[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host-microbe interactions may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder characterized by universal colonization with Staphylococcus. To examine the relationship between epidermal barrier function and the cutaneous microbiota in AD, this study employed a spontaneous model of canine AD (cAD). In a cohort of 14 dogs with cAD, the skin microbiota was longitudinally evaluated with parallel assessment of skin barrier function at disease flare, during antimicrobial therapy and post-therapy. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed decreased bacterial diversity and increased proportions of Staphylococcus (S. pseudintermedius in particular) and Corynebacterium in comparison to a cohort of healthy control dogs (n=16). Treatment restored bacterial diversity with decreased Staphylococcus proportions, concurrent with decreased cAD severity. Skin barrier function, as measured by corneometry, pH, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) also normalized with treatment. Bacterial diversity correlated with TEWL and pH, but not corneometry. These findings provide insights into the relationship between the cutaneous microbiome and skin barrier function in AD, the impact of antimicrobial therapy on the skin microbiome, and highlight the utility of cAD as a spontaneous non-rodent model of AD.
Preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Culture-independent studies to characterize skin microbiota are increasingly common, due in part to affordable and accessible sequencing and analysis platforms. Compared to culture-based techniques, DNA sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or whole metagenome shotgun (WMS) sequencing provide more precise microbial community characterizations. Most widely used protocols were developed to characterize microbiota of other habitats (i.e. gastrointestinal), and have not been systematically compared for their utility in skin microbiome surveys. Here we establish a resource for the cutaneous research community to guide experimental design in characterizing skin microbiota. We compare two widely sequenced regions of the 16S rRNA gene to WMS sequencing for recapitulating skin microbiome community composition, diversity, and genetic functional enrichment. We show that WMS sequencing most accurately recapitulates microbial communities, but sequencing of hypervariable regions 1-3 of the 16S rRNA gene provides highly similar results. Sequencing of hypervariable region 4 poorly captures skin commensal microbiota, especially Propionibacterium. WMS sequencing, which is resource- and cost-intensive, provides evidence of a community’s functional potential; however, metagenome predictions based on 16S rRNA sequence tags closely approximate WMS genetic functional profiles. This work highlights the importance of experimental design for downstream results in skin microbiome surveys.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus and other coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) colonize skin and mucous membrane sites and can cause skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in humans and animals. Factors modulating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization and infection in humans remain unclear, including the role of the greater microbial community and environmental factors such as contact with companion animals. In the context of a parent study evaluating the households of outpatients with community MRSA SSTI, the objectives of this study were 1) to characterize the microbiota that colonizes typical coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp. carriage sites in humans and their companion pets, 2) to analyze associations between Staphylococcus infection and carriage and the composition and diversity of microbial communities, and 3) to analyze factors that influence sharing of microbiota between pets and humans.
We enrolled 25 households containing 56 pets and 30 humans. Sampling locations were matched to anatomical sites cultured by the parent study for MRSA and other CPS. Bacterial microbiota were characterized by sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Household membership was strongly associated with microbial communities, in both humans and pets. Pets were colonized with a greater relative abundance of Proteobacteria, whereas people were colonized with greater relative abundances of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. We did not detect differences in microbiota associated with MRSA SSTI, or carriage of MRSA, S. aureus or CPS. Humans in households without pets were more similar to each other than humans in pet-owning households, suggesting that companion animals may play a role in microbial transfer. We examined changes in microbiota over a 3-month time period and found that pet staphylococcal carriage sites were more stable than human carriage sites.
