, blood cells were separated into neutrophils and monocytes, and CL of neutrophils or monocytes were studied, using the same number of each type of cells as that of the controls. The oxidative metabolism of monocytes from CD patients was significantly (p less than 0.005) higher than that of controls, while the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was similar to that in the controls. These data suggest that elevations in CL activity of whole blood cells were not due to alterations of the neutrophils but rather to abnormalities in the monocytes. Further attention directed to the significance of monocyte function in the pathogenesis of CD is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1986 · Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology
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    ABSTRACT: 免疫の日内変動を知ることは、運動が免疫に及ぼす影響を観察する場合に重要であると思われる。本研究では、成人男性における白血球と好中球貪食能の日内変動を明らかにし、あわせて血液採取のタイミングについて検討することを目的とした。 被験者は、21~41歳の男性7名であった。12時間の絶食後、7:30、12:00、16:00、20:00、翌日8:00に、肘静脈よりそれぞれ7mlの採血を行い、得られた血液より白血球数、白血球分画、好中球貪食率および好中球一個あたりの貪食能(P.I.)を測定した。結果の統計処理には、一元配置の分散分析を用い、有意差が認められた場合のみ対比法を用いて有意差検定を行った。有意水準は、危険率5%未満とした。その結果、総白血球数、好中球数、好中球貪食能は日内変動を有することが示唆され、総白血球数、好中球数は12:00に最も高い数値を示し、好中球貪食率、P.I.は12:00に最も低い値を示すことが示唆された。また、安静時での免疫比較を行う場合の血液採取には、すべての項目の有意差が認められなかったこと、その他の免疫に影響を及ぼす因子の影響をなるべく受けないためにも、早朝空腹時に採血を行うことが望ましい可能性が考えられた。 It is important to know the circadian rhythms of immune cells when we study the effects of exercise on immune system. The purpose of this study to investigate about the circadian rhythms of whiteblood cell and neutrophil phagocytic function in men. Seven men volunteered for this study. The blood samples were collected at 7:30, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00 and next day 8:00 (n-8:00). Counts of totasl White blood cell (WBC), neutrophils lymphocytes, monocytes and the defferental white blood count were measured. At 20:00, the number of total WBC were significancy higher than at 7:30(p<0.01), 16:00(p<0.05), n-8:00(p<0.05). Neutrophils were significantly higher at 20:00(p<0.01),16:00(p<0.05), 12:00(p<0.01) and it increased at 7:30 than 12:00. Neuriphil phagocytic index was significantly higher at 12:00 than 7:30, 16:00 and n-8:00. Neutrophil phagocytic index was significantly lower at 7:30 than 12:00 and 20:00. These dates suggested that there are circadian rhythms of the number of total WBC and neutrophil
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Publication Stats

218 Citations
21.52 Total Impact Points


  • 1986-2004
    • Fukuoka University
      • • Department of Microbiology
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1995
    • St.Mary's Hospital (Fukuoka - Japan)
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan