[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian pluripotent stem cells possess properties of self-renewal and pluripotency. These abilities are maintained by the strict regulation of pluripotent stem cell-specific transcription factor network and unique properties of chromatin in the stem cells. Although these major signaling pathways robustly control the characteristics of stem cells, other regulatory factors, such as metabolic pathways, are also known to modulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we fractionated protein samples from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured with or without the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Protein expression was quantified by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). In total, 44 proteins were identified as being differentially expressed in the pluripotent stem cells and the differentiated cells. Surprisingly, half of the identified proteins were the proteins localized in mitochondria, which supply cellular energy and regulate cell cycle, development, and cell death. Some of these identified proteins are involved in the metabolic function and the regulation of pluripotency. Further analysis of the identified proteins could provide new information for the manipulation of pluripotency in ES cells. J. Med. Invest. 62: 130-136, August, 2015.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulatory mechanisms of motor protein-dependent intracellular transport are still not fully understood. The kinesin-1-binding protein, JIP1, can function as an adaptor protein that links kinesin-1 and other JIP1-binding "cargo" proteins. However, it is unknown whether these "cargo" proteins influence the JIP1-kinesin-1 binding.
We show here that JIP1-kinesin-1 binding in Neuro2a cells was dependent on conserved amino acid residues in the JIP1-phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, including F687. In addition, mutation of F687 severely affected the neurite tip localization of JIP1. Proteomic analysis revealed another kinesin-1 binding protein, JIP3, as a major JIP1 binding protein. The association between JIP1 and JIP3 was dependent on the F687 residue in JIP1, and this association induced the formation of a stable ternary complex with kinesin-1. On the other hand, the binding of JIP1 and JIP3 was independent of kinesin-1 binding. We also show that other PTB binding proteins can interrupt the formation of the ternary complex.
The formation of the JIP1-kinesin-1 complex depends on the protein binding-status of the JIP1 PTB domain. This may imply a regulatory mechanism of kinesin-1-dependent intracellular transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth hormone 1 (GH1), a pituitary hormone, plays a key role in the regulation of growth. Both excess GH1 treatment and overexpression of a GH1 transgene promote growth of salmon, but these animals exhibit physiological abnormalities in viability, fertility and metabolism, which might be related to pituitary function. However, the molecular dynamics induced in the pituitary by excess GH1 remain unknown. In this study, we performed iTRAQ proteome analysis of the amago salmon pituitary, with and without excess GH1 treatment, and found that the expression levels of proteins related to endocrine systems, metabolism, cell growth and proliferation were altered in the GH1-treated pituitary. Specifically, pituitary hormone prolactin (2.29 fold), and somatolactin α (0.14 fold) changed significantly. This result was confirmed by proteome and transcriptome analyses of pituitary from the GH1-transgenic (GH1-Tg) amago salmon. The dynamics of protein and gene expression in the pituitary of GH1-Tg amago salmon were similar to those of pituitary treated with excess GH1. Our findings suggest that not only excess GH1 hormone, but also the quantitative changes in other pituitary hormones, might be essential for the abnormal growth of amago salmon. These data will be useful in future attempts to increase the productivity of fish farming.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polyubiquitin chain is generated by the sequential addition of ubiquitin moieties to target molecules, a reaction between specific lysine residues that is catalyzed by E3 ubiquitin ligase. The Lys(48)-linked and Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains are well established inducers of proteasome-dependent degradation and signal transduction, respectively. The concept has recently emerged that polyubiquitin chain-mediated regulation is even more complex because various types of atypical polyubiquitin chains have been discovered in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that a novel complex ubiquitin chain functions as an internalization signal for major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) membrane proteins in vivo. Using a tetracycline-inducible expression system and quantitative mass spectrometry, we show that the polyubiquitin chain generated by the viral E3 ubiquitin ligase of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, MIR2, is a Lys(11) and Lys(63) mixed-linkage chain. This novel ubiquitin chain can function as an internalization signal for MHC I through its association with epsin1, an adaptor molecule containing ubiquitin-interacting motifs.
Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphorylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is thought to play an important role in cell regulation and signal transduction. However, the relationship between hnRNP K phosphorylation and cellular events has only been indirectly examined, and the phosphorylated forms of endogenous hnRNP K have not been biochemically characterized in detail. In this study, we extensively examined the phosphorylated forms of endogenous hnRNP K by direct protein-chemical characterization using phosphate-affinity electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and MS. Phosphate-affinity electrophoresis enabled us to sensitively detect and separate the phosphorylated forms of hnRNP K. When we used 2-DE with phosphate-affinity SDS-PAGE in the second dimension, the nuclear fraction contained more than 20 spots of endogenous hnRNP K on the 2-D map. We determined that the multiple forms of hnRNP K were produced mainly by alternative splicing of the single hnRNP K gene and phosphorylation of Ser116 and/or Ser284. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of these proteins revealed by the 2-D gel correlated with their phosphorylation states and alternative splicing patterns. The results also indicated that the multiple forms of hnRNP K were differentially modulated in response to external stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide or serum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polyubiquitin chain is generated by the sequential addition of ubiquitin moieties to target molecules, a reaction between
specific lysine residues that is catalyzed by E3 ubiquitin ligase. The K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains are
well-established inducers of proteasome-dependent degradation and signal transduction, respectively. The concept has recently
emerged that polyubiquitin chain-mediated regulation is even more complex, because various types of atypical polyubiquitin
chains have been discovered in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that a novel complex ubiquitin chain functions as an internalization
signal for major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) membrane proteins in vivo. Using a Tet-on expression system and
quantitative mass spectrometry, we show that the polyubiquitin chain generated by the viral E3 ubiquitin ligase of Kaposi
sarcoma-associated herpes virus, MIR2, is a K11 and K63 mixed linkage chain. This novel ubiquitin chain can function as an
internalization signal for MHC I through its association with epsin 1, an adaptor molecule containing ubiquitin-interacting
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plant genome encodes a wide range of receptor-like proteins but the function of most of these proteins is unknown. We
propose the use of affinity cross-linking of biotinylated ligands for a ligand-based survey of the corresponding receptor
molecules. Biotinylated ligands not only enable the analysis of receptor–ligand interactions without the use of radioactive
compounds but also the isolation and identification of receptor molecules by a simple affinity trapping method. We successfully
applied this method for the characterization, isolation and identification of the chitin elicitor binding protein (CEBiP).