We characterized and identified patterns of microbiota sharing and stability between humans and companion animals. While we did not detect associations with MRSA SSTI, or carriage of MRSA, S. aureus or CPS in this small sample size, larger studies are warranted to fully explore how microbial communities may be associated with and contribute to MRSA and/or CPS colonization, infection, and recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses make up a major component of the human microbiota but are poorly understood in the skin, our primary barrier to the external environment. Viral communities have the potential to modulate states of cutaneous health and disease. Bacteriophages are known to influence the structure and function of microbial communities through predation and genetic exchange. Human viruses are associated with skin cancers and a multitude of cutaneous manifestations. Despite these important roles, little is known regarding the human skin virome and its interactions with the host microbiome. Here we evaluated the human cutaneous double-stranded DNA virome by metagenomic sequencing of DNA from purified virus-like particles (VLPs). In parallel, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the total skin microbiome to assess covariation and infer interactions with the virome. Samples were collected from 16 subjects at eight body sites over 1 month. In addition to the microenviroment, which is known to partition the bacterial and fungal microbiota, natural skin occlusion was strongly associated with skin virome community composition. Viral contigs were enriched for genes indicative of a temperate phage replication style and also maintained genes encoding potential antibiotic resistance and virulence factors. CRISPR spacers identified in the bacterial DNA sequences provided a record of phage predation and suggest a mechanism to explain spatial partitioning of skin phage communities. Finally, we modeled the structure of bacterial and phage communities together to reveal a complex microbial environment with a Corynebacterium hub. These results reveal the previously underappreciated diversity, encoded functions, and viral-microbial dynamic unique to the human skin virome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The past two decades have been marked by a surge in research to understand the microbial communities that live in association with the human body, in part stimulated by affordable, high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. In the context of the skin, this Perspective focuses on the current state of genomic- and metagenomic-based host–microbe research and future challenges and opportunities to move the field forward. These include elucidating nonbacterial components of the skin microbiome (i.e., viruses); systematic studies to address common perturbations to the skin microbiome (e.g., antimicrobial drugs, topical cosmetic/hygienic products); improved approaches for identifying potential microbial triggers for skin diseases, including species- and strain-level resolution; and improved, clinically relevant models for studying the functional and mechanistic roles of the skin microbiome. In the next 20 years, we can realistically expect that our knowledge of the skin microbiome will inform the clinical management and treatment of skin disorders through diagnostic tests to stratify patient subsets and predict best treatment modality and outcomes and through treatment strategies such as targeted manipulation or reconstitution of microbial communities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease characterized by ulcerating skin lesions, the resolution of which requires an effective, but regulated, immune response that limits parasite growth without causing permanent tissue damage. While mechanisms that control the parasites have been well studied, the factors regulating immunopathologic responses are less well understood. IL-22, a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines, can contribute to wound healing, but in other instances promotes pathology. Here we investigated the role of IL-22 during leishmania infection, and found that IL-22 limits leishmania-induced pathology when a certain threshold of damage is induced by a high dose of parasites. Il22-/- mice developed more severe disease than wild-type mice, with significantly more pathology at the site of infection, and in some cases permanent loss of tissue. The increased inflammation was not due to an increased parasite burden, but rather was associated with the loss of a wound healing phenotype in keratinocytes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that during cutaneous leishmaniasis, IL-22 can play a previously unappreciated role in controlling leishmania-induced immunopathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significance: Open fractures are fractures in which the bone has violated the skin and soft tissue. Because of their severity, open fractures are associated with complications that can result in increased lengths of hospital stays, multiple operative interventions, and even amputation. One of the factors thought to influence the extent of these complications is exposure and contamination of the open fracture with environmental microorganisms, potentially those that are pathogenic in nature. Recent Advances: Current open fracture care aims to prevent infection by wound classification, prophylactic antibiotic administration, debridement and irrigation, and stable fracture fixation. Critical Issues: Despite these established treatment paradigms, infections and infection-related complications remain a significant clinical burden. To address this, improvements need to be made in our ability to detect bacterial infections, effectively remove wound contamination, eradicate infections, and treat and prevent biofilm formation associated with fracture fixation hardware. Future Directions: Current research is addressing these critical issues. While culture methods are of limited value, culture-independent molecular techniques are being developed