[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sox6 is a transcription factor that induces neuronal differentiation in P19 cells; its suppression not only inhibits neuronal differentiation but also induces retinoic acid (RA)-dependent apoptosis of P19 cells. In the present study, we found that Sox6 suppression-induced apoptosis was mediated by activation of caspase 9 and 3. Moreover, we noted a weak leakage of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm from the mitochondria, indicating that apoptosis occurs through a mitochondrial pathway in Sox6-suppressed P19 (P19[anti-Sox6]) cells. Sox6 suppression in the presence of RA also induced the expression and secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4). Addition of an anti-BMP-4 antibody for neutralization increased cell viability and led to RA-dependent death of P19[anti-Sox6] cells. Our results indicate that Sox6 suppression induces RA-dependent cell death of P19 cells, mediated by BMP-4 expression and secretion. Normally, high Sox6 expression leads to RA-mediated neuronal differentiation in P19 cells; however, Sox6 deficiency induces production and secretion of BMP-4, which mediates selective cell death. Our findings suggest that Sox6 contributes to cell survival by suppressing BMP-4 transcription during neuronal differentiation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that the activity of mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) is rapidly inhibited in a variety of cells when exposed to nitric oxide (NO). In present study, we found that NO significantly increased the number of surviving neurons via enhanced mitochondrial functions with simultaneous addition of the [Fe(II)(β-citryl-L-glutamate; β-CG)] complex. In vitro, a variety of aconitase-inhibitors, such as fluorocitrate, cyanide ion, ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6]), and various oxidants including superoxide anion, inhibited the activity of m-aconitase even in the presence of Fe(II), whereas a NO-donor, nitroprusside (SNP) ([Fe(CN)5NO]), was the only agent that significantly increased activity of that enzyme. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that NO released from SNP promotes Fe-dependent activation of aconitase. All other tested NO-donors, including 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN), Deta NONOate (NOC18), and NaNO2, also promoted activation of m-aconitase in time- and dose-dependent manners in the presence of Fe(II). The promoting effects of the NO-donors on activation disappeared with the addition of NO-scavengers. In intact mitochondria, all tested NO-donors promoted reactivation of aconitase in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of Fe(II), whereas that was not seen in its absence. These findings suggest that NO released from NO-donors promotes Fe-dependent activation of aconitase. In mixed neuronal and glial cultures, NO-donors except for SNP enhanced mitochondrial activity at low concentrations. Furthermore, simultaneous addition of the [Fe(II)(β-CG)] complex significantly enhanced those activities and greatly increased the number of surviving neurons. Thus, NO can carry Fe ions into m-aconitase via the guide of the tag of β-CG addressed to the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compound β-citryl-L-glutamate (β-CG) was initially isolated from developing brains, though its functional roles remain unclear. In in vitro experiments, the [Fe(II)(β-CG)] complex activated aconitase in the presence of reducing reagents, whereas no Fe complex with citrate, glutamate, or deferoxamine displayed such an effect. β-CG and [Fe(II)(β-CG)] both bound to the fourth labile Fe atom (Fe(a)) in the [4Fe-4S] cluster of aconitase. Furthermore, [Fe(II)(β-CG)] reactivated aconitase damaged by ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS), while β-CG and citrate had no effect. These findings suggest that [Fe(II)(β-CG)] can transfer Fe to aconitase disassembled by APS. In intact mitochondria, both β-CG and [Fe(II)(β-CG)] bound to Fe(a) of aconitase, whereas only [Fe(II)(β-CG)] reactivated the enzyme disassembled by APS. In cultured neuronal cells, β-CG significantly enhanced cell viability by accelerating mitochondrial activity in primary cultures of neurons from newborn mouse cerebrum tissues. Thus, the β-CG plays a role as an Fe-carrier for mitochondrial aconitase, and then activates it. Taken together, these findings suggest that β-CG is an endogenous low molecular weight Fe chaperone for aconitase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Citryl-L-glutamate (β-CG) is a unique compound initially isolated from developing brains, which also appears in high concentrations during the period characterized by growth and differentiation of neurons in developing animals, and then decreases with maturation. However, its functional roles remain unclear. The stability constant obtained in our previous pH titration studies showed that β-CG forms relatively strong complexes with copper. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) have been suggested to act as mediators of the cell death that occurs in neurons during development of the nervous system. However, regulation of ROS and NO formation by Cu in the developing brain remains poorly understood. