[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of AEG-1 in glycolysis and tumorigenesis, we construct myc-AEG-1 expression vector and demonstrate a novel mechanism that AEG-1 may increase the activity of AMPK by Thr172 phosphorylation. The higher expression levels of AEG-1 in colorectal carcinoma cells were found but showed significant difference in different cell lines. To study the role of AEG-1 in colorectal cells, myc-AEG-1 vector was constructed and transfected into NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. We observed consistent increasing of glucose consumption and lactate production, typical features of anaerobic glycolysis, suggesting that AEG-1 may promote anaerobic glycolysis. Moreover, we noted that AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 as well as pPFK2 (Ser466) was increased in NCM460 cells overexpressing AEG-1. Compound C may block AMPK and PFK2 phosphorylation in both control and AEG-1-overexpressed cells and decrease the glucose consumption and lactate production. The present findings indicated that reduced AEG-1 protein levels by RNAi may decrease the glucose consumption and lactate production in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells. The present identified AEG-1/AMPK/PFK2 glycolysis cascade may be essential to cell proliferation and tumor growth. The present results may provide us with a mechanistic insight into novel targets controlled by AEG-1, and the components in the AEG-1/AMPK/PFK2 glycolysis process may be targeted for the clinical treatment of cancer.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we isolated and screened an antitumor polysaccharide (PGP2a) from the roots of Panax ginseng. Chemical composition analysis indicated PGP2a was an acidic protein–polysaccharide. The average molecular weight was estimated to be 3.2 × 104 Da. According to gas chromatography (GC) result, PGP2a consisted of galactose, arabinose, glucose and galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 3.7:1.6:0.5:5.4, respectively. MTT assay showed that PGP2a had a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of HGC-27 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, the number of HGC-27 cells arrested in G2/M phase, and the percentage of apoptotic cells were increased in response to PGP2a treatment along with concentration increasing. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that protein expressions of Twist and AKR1C2 were suppressed by PGP2a, whereas an increase of NF1 was observed at protein level. Taken together, these findings suggested that PGP2a could be developed as a novel antitumor agent acting on Twist related gene for human gastric cancer therapy.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Carbohydrate Polymers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was to examine the breast cancer-overexpressed gene 1 (BCOX1) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast and its value in the prognosis of the disease. The levels of BCOX1 expression in 491 paired IDC and surrounding non-tumor breast tissues as well as 40 paired fresh specimens were evaluated by tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The potential associations of high BCOX1 expression with clinicopathological variables and the overall survival of these patients were analyzed. The relative levels of BCOX1 mRNA transcripts in the IDC breast tissues were significantly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P = 0.005). The anti-BCOX1 was predominantly stained in the cytoplasm of breast tissue cells and the levels of BCOX1 expression in the majority of breast cancer tissues were obviously higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor breast tissues. High levels of BCOX1 expression were found in 59.5% (292/491) of breast cancer tissues. The high BCOX1 expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.037), positive expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, P = 0.031) and triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.027). The high BCOX1 expression in breast cancers was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival of these patients (P = 0.023), particularly in patients with triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.005). Therefore, the high BCOX1 expression may serve as a novel marker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for patients with IDC of the breast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), a novel tumor-associated gene, was found overexpressed in many tumors. Therefore, our purpose is to estimate whether AEG-1 overexpression is a novel predictor of prognostic marker in metastatic ovarian tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to estimate AEG-1 overexpression in metastatic ovarian tumors from 102 samples. The association between AEG-1 expression and prognosis was estimated by univariate and multivariate survival analyses with Cox regression. The log-rank test was used to identify any differences in the prognosis between the two groups. The median overall and progression-free survival rates of patients with tumors from gastrointestinal tract origin were 0.97 and 0.51 years, respectively. Similarly, survival rates of patients with tumors of breast origin were 2.68 and 1.96 years (P < 0.0001). Of 102 patients, 77 had high expression, and AEG-1 overexpression had a significant link of prognosis in metastatic ovarian patients (P < 0.01). On the other hand, medians of overall survival and progression-free survival of patients with tumors of gastrointestinal tract origin were significantly lower than those of patients with tumors of breast origin (P < 0.0001). Patients with metastatic ovarian tumors of breast origin had significantly better prognosis than those with the tumors from