to provide informative detection of bacterial contamination and infection. Other advanced contamination- and infection-detecting techniques are also being investigated. New hardware-coating methods are being developed to minimize the risk of biofilm formation in wounds, and immune stimulation techniques are being developed to prevent open fracture infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significance: The colonization of wounds by specific microbes or communities of microbes may delay healing and/or lead to infection-related complication. Studies of wound-associated microbial communities (microbiomes) to date have primarily relied upon culture-based methods, which are known to have extreme biases and are not reliable for the characterization of microbiomes. Biofilms are very resistant to culture and are therefore especially difficult to study with techniques that remain standard in clinical settings. Recent Advances: Culture-independent approaches employing next-generation DNA sequencing have provided researchers and clinicians a window into wound-associated microbiomes that could not be achieved before and has begun to transform our view of wound-associated biodiversity. Within the past decade, many platforms have arisen for performing this type of sequencing, with various types of applications for microbiome research being possible on each. Critical Issues: Wound care incorporating knowledge of microbiomes gained from next-generation sequencing could guide clinical management and treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current platforms, their applications, and the steps necessary to undertake microbiome studies using next-generation sequencing. Future Directions: As DNA sequencing technology progresses, platforms will continue to produce longer reads and more reads per run at lower costs. A major future challenge is to implement these technologies in clinical settings for more precise and rapid identification of wound bioburden.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The skin is colonized by an assemblage of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. In some cases, these communities also provide vital functions to cutaneous health through the modulation of host factors. Recent studies have illuminated the role of anatomical skin site, gender, age, and the immune system in shaping the cutaneous ecosystem. Alterations to microbial communities have also been associated with, and likely contribute to, a number of cutaneous disorders. This review focuses on the host factors that shape and maintain skin microbial communities, and the reciprocal role of microbes in modulating skin immunity. A greater understanding of these interactions is critical to elucidating the forces that shape cutaneous populations and their contributions to skin homeostasis. This knowledge can also inform the tendency of perturbations to predispose and/or bring about certain skin disorders.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with human cerumen (earwax) and the effects of ethnicity/race and variation on the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ABCC11 affects the cerumen VOC profiles of individuals from African, Caucasian, and Asian descent. Employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we have identified the nature and relative abundance of cerumen VOCs from 32 male donors. Our results show that cerumen contains a complex mixture of VOCs and that the amounts of these compounds vary across individuals as well as across ethnic/racial groups. In six of the seven compounds whose detected concentrations were found to be statistically different across groups, individuals of African descent (AfD) > Caucasian descent (CaD) > Asians descent (AsD). Our findings also reveal that ABCC11 genotype alone does not predict the type and relative levels of volatiles found in human cerumen, and suggest that other biochemical pathways must be involved. Examination of the composition and diversity of external auditory canal microbiota in a small subset of our subject population revealed that the ear microbiota may not be directly correlated with either ethnic group membership or ABCC11 genotype.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Chemical Ecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significance: Bacterial burden is believed to play a significant role in impaired wound healing of chronic wounds and the development of infection-related complications. The standard of care in the clinic relies upon cultivation-dependent methods to identify microorganisms. These assays are biased toward microorganisms that thrive in isolation under laboratory conditions. Recent Advances: Significant advances in genomic technologies have enabled less-biased, culture-independent approaches to characterize microbial communities, or microbiomes. The aggregate sequencing and analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes has demonstrated that cultures under-represent true microbial diversity and load. Critical Issues: Despite recent advances that enable culture-independent analyses of microbiomes, those organisms that are important in impaired healing remain ambiguous. Inconsistent findings across various studies highlight the need to characterize microbiomes of chronic wounds with homogenous etiology to determine differences in microbiomes that may be driven by the wound environment and that may affect wound outcomes. Rigorous analyses of wound microbiomes in light of the three dimensions of bioburden (microbial diversity, microbial load, and pathogenic organisms), clinical metadata, and wound outcomes will be a significant step forward in our quest to understand the role of microorganisms in impaired healing. Future Directions: Longitudinal studies employing serial sampling are needed to appreciate the role of the dynamic microbial community in chronic wound healing. The value of clinical metadata needs to be examined as potential biomarkers of problematic microbiota and wound outcomes. Lastly, better characterization and understanding of wound microbiomes will open avenues for improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools for the nonhealing wound.