[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recapitulation of human corneal stromal tissue is believed to be among the most challenging steps in engineering human corneal tissue because of the difficulty in reproducing its highly-ordered hierarchical ultrastructure, which imparts its robust biomechanical properties and optical transparency. In this study, we compared the feasibility of utilizing human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSCs) and human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in the generation of human corneal stromal tissue on a highly-aligned fibrous substrate made from poly(ester urethane) urea. In the serum-free keratocyte differentiation medium supplemented with FGF-2 (10 ng/mL) and TGF-β3 (0.1 ng/mL), hCSSCs successfully differentiated into keratocytes and secreted multilayered lamellae with orthogonally-oriented collagen fibrils, in a pattern mimicking human corneal stromal tissue. The constructs were 60∼70 μm thick and abundant in cornea-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components, including keratan sulfate, lumican, and keratocan. Under the identical conditions, hCFs tended to differentiate into myofibroblasts and deposited a less-organized collagen-fibrillar construct in a pattern with similarities to corneal scar tissue due to a lack of cornea-specific ECM components. These observations demonstrated that hCSSCs showed a much greater potential, under proper substrate and growth factor guidance, to facilitate the generation of a biological human cornea equivalent. Unlike hCSSCs, hCFs were less responsive to these environmental cues and under identical culture conditions generated an ECM that poorly mimicked the native, functional tissue structure and composition.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Experimental Eye Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recapitulating the microstructure of native human corneal stromal tissue is believed to be a key feature in successfully engineering corneal tissue. The stratified multilayered collagen-fibril lamellae with orthogonal orientation determine the robust biomechanical properties of this tissue, and the uniform collagen fibril size and inter-fibrillar spacing are critical to its optical transparency. The objective of this investigation was to develop a highly organized collagen-fibril construct secreted by human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSCs) to mimic human corneal stromal tissue. In culture on a highly-aligned fibrous substrate made from poly(ester urethane) urea, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2, 10 ng/mL) and transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3, 0.1 ng/mL) impacted the organization and abundance of the secreted collagen-fibril matrix. hCSSCs differentiated into keratocytes with significant up-regulation of the typical gene markers including KERA, B3GnT7, and CHST6. FGF-2 treatment stimulated hCSSCs to secrete collagen fibrils strongly aligned in a single direction, whereas TGF-β3 induced collagenous layers with orthogonal fibril orientation. The combination of FGF-2 and TGF-β3 induced multilayered lamellae with orthogonally-oriented collagen fibrils, in a pattern mimicking human corneal stromal tissue. The constructs were 60~70 μm thick and had an increased content of cornea-specific ECM components, including keratan sulfate, lumican, and keratocan. The approach of combining substrate cues with growth factor augmentation offers a new means to engineer well-organized, collagen-based constructs with appropriate nanoscale structure for corneal repair and regeneration.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Tissue Engineering Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corneal transparency depends on a unique extracellular matrix secreted by stromal keratocytes, mesenchymal cells of neural crest lineage. Derivation of keratocytes from human embryonic stem (hES) cells could elucidate the keratocyte developmental pathway and open a potential for cell-based therapy for corneal blindness. This study seeks to identify conditions inducing differentiation of pluripotent hES cells to the keratocyte lineage. Neural differentiation of hES cell line WA01(H1) was induced by co-culture with mouse PA6 fibroblasts. After 6 days of co-culture, hES cells expressing cell-surface NGFR protein (CD271, p75NTR) were isolated by immunoaffinity adsorption, and cultured as a monolayer for one week. Keratocyte phenotype was induced by substratum-independent pellet culture in serum-free medium containing ascorbate. Gene expression, examined by quantitative RT-PCR, found hES cells co-cultured with PA6 cells for 6 days to upregulate expression of neural crest genes including NGFR, SNAI1, NTRK3, SOX9, and MSX1. Isolated NGFR-expressing cells were free of PA6 feeder cells. After expansion as a monolayer, mRNAs typifying adult stromal stem cells were detected, including BMI1, KIT, NES, NOTCH1, and SIX2. When these cells were cultured as substratum-free pellets keratocyte markers AQP1, B3GNT7, PTDGS, and ALDH3A1 were upregulated. mRNA for keratocan (KERA), a cornea-specific proteoglycan, was upregulated more than 10,000 fold. Culture medium from pellets contained high molecular weight keratocan modified with keratan sulfate, a unique molecular component of corneal stroma. These results show hES cells can be induced to differentiate into keratocytes in vitro. Pluripotent stem cells, therefore, may provide a renewable source of material for development of treatment of corneal stromal opacities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To isolate and characterize stem cells from human trabecular meshwork (TM) and to investigate the potential of these stem cells to differentiate into TM cells.
