John A M Ramshaw

Diabetes Australia, Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (156)441.38 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering strategies for repairing and regenerating articular cartilage face critical challenges to recapitulate the dynamic and complex biochemical microenvironment of native tissues. One approach to mimic the biochemical complexity of articular cartilage is through the use of recombinant bacterial collagens as they provide a well–defined biological ‘blank template’ that can be modified to incorporate bioactive and biodegradable peptide sequences within a precisely defined three–dimensional system. We customized the backbone of a Streptococcal collagen–like 2 (Scl2) protein with heparin–binding, integrin–binding, and hyaluronic acid–binding peptide sequences previously shown to modulate chondrogenesis and then cross–linked the recombinant Scl2 protein with a combination of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7)– and aggrecanase (ADAMTS4)–cleavable peptides at varying ratios to form biodegradable hydrogels with degradation characteristics matching the temporal expression pattern of these enzymes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) during chondrogenesis. hMSCs encapsulated within the hydrogels cross–linked with both degradable peptides exhibited enhanced chondrogenic characteristics as demonstrated by gene expression and extracellular matrix deposition compared to the hydrogels cross–linked with a single peptide. Additionally, these combined peptide hydrogels displayed increased MMP7 and ADAMTS4 activities and yet increased compression moduli after 6 weeks, suggesting a positive correlation between the degradation of the hydrogels and the accumulation of matrix by hMSCs undergoing chondrogenesis. Our results suggest that including dual degradation motifs designed to respond to enzymatic activity of hMSCs going through chondrogenic differentiation led to improvements in chondrogenesis. Our hydrogel system demonstrates a bimodal enzymatically degradable biological platform that can mimic native cellular processes in a temporal manner. As such, this novel collagen–mimetic protein, cross–linked via multiple enzymatically degradable peptides, provides a highly adaptable and well defined platform to recapitulate a high degree of biological complexity, which could be applicable to numerous tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Biomaterials
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A range of non-animal collagens has been described, derived from bacterial species, which form stable triple-helical structures without the need for secondary modification to include hydroxyproline in the sequence. The non-animal collagens studied to date are typically smaller than animal interstitial collagens, around one quarter the length and do not pack into large fibrillar aggregates like those that are formed by the major animal interstitial collagens. A consequence of this for biomedical products is that fabricated items, such as collagen sponges, are not as mechanically and dimensionally stable as those of animal collagens. In the present study, we examined the production of larger, polymeric forms of non-animal collagens through introduction of tyrosine and cysteine residues that can form selective cross-links through oxidation. These modifications allow the formation of larger aggregates of the non-animal collagens. When Tyr residues were incorporated, gels were obtained. And with Cys soluble aggregates were formed. These materials can be formed into sponges that are more stable than those formed without these modifications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
  • John A M Ramshaw
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regenerative medicine strategies for restoring articular cartilage face significant challenges to recreate the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical functions of native tissues. As an approach to recapitulate the complexity of the extracellular matrix, collagen-mimetic proteins offer a modular template to incorporate bioactive and biodegradable moieties into a single construct. We modified a Streptococcal collagen-like 2 protein with hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS)-binding peptides and then cross-linked with a matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7)-sensitive peptide to form biodegradable hydrogels. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in these hydrogels exhibited improved viability and significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation compared to controls that were not functionalized with glycosaminoglycan-binding peptides. Hydrogels functionalized with CS-binding peptides also led to significantly higher MMP7 gene expression and activity while the HA-binding peptides significantly increased chondrogenic differentiation of the hMSCs. Our results highlight the potential of this novel biomaterial to modulate cell-mediated processes and create functional tissue engineered constructs for regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Biomaterials