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), a key superoxide scavenging enzyme, is low in the developing brain. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) has been implicated in diverse pathological situations due to its capability of generating both ROS and NO. Therefore, we examined the effects of β-CG and its Cu-complex on SOD and XO activities. We found that the [Cu(II)(β-CG)] complex had SOD activity and a strong competitive inhibition of XO, while reduced glutathione caused concentration-dependent decreases of the XO inhibitory activities in the [Cu(II)(β-CG)] complex.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compound beta-citryl-L-glutamate (beta-CG) was initially isolated from developing brains, while it has also been found in high concentrations in testes and eyes. However, its functional roles are unclear. To evaluate its coordination with metal ions, we performed pH titration experiments. The stability constant, logbeta(pqr) for M(p)(beta-CG)(q)H(r) was calculated from pH titration data, which showed that beta-CG forms relatively strong complexes with Fe(III), Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II). beta-CG was also found able to solubilize Fe more effectively from Fe(OH)(2) than from Fe(OH)(3). Therefore, we examined the effects of beta-CG on Fe-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating systems, as well as the potential ROS-scavenging activities of beta-CG and metal ion-(beta-CG) complexes. beta-CG inhibited the Fe-dependent degradation of deoxyribose and Fe-dependent damage to DNA or plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had no effect on Cu-mediated DNA damage. In addition, thermodynamic data showed that beta-CG in a physiological pH solution is an Fe(II) chelator rather than an Fe(III) chelator. Taken together, these findings suggest that beta-CG is an endogenous low molecular weight Fe chelator.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of the kallikrein-kinin system in cerebral inflammation is still unclear. Here, we used reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the kallikrein-kinin system by enhancing liberation of bradykinin (BK), and alters mRNA levels of kallikrein-kinin system components, including high molecular weight (H-) and low molecular weight (L-) kininogens, in ECPC4 cells, a cell line of mouse choroid plexus epithelium. LPS treatment increased liberation of immunoreactive bradykinin in the supernatant of ECPC4 cells, and addition of LPS (500 ng/ml) to cultures resulted in elevation of H- and L-kininogen mRNA levels in ECPC4 cells within 24-48 h. Furthermore, LPS treatment elevated bradykinin type 2 and type 1 receptor mRNA levels within 4h, but did not change tissue kallikrein or plasma kallikrein mRNA levels. On the other hand, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA increased within 4-8h after addition of LPS to ECPC4 cells. The addition of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha to investigate the major mediator for kininogen expression in ECPC4 cells remarkably induced expression of H- and L-kininogen mRNAs in ECPC4 cells. These results suggest that LPS activates the kallikrein-kinin system in the choroid plexus via autocrine induction of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferators (PxPs) induce peroxisomal beta-oxidation (Px-ox) in the liver of rodents and have a hypolipidemic function. To investigate hypolipidemic effect of PxPs, the relationship between TG fluctuation and Px-ox activity, as an indicator of the function of PxPs, was studied in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Nafenopin (Nf) treatment of hepatocytes caused an increase in Px-ox activity in association with cellular TG accumulation in a time-dependent manner with a coefficient of r=0.918. This relationship between the activity and cellular TG were obtained using structurally diverse PxPs with a correlation coefficient of r=0.747. Treatment of the hypolipidemic drug, but non-PxP Pravastatin, decreased TG in the medium, but did not have the effects on cellular TG and Px-ox activity. The total amount of TG and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, the last enzyme in the TG de novo synthesis pathway, were not affected by Nf treatment. When hepatocytes were cultured with Brefeldin A, cellular TG was accumulated, the same as with Nf, however, Px-ox activity was not enhanced. Nf treatment markedly decreased the level of apolipoprotein B (apo B) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fractions prepared from conditioned media and increased that of cellular apoB by Western blot analysis. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity was not influenced by Nf. Together, with regards to TG lowering effect of PxPs, it is suggested that PxPs cause hepatocellular accumulation of TG without effects on TG biosynthesis and VLDL construction, and they might have inhibitory effect on VLDL secretion process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sox6 gene is a member of the Sox gene family, which encodes transcription factors, and previous studies have suggested that it plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system. Aggregation of embryonic carcinoma P19 cells with retinoic acid (RA) results in the development of neurons, glia, and fibroblast-like cells. Sox6 mRNA increases rapidly in P19 cells during RA induction and then decreases during differentiation into neuronal cells. To investigate whether Sox6 expression is essential for neuronal differentiation, we established Sox6-suppressed P19 (P19[anti-Sox6]) cells by transfection of antisense-Sox6 cDNA. Most of the P19[anti-Sox6] cells showed no neurites and were not stained by the anti-MAP 2 antibody, while the suppression of Sox6 expression nearly totally blocked neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Further, Sox6 suppression caused RA-dependent apoptosis by P19[anti-Sox6] cells: RA-treated P19[anti-Sox6] cells showed chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and an increase in caspase-3-like activity. Thus, Sox6 is considered essential for neuronal differentiation and may play an important role in the early stages of neuronal differentiation or apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sox6 gene is a member of the Sox gene family that encodes transcription factors. Previous studies have suggested that Sox6 plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system. Aggregation of embryonic carcinoma P19 cells with retinoic acid (RA) results in the development of neurons, glia and fibroblast-like cells. In this report, we have shown that Sox6 mRNA increased rapidly in P19 cells during RA induction and then decreased during the differentiation of P19 into neuronal cells. To explore the possible roles of Sox6 during this process, stably Sox6-overexpressing P19 cell lines (P19[Sox6]) were established. These P19[Sox6] had acquired both characteristics of the wild-type P19 induced by RA. First, P19[Sox6] cells showed a marked cellular aggregation in the absence of RA. Second, P19[Sox6] could differentiate into microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-expressing neuronal cells in the absence of RA. Sox6 expression could cause the activation of endogenous genes including the neuronal transcription factor Mash-1, the neuronal development-related gene Wnt-1, the neuron-specific cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, and the neuron-specific protein MAP2, resulting in neurogenesis. Moreover, E-cadherin, a major cell adhesion molecule of wild-type P19, was strongly induced by Sox6, resulting in cellular aggregation without RA. Thus Sox6 may play a critical role in cellular aggregation and neuronal differentiation of P19 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA encoding rat homologue of the previously characterized mouse Sox6 was isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning strategy. Comparison of this eDNA with homologous mouse, human and rainbow trout cDNA exhibited an overall amino acid sequence identity of 99.6, 89.3 and 76.3% respectively. The leucine-zipper and HMG-box motif were almost completely conserved between these homologues. The expression of Sox6 was determined in rat by Northern hybridization and Real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. rSox6 (rat Sox6) was specifically expressed in the neonatal brain and adult testis with Northern blotting. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR for the determination of Sox6 mRNA was examined. The rSox6 was expressed in the neonatal brain and adult testis as well as by Northern blotting and also expressed in the adult eyeball and slightly in the ovary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation plays many important roles in cell functions and cell differentiation. To clarify the roles of protein phosphorylation in early embryonic development in mice, 2-cell embryos were cultured in the presence of various protein phosphatase inhibitors such as calyculin A, okadaic acid, cyclosporin A, tacrolimus (FK506) and benzyl-phosphonic acid. Calyculin A potently inhibited the 2-cell cleavage to the 4-cell stage. The concentration for 50% inhibition was 0.26 nM. At the same time, we found that calyculin A-treated 2-cell embryos showed a morula-like shape at a concentration of 2 nM in 24 h. It is well known that E-cadherin plays a key role in the compaction of late 8-cell stage embryos. In this report, we observed the distribution of E-cadherin protein using anti-E-cadherin antibody with a fluorescence microscope, and also evaluated the relative E-cadherin mRNA content at various stages of embryos by RT-PCR and ABI PRISM 7700 System (a real time PCR apparatus). The fluorescence intensity of E-cadherin increased along with the embryonic development. During the embryonic development from the 2-cell stage to the blastocyst stage, the relative E-cadherin mRNA content greatly increased in a time-dependent manner, while the mRNA did not increase with the addition of calyculin A at the 2-cell stage. Therefore, we observed the localization of the E-cadherin protein in calyculin A-treated embryos with a laser microscope. The distribution pattern of E-cadherin was altered by the addition of calyculin A from a scattered pattern throughout the embryos to a localized pattern at the cell-cell boundary region. These results strongly suggest that the distribution of E-cadherin protein is regulated by protein phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2002 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunocytochemical localization of beta-citryl-L-glutamate (beta-CG) in primary neuronal cells and in the differentiation of P19 cells was examined. 