Human trabecular meshwork stem cells (TMSCs) were isolated as side population cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or isolated by clonal cultures. Passaged TMSCs were compared with primary TM cells by immunostaining and quantitative RT-PCR. TMSC purity was assessed by flow cytometry and TMSC multipotency was examined by induction of neural cells, adipocytes, keratocytes, or TM cells. Differential gene expression was detected by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. TM cell function was evaluated by phagocytic assay using inactivated Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles.
Side population and clonal isolated cells expressed stem cell markers ABCG2, Notch1, OCT-3/4, AnkG, and MUC1 but not TM markers AQP1, MGP, CHI3L1, or TIMP3. Passaged TMSCs are a homogeneous population with >95% cells positive to CD73, CD90, CD166, or Bmi1. TMSCs exhibited multipotent ability of differentiation into a variety of cell types with expression of neural markers neurofilament, β-tubulin III, GFAP; or keratocyte-specific markers keratan sulfate and keratocan; or adipocyte markers ap2 and leptin. TMSC readily differentiated into TM cells with phagocytic function and expression of TM markers AQP1, CHI3L1, and TIMP3.
TMSCs, isolated as side population or as clones, express specific stem cell markers, are homogeneous and multipotent, with the ability to differentiate into phagocytic TM cells. These cells offer a potential for development of a novel stem cell-based therapy for glaucoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) are an abundant population of adult stem cells with the potential to differentiate into several specialized tissue types, including neural and neural crest-derived cells. This study sought to determine if ADSC express keratocyte-specific phenotypic markers when cultured under conditions inducing differentiation of corneal stromal stem cells to keratocytes.
Human subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by lipoaspiration. ADSC were isolated by collagenase digestion and differential centrifugation. Side population cells in ADSC were demonstrated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting after staining with Hoechst 33342. Differentiation to keratocyte phenotype was induced in fibrin gels or as pellet cultures with serum-free or reduced-serum media containing ascorbate. Keratocyte-specific gene expression was characterized using western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunostaining.
ADSC contained a side population and exhibited differentiation to adipocytes and chondrocytes indicating adult stem-cell potential. Culture of ADSC in fibrin gels or as pellets in reduced-serum medium with ascorbate and insulin induced expression of keratocan, keratan sulfate, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), products highly expressed by differentiated keratocytes. Expression of differentiation markers was quantitatively similar to corneal stromal stem cells and occurred in both serum-free and serum containing media.
ADSC cultured under keratocyte-differentiation conditions express corneal-specific matrix components. Expression of these unique keratocyte products suggests that ADSC can adopt a keratocyte phenotype and therefore have potential for use in corneal cell therapy and tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TGFβ induces fibrosis in healing corneal wounds, and in vitro corneal keratocytes up-regulate expression of several fibrosis-related genes in response to TGFβ. Hyaluronan (HA) accumulates
in healing corneas, and HA synthesis is induced by TGFβ by up-regulation of HA synthase 2. This study tested the hypothesis
that HA acts as an extracellular messenger, enhancing specific fibrotic responses of keratocytes to TGFβ. HA synthesis inhibitor
4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) blocked TGFβ induction of HA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. 4MU also inhibited
TGFβ-induced up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen type III, and extra domain A-fibronectin. Chemical analogs of
4MU also inhibited fibrogenic responses in proportion to their inhibition of HA synthesis. 4MU, however, showed no effect
on TGFβ induction of luciferase by the 3TP-Lux reporter plasmid. Inhibition of HA using siRNA to HA synthase 2 reduced TGFβ
up-regulation of smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and cell division. Similarly, brief treatment of keratocytes with hyaluronidase
reduced TGFβ responses. These results suggest that newly synthesized cell-associated HA acts as an extracellular enhancer
of wound healing and fibrosis in keratocytes by augmenting a limited subset of the cellular responses to TGFβ.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klf4, one of the highly expressed transcription factors in the mouse cornea, plays an important role in maturation and maintenance of the ocular surface. In this study, the structure and proteoglycan composition of the Klf4 conditional null (Klf4CN) corneal stroma was investigated, to further characterize the previously reported Klf4CN stromal edema.