A biocytin hydrazide conjugate of N-acetylchitooctaose (GN8-Bio) was synthesized and used for the detection of CEBiP in the plasma or microsomal membrane preparations
from rice and carrot cells. Binding characteristics of CEBiP analyzed by inhibition studies were in good agreement with the
previous results obtained with the use of a radiolabeled ligand. The biotin-tagged CEBiP could be purified by avidin affinity
chromatography and identified by LC-MALDI-MS/MS after tryptic digestion. We also used this method to detect OsFLS2, a rice
receptor-like kinase for the perception of the peptide elicitor flg22, in membrane preparations from rice cells overexpressing OsFLS2. This work demonstrates the applicability of this method
to the purification and identification of plant receptor proteins.
Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Plant and Cell Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modulation of intracellular signaling using cell-permeable polypeptides is a promising technology for future clinical applications. To develop a novel approach to activate innate immune signaling by synthetic polypeptides, we characterized several different polypeptides derived from the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1, each of which localizes to a different subcellular compartment. Of particular interest was, N'-CARD, which consisted of the nuclear localization signal of histone H2B and the IFN-beta promoter stimulator 1CARD and which localized to the nucleus. This polypeptide led to a strong production of type I IFNs and molecular and genetic analyses showed that nuclear DNA helicase II is critically involved in this response. N'-CARD polypeptide fused to a protein transduction domain (N'-CARD-PTD) readily transmigrated from the outside to the inside of the cell and triggered innate immune signaling. Administration of N'-CARD-PTD polypeptide elicited production of type I IFNs, maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, and promotion of vaccine immunogenicity by enhancing Ag-specific Th1-type immune responses, thereby protecting mice from lethal influenza infection and from outgrowth of transplanted tumors in vivo. Thus, our results indicate that the N'-CARD-PTD polypeptide belongs to a new class of vaccine adjuvant that directly triggers intracellular signal transduction by a distinct mechanism from those engaged by conventional vaccine adjuvants, such as TLR ligands.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are established from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos, are capable of self-renewal, and exhibit pluripotency. Given these unique properties, ESCs are expected to have therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine and as a powerful tool for in vitro differentiation studies of stem cells. Various growth factors and extracellular matrix components regulate the pluripotency and differentiation of ESC progenies. Thus, the cell surface receptors that bind these regulatory factors are crucial for the precise regulation of stem cells. To identify membrane proteins that are involved in the regulation of pluripotent stem cells, the membrane proteins of murine ESCs cultured with or without leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were purified and analyzed by quantitative proteomics. 2-D PAGE-based analysis using fluorescently labeled proteins and shotgun-based analysis with isotope-labeled peptides identified 338 proteins, including transmembrane, membrane-binding, and extracellular proteins, which were expressed specifically in pluripotent or differentiated murine ESCs. Functions of the identified proteins revealed cell adhesion molecules, channels, and receptors, which are expected to play important roles in the maintenance of murine ESC pluripotency. Membrane proteins that are expressed in pluripotent ESCs but not in differentiated cells such as Slc16a1 and Bsg could be useful for the selection of the stem cells in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Illumination for apoptosis: Firefly luciferase connected with a substrate sequence for caspase-3 (DEVD) is cyclized by an intein DnaE. When the cyclic luciferase is expressed in living cells, its activity is greatly decreased because of a steric effect. Activated caspase-3 cleaves the substrate sequence in the cyclic luciferase and the luciferase activity is restored. Quantitative sensing of time-dependent caspase-3 activity in living cells and mice upon extracellular stimuli has been demonstrated (see images).
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Angewandte Chemie International Edition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erhellendes zur Apoptose: Leuchtkäfer-Luciferase wurde mit der Caspase-3-Substratsequenz DEVD verknüpft und durch ein Intein DnaE cyclisiert. Nach der Expression in lebenden Zellen ist die Aktivität dieser cyclischen Luciferase aus sterischen Gründen stark verringert. Aktivierte Caspase-3 spaltet die Substratsequenz und stellt so die Luciferase-Aktivität wieder her. Der zeitliche Verlauf der Caspase-3-Aktivität nach einem extrazellulären Reiz konnte in lebenden Zellen und Mäusen quantitativ verfolgt werden (siehe Bild).
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Angewandte Chemie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pollen proteins of Lilium longiflorum were examined at different developmental stages (young, mature and cultured) using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Quantitative changes of six proteins (MP1–MP6) during pollen development were observed in the acidic and low molecular weight region. After water absorption on the culture medium, the quantities of all six proteins were drastically changed. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that MP2, MP3, MP4 and MP6 are late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) (D-7) protein, profilin 3, profilin 1 and enolase, respectively. The remaining two proteins (MP1 and MP5) could not be identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Immunogold electron microscopic examination showed the presence of these proteins in different regions: MP1 around lipid bodies, suggesting possible involvement in lipid metabolism, MP4 near actin in the cytoplasm, indicating the possibility of its interaction with actin in the regulatory pathways of pollen, and MP2 and MP6 in the cytoplasm.
No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Sexual Plant Reproduction