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the potential of non-animal collagens as a new option for cosmetic applications.Methods Non-animal collagens from three species, Streptococcus pyogenes, Solibacter usitatus and Methylobacterium sp 4-46, have been expressed as recombinant proteins in Esherichia coli using a cold-shock, pCold, expression system. The proteins were purified using either metal affinity chromatography or a simple process based on precipitation and proteolytic digestion of impurities, which is suitable for large scale production. Samples were examined using a range of analytical procedures.ResultsAnalyses by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to examine the purity and integrity of the products. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed stabilities around 38 °C, and calculated pI values were from 5.4 to 8.6. UV/Visible light spectroscopy showed the clarity of collagen solutions. The collagens were soluble at low ionic strength between pH 5 and pH 8, but were less soluble under more acidic conditions. At lower pH the insoluble material was well dispersed and did not form the fibrous associations and aggregates found with animal collagens. The materials were shown to be non-cytotoxic to cells in culture.Conclusions These novel, non-animal collagens may be potential alternatives to animal collagens for inclusion in cosmetic formulations.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · International journal of cosmetic science
  • Nishar Hameed · Veronica Glattauer · John A M Ramshaw
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Composite biomaterials provide alternative materials that improve on the properties of the individual components and can be used to replace or restore damaged or diseased tissues. Typically, a composite biomaterial consists of a matrix, often a polymer, with one or more fillers that can be made up of particles, sheets or fibres. The polymer matrix can be chosen from a wide range of compositions and can be fabricated easily and rapidly into complex shapes and structures. In the present study we have examined three size fractions of collagen-containing particles embedded at up to 60% w/w in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The particles used were bone particles, which are a mineral-collagen composite and demineralised bone, which gives naturally cross-linked collagen particles. SEM showed well dispersed particles in the PVA matrix for all concentrations and sizes of particles, with FTIR suggesting collagen to PVA hydrogen bonding. Tg of membranes shifted to a slightly lower temperature with increasing collagen content, along with a minor amount of melting point depression. The modulus and tensile strength of membranes were improved with the addition of both particles up to 10wt%, and were clearly strengthened by the addition, although this effect decreased with higher collagen loadings. Elongation at break decreased with collagen content. Cell adhesion to the membranes was observed associated with the collagen particles, indicating a lack of cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pelvic organ prolapse is a major hidden burden affecting almost 1 in 4 women. It is treated by reconstructive surgery often augmented with synthetic mesh. To overcome the growing concerns of using current synthetic meshes coupled with the high risk of re-operation, a tissue engineering strategy has been developed, adopting a novel source of mesenchymal stem cells. These cells are derived from the highly regenerative endometrial lining of the uterus (eMSCs) and will be delivered in vivo using a new gelatin-coated polyamide scaffold. In this study, gelatin properties were optimised by altering the gelatin concentration and extent of crosslinking to produce the desired gelation and degradation rate in culture. Following cell seeding of uncoated polyamide (PA) and gelatin-coated meshes (PA+G), the growth rate of eMSCs on the PA+G scaffolds was more than that on the PA alone, without compromising cell shape. eMSCs cultured on the PA+G scaffold retained their phenotype as demonstrated by W5C5/SUSD2 (eMSC-specific marker) immunocytochemistry. Additionally, eMSCs were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as shown by immunofluorescence for smooth muscle protein 22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. eMSCs also differentiated into fibroblast-like cells when treated with connective tissue growth factor with enhanced detection of Tenascin-C and collagen type I as well as new tissue formation, as seen by Masson's trichrome. In summary, we have demonstrated that our PA+G scaffold is an appropriate platform for eMSC delivery, proliferation and differentiation into SMCs and fibroblasts, with good biocompatibility and the capacity to regenerate neo-tissue.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Acta Biomaterialia