Collagen fibril spacing and diameter were calculated from scattering intensity profiles from small angle synchrotron x-ray scattering patterns obtained across the cornea along a vertical meridian at 0.5-mm intervals. Collagen fibril organization and proteoglycans were visualized by electron microscopy (EM), with or without the cationic dye cuprolinic blue. Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans were further analyzed by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and immunoblot analysis. Q-RT-PCR was used to measure the transcript levels.
In the central cornea, the average collagen interfibrillar Bragg spacing increased from 44.5 nm (SD +/-1.8) in wild-type to 66.5 nm (SD +/-2.3) in Klf4CN, as measured by x-ray scattering and confirmed by EM. Mean collagen fibril diameter increased from 32 nm (SD +/-0.4) in wild-type to 42.3 nm (SD +/-4.8) in Klf4CN corneal stroma. Downregulation of proteoglycans detected by EM in the Klf4CN stroma was confirmed by FACE and immunoblot analysis. Q-RT-PCR showed that, whereas the Klf4CN corneal proteoglycan transcript levels remained unchanged, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) transcript levels were significantly upregulated.
The Klf4CN corneal stromal edema is characterized by increased collagen interfibrillar spacing and increased diameter of individual fibrils. The stroma also exhibits reduced interfibrillar proteoglycans throughout, which is possibly caused by increased expression of MMPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratocytes, mesenchymal cells populating the corneal stroma, secrete the unique transparent connective tissue of the cornea as well as opaque scar tissue after injury. Previous studies identified factors mediating keratocyte phenotype in vitro, particularly the expression of the keratan sulfate proteoglycans, which are essential for vision. Whereas earlier work emphasized effects of cytokines, the current study examines the effects of substratum attachment on keratocyte phenotype.
Primary keratocytes from collagenase digestion of bovine corneas were cultured on tissue-culture plastic or on poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)(polyHEMA)-coated, non-adhesive surfaces. Secreted proteoglycans from culture media and cell-associated proteins were characterized using western blotting or isotopic labeling. Gene expression was characterized with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Secreted matrix was examined with immunostaining.
We observed that virtually all primary keratocytes participate in the formation of spheroidal aggregates, remaining viable for at least four weeks in vitro. Spheroid keratocytes secrete more keratan sulfate and keratocan than attached cells in the same culture medium. In spheroids, keratocytes accumulate substantial matrix in intercellular spaces, including keratan sulfate, lumican, keratocan, and collagens V and VI. The unattached cells undergo limited cell division and do not differentiate into myofibroblasts in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), which is based on the expression of extra domain A (EDA) fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Similarly, the platelet derived growth factor, a cytokine initiating the fibroblastic phenotype in attached keratocytes, had a limited effect on the spheroid-associated keratocytes. Ascorbate-2-phosphate was the only agent stimulating keratan sulfate secretion in the spheroid keratocytes.