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A vast diversity of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and arthropods, colonize the human skin. Culture-independent genomic approaches for identifying and characterizing microbial communities have provided glimpses into the topographical, temporal, and interpersonal complexity that defines the skin microbiome. Identification of changes associated with cutaneous disease, including acne, atopic dermatitis, rosacea, and psoriasis, are being established. In this review, our current knowledge of the skin microbiome in health and disease is discussed, with particular attention to potential opportunities to leverage the skin microbiome as a diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic tool.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The skin is the primary physical barrier between the body and the external environment and is also a substrate for the colonization of numerous microbes. Previously, dermatological microbiology research was dominated by culture-based techniques, but significant advances in genomic technologies have enabled the development of less-biased, culture-independent approaches to characterize skin microbial communities. These molecular microbiology approaches illustrate the great diversity of microbiota colonizing the skin and highlight unique features such as site specificity, temporal dynamics, and interpersonal variation. Disruptions in skin commensal microbiota are associated with the progression of many dermatological diseases. A greater understanding of how skin microbes interact with each other and with their host, and how we can therapeutically manipulate those interactions, will provide powerful tools for treating and preventing dermatological disease.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The skin is colonized by a plethora of microbes that include commensals and potential pathogens, but it is currently unknown how cutaneous host immune mechanisms influence the composition, diversity, and quantity of the skin microbiota. Here we reveal an interactive role for complement in cutaneous host-microbiome interactions. Inhibiting signaling of the complement component C5a receptor (C5aR) altered the composition and diversity of the skin microbiota as revealed by deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. In parallel, we demonstrate that C5aR inhibition results in down-regulation of genes encoding cutaneous antimicrobial peptides, pattern recognition receptors, and proinflammatory mediators. Immunohistochemistry of inflammatory cell infiltrates in the skin showed reduced numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes with C5aR inhibition. Further, comparing cutaneous gene expression in germ-free mice vs. conventionally raised mice suggests that the commensal microbiota regulates expression of complement genes in the skin. These findings demonstrate a component of host immunity that impacts colonization of the skin by the commensal microbiota and vice versa, a critical step toward understanding host-microbe immune mutualism of the skin and its implications for health and disease. Additionally, we reveal a role for complement in homeostatic host-microbiome interactions of the skin.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a common and costly complication of diabetes. Microbial burden, or "bioburden," is believed to underlie delayed healing, although little is known of those clinical factors that may influence microbial load, diversity, and/or pathogenicity. We profiled the microbiomes of neuropathic nonischemic DFUs without clinical evidence of infection in 52 individuals using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Comparatively, wound cultures, the standard diagnostic in the clinic, vastly underrepresent microbial load, microbial diversity, and the presence of potential pathogens. DFU microbiomes were heterogeneous, even in our tightly restricted study population, but partitioned into three clusters distinguished primarily by dominant bacteria and diversity. Ulcer depth was associated with ulcer cluster, positively correlated with abundance of anaerobic bacteria, and negatively correlated with abundance of Staphylococcus. Ulcer duration was positively correlated with bacterial diversity, species richness, and relative abundance of Proteobacteria, but was negatively correlated with relative abundance of Staphylococcus. Finally, poor glycemic control was associated with ulcer cluster, with poorest median glycemic control concentrating to Staphylococcus-rich and Streptococcus-rich ulcer clusters. Analyses of microbial community membership and structure may provide the most useful metrics in prospective studies to delineate problematic bioburden from benign colonization that can then be used to drive clinical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human genome has been referred to as the blueprint of human biology. In this review we consider an essential but largely ignored overlay to that blueprint, the human microbiome, which is composed of those microbes that live in and on our bodies. The human microbiome is a source of genetic diversity, a modifier of disease, an essential component of immunity, and a functional entity that influences metabolism and modulates drug interactions. Characterization and analysis of the human microbiome have been greatly catalyzed by advances in genomic technologies. We discuss how these technologies have shaped this emerging field of study and advanced our understanding of the human microbiome. We also identify future challenges, many of which are common to human genetic studies, and predict that in the future, analyzing genetic variation and risk of human disease will sometimes necessitate the integration of human and microbial genomic data sets.
Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Annual review of genomics and human genetics