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of synthetic clinical meshes in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair can lead to poor mechanical compliance in vivo, as a result of a foreign body reaction leading to excessive scar tissue formation. Seeding mesh with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) prior to implantation may reduce the foreign body reaction and lead to improved biomechanical properties of the mesh/tissue complex. This study investigates the influence of seeding human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) on novel gelatin coated polyamide scaffolds, to identify differences in scaffold/tissue biomechanical properties and new tissue growth following up to 90 days implantation, in a subcutaneous rat model of wound repair. Scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted, either with or without eMSCs, in immunocompromised rats and following 7, 30, 60 and 90 days were removed and assessed for their biomechanical properties using uniaxial tensile testing. Following 7, 30 and 90 days implantation scaffolds were assessed for tissue ingrowth and organisation using histological staining and scanning electron microscopy. The eMSCs were associated with altered collagen growth and organisation around the mesh filaments of the scaffold, affecting the physiologically relevant tensile properties of the scaffold/tissue complex, in the toe region of the load-elongation curve. Scaffolds seeded with eMSCs were significantly less stiff on initial stretching than scaffolds implanted without eMSCs. Collagen growth and organisation were enhanced in the long-term in eMSC seeded scaffolds, with improved fascicle formation and crimp configuration. Results suggest that neo-tissue formation and remodelling may be enhanced through seeding scaffolds with eMSCs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Acta Biomaterialia
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deposition of new collagen in association with a medical implant has been studied using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular replacement samples implanted subcutaneously in sheep, for up to 28 days. New type I collagen mRNA synthesis was followed by in situ hybridization, while the accumulation of new collagen types III, V, VI, XII, and XIV was followed by immunohistochemistry. All the collagen detected in the pores of the implant were newly deposited at various times after implantation and were not due to any pre-existing dermal collagen that may have been present around the implant. Collagen deposition was seen initially surrounding the implant and, with time, was seen to infiltrate within its pores. In situ hybridization showed that the majority of infiltrating cells had switched on mRNA that coded for type I collagen production. Histology showed that cellular infiltration increased with time, accompanied by increasing collagen deposition. The deposition of different collagen types happened at different rates. The type V and VI collagens preceded the major interstitial collagens in the newly deposited tissue, although at longer time points, detection of type V collagen appeared to decrease. After disruption of the interstitial collagens with enzyme, the "masked" type V collagen was clearly still visible by immunohistochemistry. Little type XII collagen could be seen within the porous mesh, although it was seen in the surrounding tissues. By contrast, type XIV was seen throughout the porous structure of the implanted mesh, with less being visible outside the material where type XII was more abundant. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study has evaluated a commercial pericardial material for its capacity to assist as a natural extracellular matrix patch for the delivery and retention of mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair. The repair of cardiac tissue with cells delivered by an appropriate bioscaffold is expected to offer a superior, long-lasting treatment strategy. The present material, CardioCel®, is based on acellular pericardium that has been stabilized by treatments, including a low concentration of glutaraldehyde, that eliminate calcification after implantation. In the present study, we have assessed this material using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells at various cell densities under standard, static cell culture conditions. The initial seeding densities were monitored to evaluate the extent of cell attachment and cell viability, with subsequent cell proliferation assessed up to 4 weeks using an MTS assay. Cell morphology, infiltration and spreading were tracked using scanning electron microscopy and phalloidin staining. The efficacy of long-term cell survival was further assessed by examining the extent and type of new tissue formation on seeded scaffolds at 70 days; both type I and type III collagens were present in fibrillar structures on these scaffolds indicating that the seeded stem cells had the capacity to differentiate into collagen-producing cells necessary to repair damaged extracellular matrix. These data show that the CardioCel® scaffold is an appropriate substrate for the stem cells and has the potential to both retain seeded stem cells and to act as a template for cell propagation and new tissue formation.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cuvierian tubules are expelled as a defence mechanism against predators by various species within the family Holothuridae. When the tubules are expelled, they become sticky almost immediately and ensnare the predator. The mechanism of this rapid adhesion is not clear, but proteins on the surface of the expelled tubules are widely believed to be involved. This study has examined such proteins from Holothuria dofleinii, sourced from adhesive prints left on glass after the removal of adhered tubules. Gel electrophoresis showed that seven strongly staining protein bands were consistently present in all samples, with molecular masses ranging from 89 to 17 kDa. N-terminal sequence data was obtained from two bands, while others seemed blocked. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of tryptic peptides derived from individual protein bands indicated that the proteins were unlikely to be homopolymers. PCR primers designed using the peptide sequences enabled us to amplify, clone and sequence cDNA segments relating to four gel bands; for each, the predicted translation product contained other peptide sequences observed for that band that had not been used in primer design. Database searches using the peptide and cDNA-encoded sequences suggest that two of the seven proteins are novel and one is a C-type lectin, while-surprisingly-at least three of the other four are closely related to enzymes associated with the pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. We discuss precedents in which lectins and metabolic enzymes are involved in attachment and adhesion phenomena.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Marine Biotechnology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterially derived triple-helical, collagen-like proteins are attractive as potential biomedical materials. The collagen-like domain of the Scl2 protein from S. pyogenes lacks any specific binding sites for mammalian cells yet possesses the inherent structural integrity of the collagen triple-helix of animal collagens. It can, therefore, be considered as a structurally-stable 'blank slate' into which various defined, biological sequences, derived from animal collagens, can be added by substitutions or insertions, to enable production of novel designed materials to fit specific functional requirements. In the present study, we have used site directed mutagenesis to substitute two functional sequences, one for heparin binding and the other for integrin binding, into different locations in the triple-helical structure. This provided three new constructs, two containing the single substitutions and one containing both substitutions. The stability of these constructs was marginally reduced when compared to the unmodified sequence. Compared to the unmodified bacterial collagen, both the modified collagens that contain the heparin binding site showed marked binding of fluorescently labelled heparin. Similarly, the modified collagens from both constructs containing the integrin binding site showed significant adhesion of L929 cells that are known to possess the appropriate integrin receptor. C2C12 cells that lack any appropriate integrins did not bind. These data show that bacterial collagen-like sequences can be modified to act like natural extracellular matrix collagens by inserting one or more unique biological domains with defined function.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n = 3), parous (n = 6) and pregnant sheep (n = 6; mean gestation; 132 d; term = 145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    Zhuoxin Yu · Bo An · John A M Ramshaw · Barbara Brodsky
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large number of collagen-like proteins have been identified in bacteria during the past ten years, principally from analysis of genome databases. These bacterial collagens share the distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating amino acid sequence of animal collagens which underlies their unique triple-helical structure. A number of the bacterial collagens have been expressed in E. coli, and they all adopt a triple-helix conformation. Unlike animal collagens, these bacterial proteins do not contain the post-translationally modified amino acid, hydroxyproline, which is known to stabilize the triple-helix structure and may promote self-assembly. Despite the absence of collagen hydroxylation, the triple-helix structures of the bacterial collagens studied exhibit a high thermal stability of 35 - 39 °C, close to that seen for mammalian collagens. These bacterial collagens are readily produced in large quantities by recombinant methods, either in the original amino acid sequence or in genetically manipulated sequences. This new family of recombinant, easy to modify collagens could provide a novel system for investigating structural and functional motifs in animal collagens and could also form the basis of new biomedical materials with designed structural properties and functions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Structural Biology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, a different class of collagen-like molecules has been identified in numerous bacteria. Initial studies have shown that these collagens are readily produced in Escherichia coli and they have been isolated and purified by various small-scale chromatography approaches. These collagens are non-cytotoxic, are non-immunogenic, and can be produced in much higher yields than mammalian collagens, making them potential new collagens for biomedical materials. One of the major drawbacks with large-scale fermentation of collagens has been appropriate scalable down-stream processing technologies. Like other collagens, the triple helical domains of bacterial collagens are particularly resistant to proteolysis. The present study describes the development and optimization of a simple, scalable procedure using a combination of acid precipitation of the E. coli host proteins, followed by proteolysis of residual host proteins to produce purified collagens in large scale without the use of chromatographic methods.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • D. Ulrich · S.L. Edwards · K. Su · K.S. Tan · J.F. White · J.A. Ramshaw