These results provide a new paradigm for understanding signals that regulate extracellular matrix secretion. For primary keratocytes, the alteration of the cellular environment in terms of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions mediates and can override signals from soluble cytokines in influencing matrix expression and also in adopting other aspects of the fibroblastic and myofibroblastic phenotypes found in healing wounds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratocytes of the corneal stroma produce transparent extracellular matrix devoid of hyaluronan (HA); however, in corneal
pathologies and wounds, HA is abundant. We previously showed primary keratocytes cultured under serum-free conditions to secrete
matrix similar to that of normal stroma, but serum and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induced secretion of fibrotic matrix
components, including HA. This study found HA secretion by primary bovine keratocytes to increase rapidly in response to TGFβ,
reaching a maximum in 12 h and then decreasing to <5% of the maximum by 48 h. Cell-free biosynthesis of HA by cell extracts
also exhibited a transient peak at 12 h after TGFβ treatment. mRNA for hyaluronan synthase enzymes HAS1 and HAS2 increased >10- and >50-fold, respectively, in 4–6 h, decreasing to near original levels after 24–48 h. Small interfering
RNA against HAS2 inhibited the transient increase of HAS2 mRNA and completely blocked HA induction, but small interfering RNA to HAS1 had no effect on HA secretion. HAS2 mRNA was induced by a variety of mitogens, and TGFβ acted synergistically to induce HAS2 by as much as 150-fold. In addition to HA synthesis, treatment with TGFβ induced degradation of fluorescein-HA added to culture
medium. These results show HA secretion by keratocytes to be initiated by a rapid transient increase in the HAS2 mRNA pool. The very rapid induction of HA expression in keratocytes suggests a functional role of this molecule in the fibrotic
response of keratocytes to wound healing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratocytes of the corneal stroma secrete a specialized extracellular matrix essential for vision. These quiescent cells exhibit limited capacity for self-renewal and after cell division become fibroblastic, secreting nontransparent tissue. This study sought to identify progenitor cells for human keratocytes. Near the corneal limbus, stromal cells expressed ABCG2, a protein present in many adult stem cells. The ABCG2-expressing cell population was isolated as a side population (SP) by cell sorting after exposure to Hoechst 33342 dye. The SP cells exhibited clonal growth and continued to express ABCG2 and also PAX6, product of a homeobox gene not expressed in adult keratocytes. Cloned SP cells cultured in medium with fibroblast growth factor-2 lost ABCG2 and PAX6 expression and upregulated several molecular markers of keratocytes, including keratocan, aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1, and keratan sulfate. Cloned corneal SP cells under chondrogenic conditions produced matrix staining with toluidine blue and expressed cartilage-specific markers: collagen II, cartilage oligomatrix protein, and aggrecan. Exposure of cloned SP cells to neurogenic culture medium upregulated mRNA and protein for glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament protein, and beta-tubulin II. These results demonstrate the presence of a population of cells in the human corneal stroma expressing stem cell markers and exhibiting multipotent differentiation potential. These appear to be the first human cells identified with keratocyte progenitor potential. Further analysis of these cells will aid elucidation of molecular mechanisms of corneal development, differentiation, and wound healing. These cells may be a resource for bioengineering of corneal stroma and for cell-based therapeutics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratocytes of the corneal stroma produce a transparent extracellular matrix required for vision. During wound-healing and in vitro, keratocytes proliferate, becoming fibroblastic, and lose biosynthesis of unique corneal matrix components. This study sought identification of cells in the corneal stroma capable of assuming a keratocyte phenotype after extensive proliferation. About 3% of freshly isolated bovine stromal cells exhibited clonal growth. In low-mitogen media, selected clonal cultures displayed dendritic morphology and expressed high levels of keratan sulfate, aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1, and keratocan, molecular markers of keratocyte phenotype. In protein-free media, both primary keratocytes and selected clonal cells aggregated to form attachment-independent spheroids expressing elevated levels of those marker molecules. The selected clonal cells exhibited normal karyotype and underwent replicative senescence after 65-70 population doublings; however, they continued expression of keratocyte phenotypic markers throughout their replicative life span. The progenitor cells expressed elevated mRNA for several genes characteristic of stem cells and also for genes expressed during ocular development PAX6, Six2, and Six3. PAX6 protein was detected in the cultured progenitor cells and a small number of stromal cells in intact tissue but was absent in cultured keratocytes and fibroblasts. Cytometry demonstrated PAX6 protein in 4% of freshly isolated stromal cells. These results demonstrate the presence of a previously unrecognized population of PAX6-positive cells in adult corneal stroma that maintain the potential to assume a keratocyte phenotype even after extensive replication. The presence of such progenitor cells has implications for corneal biology and for cell-based therapies targeting corneal scarring.