gastrointestinal tract primary malignancies. It is suggested that AEG-1 overexpression might be an independent prognostic marker of metastatic ovarian tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was previously reported that an antitumor polysaccharide (PGPW1) was isolated from the root of Panax ginseng. To extend our study, we investigated here the anti-invasive and metastatic effects of PGPW1 on human gastric cancer cell line HGC-27 and tried to determine its possible mechanism of action. Both scratch wound-healing and Transwell assay identified that PGPW1 dose-dependently inhibited migration and invasiveness of HGC-27 cells. Furthermore, results of western blot showed that protein levels of Twist and AKR1C2 were inhibited by PGPW1, whereas an increase of NF1 was observed. Moreover, down-regulation of Twist expression by PGPW1 blocked epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a gain of epithelial cell markers, E-cadherin, and loss of the mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, at protein levels. Collectively, we confirmed that PGPW1 decreased migration and invasion of HGC-27 cells by regulation of Twist, AKR1C2, NF1, E-cadherin, vimentin and N-cadherin expression. In conclusion, PGPW1 may serve as a powerful chemopreventive agent against gastric cancer metastasis.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · International journal of biological macromolecules
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) expression and the CAG repeat length within the AR gene appear to be involved in the carcinogenesis of male breast carcinoma (MBC). Although phenotypic differences have been observed between MBC and normal control group in AR gene, there is lack of correlation analysis between AR expression and CAG repeat length in MBC. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of CAG repeat lengths and AR protein expression.
81 tumor tissues were used for immunostaining for AR expression and CAG repeat length determination and 80 normal controls were analyzed with CAG repeat length in AR gene. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were analyzed in relation to clinicopathological factors and prognostic indicators.
AR gene in many MBCs has long CAG repeat sequence compared with that in control group (P = 0.001) and controls are more likely to exhibit short CAG repeat sequence than MBCs. There was statistically significant difference in long CAG repeat sequence between AR status for MBC patients (P = 0.004). The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR-positive expression were associated with shorter survival of MBC patients (CAG repeat: P = 0.050 for 5y-OS; P = 0.035 for 5y-DFS AR status: P = 0.048 for 5y-OS; P = 0.029 for 5y-DFS, respectively).
The CAG repeat length within the AR gene might be one useful molecular biomarker to identify males at increased risk of breast cancer development. The presence of long CAG repeat sequence and AR protein expression were in relation to survival of MBC patients. The CAG repeat length and AR expression were two independent prognostic indicators in MBC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TWIST, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, has been recently reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis of human cancer through converting the early stage tumors into invasive malignancies. Upregulation of TWIST is often found in cancer patients, especially those with shorter survival period and poor response to chemotherapy. Here we studied the functions of TWIST on regulating migration rate, apoptosis, and gene expression in gastric cancer cells. TWIST expression is elevated in MGC-803 and HGC-27 cells that exhibit high invasive potential; whereas it is reduced in BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells that possess relatively low invasive content. To evaluate functional consequences of TWIST induction, we examined the effect of TWIST on cell migration and apoptosis. Overexpression of TWIST in BGC-823 cells resulted in increased migration content and decreased sensitivity to the arsenic oxide-induced cell death. Moreover, small interference RNA-mediated TWIST ablation in MGC-803 and HGC-27 cells showed suppressed migration ability, increased induction of apoptosis in response to arsenic oxide, and elevated cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the TWIST level and p53 level, probably due to transcriptional regulation. Our results have identified TWIST as a critical regulator of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer through inactivation of TWIST.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Clinical and Experimental Metastasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TWIST is an important transcription factor during embryonic development and has recently been found to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenomenon seen during the initial steps of tumor metastasis. To further investigate the potential targets and interacting genes of TWIST in human gastric cancer, we performed microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in HGC-27 cells, with or without small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of TWIST. Our results showed that NF1, RAP1A, SRPX, RBL2, PFDN4, ILK, F2R, ERBB3, and MYB were up-regulated, whereas AKR1C2, FOS, GDF15, NR2F1, ATM, and CTPS were down-regulated after TWIST depletion. Moreover, TWIST-depleted HGC-27 cells showed a reversal of the morphologic and molecular changes associated with EMT. These results provide evidence that TWIST regulates the expression of several genes involved in the differentiation, adhesion, and proliferation of gastric cancer cells. The role of TWIST in the development of certain types of gastric cancer is discussed.