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagen is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom, where it comprises some 28 diverse molecules that form the extracellular matrix within organisms. In the 1960s, an extracorporeal animal collagen that forms the cocoon of a small group of hymenopteran insects was postulated. Here we categorically demonstrate that the larvae of a sawfly species produce silk from three small collagen proteins. The native proteins do not contain hydroxyproline, a post translational modification normally considered characteristic of animal collagens. The function of the proteins as silks explains their unusual collagen features. Recombinant proteins could be produced in standard bacterial expression systems and assembled into stable collagen molecules, opening the door to manufacture a new class of artificial collagen materials.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Scientific Reports
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as the descent of one or more of the pelvic structures into the vagina and includes uterine, vaginal vault, and anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse. The treatment of POP may include implantation of a synthetic mesh. However, the long-term benefit of mesh surgery is controversial due to complications such as mesh exposure or pain. The aim of this study was to use a tissue engineering (TE) approach to assess the in vivo biological and biomechanical behavior of a new gelatin/polyamide mesh, seeded with a novel source of mesenchymal stem cells in a subcutaneous rat model of wound repair. Methods: W5C5-enriched human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC) were seeded onto meshes (gelatin-coated polyamide knit) at 100,000 cells/cm². Meshes, with or without cells were subcutaneously implanted dorsally in immunocompromised rats for 7, 30, 60, and 90 days. Flow cytometry was used to detect DiO labeled cells after explantation. Immunohistochemical assessment of foreign body reaction and tissue integration were conducted. Total collagen and the levels of collagens type III and type I were determined. Uniaxial tensiometry was performed on explanted meshes, originally seeded with and without cells, at days 7 and 90. Results: Implanted meshes were well tolerated, with labeled cells detected on the mesh up to 14 days postimplantation. Meshes with cells promoted significantly more neovascularization at 7 days (p<0.05) and attracted fewer macrophages at 90 days (p<0.05). Similarly, leukocyte infiltration was significantly lower in the cell-seeded meshes at 90 days (p<0.05). Meshes with cells were generally less stiff than those without cells, after 7 and 90 days implantation. Conclusion: The TE approach used in this study significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells around the implanted mesh and promoted neovascularization. Seeding with eMSC exerts an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes wound repair with new tissue growth and minimal fibrosis, and produces mesh with greater extensibility. Cell seeding onto polyamide/gelatin mesh improves mesh biocompatibility and may be an alternative option for future treatment of POP.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Tissue Engineering Part A
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modified tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces have been fabricated by attachment of recombinant polypeptides based on Drosophila melanogaster resilin and the Anopheles gambiae resilin-like protein. The D. melanogaster polypeptide (Rec-1) was from the first exon of resilin and consisted of 17 very similar repeats of a 15 residue sequence. The A. gambiae polypeptide consisted of 16 repeats of an 11 residue consensus sequence (An16). Polypeptides were attached to the TCP surface through tyrosine-based photo-crosslinking using blue light in combination with (Ru(II)(bpy)3)Cl2 and sodium persulfate. TCP that has been manufactured by mild oxidation has surface phenolic groups that are believed to participate in this crosslinking process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle analyses were used to demonstrate polypeptide binding. At higher coating concentrations of Rec-1 and An16, the surface was passivated and fibroblasts no longer attached and spread. At coating concentrations of 1 mg ml(-1) for Rec-1 and 0.1 mg ml(-1) for An16, where the surface was fully passivated against fibroblast attachment, addition of a cell attachment peptide, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) during coating and photo-crosslinking at >0.1 mg ml(-1), led to the restoration of fibroblast binding that was dependent on the integrin αV chain.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Biofabrication

Publication Stats

4k Citations
441.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2013
    • Diabetes Australia, Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1992-2009
    • The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
      • Division of Materials Science and Engineering
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2007
    • University of Adelaide
      • School of Earth and Environmental Sciences
      Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 1996-2005
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States