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · The FASEB Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pathological corneas, accumulation of fibrotic extracellular matrix is characterized by proteoglycans with altered glycosaminoglycans that contribute to the reduced transparency of scarred tissue. During wound healing, keratocytes in the corneal stroma transdifferentiate into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. In this study, molecular markers were developed to identify keratocyte, fibroblast, and myofibroblast phenotypes in primary cultures of corneal stromal cells and the structure of glycosaminoglycans secreted by these cells was characterized. Quiescent primary keratocytes expressed abundant protein and mRNA for keratocan and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3 and secreted proteoglycans containing macromolecular keratan sulfate. Expression of these marker compounds was reduced in fibroblasts and also in transforming growth factor-beta-induced myofibroblasts, which expressed high levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, biglycan, and the extra domain A (EDA or EIIIA) form of cellular fibronectin. Collagen types I and III mRNAs were elevated in both fibroblasts and in myofibroblasts. Expression of these molecular markers clearly distinguishes the phenotypic states of stromal cells in vitro. Glycosaminoglycans secreted by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were qualitatively similar to and differed from those of keratocytes. Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate abundance, chain length, and sulfation were increased as keratocytes became fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis analysis demonstrated increased N-acetylgalactosamine sulfation at both 4- and 6-carbons. Hyaluronan, absent in keratocytes, was secreted by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Keratan sulfate biosynthesis, chain length, and sulfation were significantly reduced in both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. The qualitatively similar expression of glycosaminoglycans shared by fibroblasts and myofibroblasts suggests a role for fibroblasts in deposition of non-transparent fibrotic tissue in pathological corneas.
Preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratocytes of the corneal stroma secrete a unique population of proteoglycan molecules considered essential for corneal transparency. In healing corneal wounds, keratocytes exhibit a myofibroblastic phenotype in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), characterized by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. This study examined proteoglycan and collagen expression by keratocytes in vitro during the TGF-beta-induced keratocyte-myofibroblast transition. TGF-beta-treated primary bovine keratocytes developed myofibroblastic features, including actin stress fibers anchored to paxillin-containing focal adhesions, cell-associated fibronectin, alpha(5) integrin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Collagen I and III protein and mRNA increased in response to TGF-beta. Secretion of [(35)S]sulfate-labeled keratan sulfate proteoglycans decreased markedly in response to TGF-beta. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, however, increased in size and abundance. Protein and mRNA transcripts for normal stromal proteoglycans (lumican, keratocan, mimecan, and decorin) all decreased in response to TGF-beta, but protein expression and mRNA for biglycan, a proteoglycan present in fibrotic tissue, was markedly up-regulated. These results show that TGF-beta in vitro induces a proteoglycan expression pattern similar to that of corneal scars in vivo. This altered proteoglycan expression occurred coordinately with transdifferentiation of keratocytes to the myofibroblastic phenotype, implicating these cells as the source of fibrotic tissue in nontransparent corneal scars.
Preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) are the major proteoglycans of the cornea and are secreted by keratocytes in the corneal
stroma. Previous studies have been able to show only transient secretion of KSPG in cell culture. In this study, cultures
of bovine keratocytes were found to secrete the three previously characterized KSPG proteins into culture medium. Reactivity
with monoclonal antibody I22 demonstrated substitution of these proteins with keratan sulfate chains. KSPG constituted 15%
of the proteoglycan metabolically labeled with [35S]sulfate in keratocyte culture medium. This labeled KSPG contained keratan sulfate chains of 4700 Da compared to 21,000 Da
for bovine corneal keratan sulfate. Labeled keratan sulfate from cultures contained nonsulfated, monosulfated, and disulfated
disaccharides that were released by digestion with endo-β-galactosidase or keratanase II. Nonsulfated disaccharides were relatively
more abundant in keratan sulfate from culture than in corneal keratan sulfate. These results show that cultured bovine keratocytes
maintain the ability to express all three of the known KSPG proteins, modified with keratan sulfate chains and sulfated on
both N-acetylglucosamine and galactose moieties. KSPG made in vitro differs from that found in vivo in the length and sulfation of its keratan sulfate chains. The availability of cell cultures secreting corneal keratan sulfate
proteoglycans provides an opportunity to examine biosynthesis and control of this important class of molecules.
Preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amino acid sequence from tryptic peptides of three different bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) core proteins (designated 37A, 37B, and 25) showed similarities to the sequence of a chicken KSPG core protein lumican. Bovine lumican cDNA was isolated from a bovine corneal expression library by screening with chicken lumican cDNA. The bovine cDNA codes for a 342-amino acid protein, M(r) 38,712, containing amino acid sequences identified in the 37B KSPG core protein. The bovine lumican is 68% identical to chicken lumican, with an 83% identity excluding the N-terminal 40 amino acids. Location of 6 cysteine and 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites in the bovine sequence were identical to those in chicken lumican. Bovine lumican had about 50% identity to bovine fibromodulin and 20% identity to bovine decorin and biglycan. About two-thirds of the lumican protein consists of a series of 10 amino acid leucine-rich repeats that occur in regions of calculated high beta-hydrophobic moment, suggesting that the leucine-rich repeats contribute to beta-sheet formation in these proteins. Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A glycoprotein reactive with antibodies against corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) was purified 300-fold from extracts of bovine aorta using DEAE ion-exchange, gel-filtration, hydrophobic interaction, and reverse-phase chromatographic separations. The intact glycoprotein was 70-80 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Deglycosylation with endo-beta-galactosidase and N-glycanase reduced the size to 48 and 37 kDa, respectively, similar to the large isoforms of corneal KSPG. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the arterial KSPG was identical with lumican, the 37B isoform of corneal KSPG, and the arterial KSPG reacted with an antibody to synthetic peptide duplicating this sequence. Arterial KSPG and corneal lumican displayed identical tryptic maps. Arterial lumican contains fucose and mannose in amounts similar to corneal KSPG, but galactose, glucosamine, and sulfate were reduced compared to KSPG from cornea. Treatment of arterial lumican with endo-beta-galactosidase released 8-9 mol of glucosamine and galactose per mol of protein as oligosaccharides. These eluted as neutral, nonsulfated oligosaccharides on high pH anion-exchange chromatography. The size of arterial lumican was not altered by glycosidases having specificity for sulfated keratan sulfate, nor was the charge of the lumican molecule altered by digestion with endo-beta-galactosidase. These data show arterial lumican to be a glycoprotein containing unsulfated lactosaminoglycan chains. Abundance of low sulfate lumican in many tissues indicates that this protein occurs predominantly as a glycoprotein rather than as the more widely studied, highly sulfated proteoglycan present in the cornea.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1992 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work demonstrates isoforms of bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan containing structurally unique core proteins of 25 and 37 kDa (Funderburgh, J., and Conrad, G. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8297-8303). In the current study, two forms (37A and 37B) of the 37-kDa protein were separated by ion-exchange chromatography after removal of keratan sulfate with endo-beta-galactosidase. Keratan sulfate linkage sites in core proteins were labeled with UDP-[3H]galactose using galactosyltransferase. Labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by tryptic digestion and reversed-phase chromatography. The 37A protein has three keratan sulfate-linkage sites, and the 37B and 25-kDa proteins each contain one linkage site. Reversed-phase tryptic maps of the three proteins differed in total peptide profile and in glycosylated peptides labeled with periodate-[3H]-NaBH4. Tryptic mapping of the two 37-kDa isoforms after deglycosylation showed differences in total tryptic peptides, in peptides labeled with [14C]iodoacetic acid, and in peptides recognized by antibodies to a mixture of the 37-kDa cores. Antibody to a synthetic peptide with N-terminal sequence obtained from mixed 37-kDa cores reacted exclusively with the 37B isoform. These results show that bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan has three different core proteins each with distinct glycosylation and unique primary structure.