Preview · Article · Feb 2009 · The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes involved in the TGF-beta signaling pathway are often altered in several types of cancers. The TGF-beta-resistant human colon cancer cell line HT-29 has inactivated TbetaRII and deficient expression of RUNX3 and Smad4, which are involved in the TGF-beta signaling pathway.
Western blot and immunocytochemistry were performed to confirm gene expression, the MTT assay to detect cell growth, flow cytometry to investigate the cell cycle and the TUNEL to detect cell apoptosis.
In the absence of TGF-beta, Bim was upregulated, cell growth was inhibited and apoptosis was induced. TGF-beta treatment did not affect RUNX3 expression; however, the increase in Bim expression was significant and time dependent. Interestingly, Smad4 but not Smad2/3 was also upregulated upon exposure to TGF-beta. This was not the case after TGF-beta treatment of parent HT-29 cells. As expected, TGF-beta further inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in HT-29/RUNX3+ cells.
Our data demonstrate that RUNX3 is involved in TGF-beta-dependent and -independent cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, as a candidate tumor marker, is currently of interest. In this study, serum TGF-beta1 levels in gastric cancer (GC) patients and healthy volunteers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TGF-beta1 gene at codon 10 and codon 25 were identified by means of amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and sequence analysis. Our results indicated that serum concentrations of TGF-beta1 in GC patients were significantly higher than those in the control, and positively correlated with tumor mass, invasion, metastasis, and clinical stage. The serum TGF-beta1 levels of patients recovering from radical resection were markedly lower than those before surgery. Meanwhile, no deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence variation at codon 25 of the TGF-beta1 gene was found and a TGF-beta1 gene polymorphism at codon 10 did not show obvious correlations with either TGF-beta1 expression or clinicopathological parameters of GC. Our evidence suggested that serum concentration of TGF-beta1 might be a novel tumor marker for GC and the polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 gene did not play a role as a determinant of serum TGF-beta1 concentration or as a genetic risk factor in the gastric carcinogenesis and progression.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the impact of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on human colorectal carcinoma LS-174T cells and their activity of telomerase.
LS-174T cells and xenograft model of nude mice were treated with As2O3. The inhibitory effect of As2O3 on survival of LS-174T cells was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Telomerase activity in LS-174T cells was determined by PCR-ELISA kit.
With the increasing concentration of As2O3, the ratio of living cells to dead cells decreased significantly, and the IC50 value was 5.23 micromol/L. Apoptosis curve appeared after 24 h and cells turned to apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. As2O3 inhibited the telomerase activity in cell extraction, obviously in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Inhibitiory effect of As2O3 on xenograft model of nude mice was observed by tumor volume and weight measurement, showing a significant difference between As2O3 and control groups (P < 0.05).
Both the experiments in vitro and in vivo showed an inhibitory effect of As2O3 on colonrectal cancer S-174T cell growth, probably by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the effect of tissue environment on the invasiveness of carcinoma cells and the implication of expression of matrix metalloproteinases.
Tissue from a human gastric carcinoma was transplanted and passaged subcutaneously in nude mice. After the 3rd passage, the xenografts were also transplanted into the abdominal cavity of nude mice. The invasiveness of xenografts at the two locations were observed morphologically and the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-13, TM1-MMP, TM2-MMP and TM3-MMP were monitored by immunohistochemistry.
The subcutaneous xenografts of human gastric carcinoma in nude mice presented as expanding outgrowths with limited invasion. Except for MMP-7, the other 6 MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-13, TM1-MMP, TM2-MMP, TM3-MMP) were not expressed in the neoplastic cells nor in the tumor stroma. In contrast, the intra-peritoneal xenografts displayed an invasive growth pattern accompanied by more fibrous stroma. All MMPs examined were expressed in the tumor cells at the invasive fronts and in the adjacent stroma.
Invasiveness and expression of MMPs were obviously diverse in human gastric carcinoma cells when grafted at different anatomic locations in nude mice, thus indicating: (1) There exists a close interaction between tumor cells and surrounding stromal cells. The tissue environment may play a definitive role in the tumor phenotype. (2) The expression of MMPs is closely related to the growth pattern and the invasiveness of tumor cells. MMPs produced by the stroma cells at the invasion front may be linked to the invasiveness of neoplastic cells.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi Chinese journal of pathology