1: Cells with the morphological features of neurons in the primary culture were specifically stained with the anti-beta-CG antibody both in neurites and in the cell body. 2: The neuronal cells differentiated from P19 cells were distinctly stained with the anti-beta-CG antibody both in neurites and in the cell body, while the non-neuronal cells were not. 3: The concentration of beta-CG was low in the P19 cells, but increased significantly with the differentiation of P19 cells into neurons. It was shown that beta-CG was localized exclusively in neurons. These findings suggest that beta-CG plays functional roles in the differentiation and growth of neuron.
No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of sialic acid (N-acetyl neuraminic acid), sialic acid dimer, sialic acid polymers (colominic acid) and sulfated colominic acid on the activity of hyaluronidase, on the dispersion of cumulus cells by mouse sperm and on in vitro mouse fertilization (sperm penetration of zona pellucida) were evaluated. Bovine testicular hyaluronidase activity was significantly inhibited by colominic acid and sulfated colominic acid, but not by sialic acid and its dimer. The dispersion of cumulus cells from eggs by mouse sperm was also inhibited by colominic acid and sulfated colominic acid. In vitro fertilization of mouse gametes was inhibited by sulfated colominic acid. The IC50 value of sulfated colominic acid-induced inhibition of fertilization was 0.3 mg/ml (ca. 0.9 mM). The value changed from 0.9 mM for cumulus-surrounded egg to 1.5 mM for cumulus free-egg. On the other hand, colominic acid showed little or no inhibitory effect on mouse in vitro fertilization at 0.5 mg/ml (ca. 1.6 mM). This antifertility activity by sulfated colominic acid did not appear to be due to an effect on sperm motility or on the oocytes. These results suggest that (1) the cumulus cells surrounding the eggs were dispersed by sperm hyaluronidase, (2) hyaluronidase was inhibited by colominic acid and by sulfated colominic acid, (3) sulfated colominic acid inhibits sperm penetration of zona pellucida by the inhibition of hyaluronidase and/or some enzymes required for mouse gametes fertilization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An anti mouse sperm monoclonal antibody (A-1) inhibited sperm penetration into the egg zona pellucida and bound to an acrosomal area of sperm. In this study, we examined whether or not the antibody affects the sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Sperm were incubated in modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium in the presence or absence of the antibody. The capacitation of sperm was assessed by chlortetracycline fluorescence pattern assay. The percentage of capacitated sperm did not increase in the presence of antibody, but increased time-dependently in its absence. The acrosome reaction of the capacitated sperm was induced by the addition of ionophore. The ionophore, however, failed to induce the reaction in the presence of the A-1 antibody. Next, the calcium influx into spermatocytes was examined. The capacitated sperm, preloaded with Fura-2, were treated with ionomycin in the presence or absence of the A-1 antibody. The influx of calcium ions into capacitated spermatozoa was also inhibited by the antibody. Thus a monoclonal antibody, A-1, inhibited the sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction and calcium influx into spermatocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-citryl-L-glutamate (beta-CG) concentration was determined by HPLC during the differentiation of bovine lens epithelial cells into lens fiber cells in culture. beta-CG increased from 1 to 4 weeks of culture and then decreased slightly, while alpha-crystallin, a marker of lens cell differentiation, increased rapidly 4 weeks after the culture and continued to increase gradually until week 11. In addition, the localization of beta-CG was immunohistochemically examined using anti-beta-CG antibody. Cells around lentoid bodies were stained with anti-beta-CG antibody, whereas cells in the bodies were stained strongly with anti-gamma-crystallin antibody. These findings suggest that beta-CG accumulated immediately before the differentiation of the bovine lens epithelial cells into lens fiber cells and may play a role in regulating the differentiation of lens cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel assay for a peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme by sandwich ELISA using a monoclonal antibody (RPX-5) against purified rat liver peroxisomes was developed. Immunoblot analysis revealed that RPX-5 recognized a 78 Kd protein, which is a peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (PBE) in the beta-oxidation pathway. Immunoprecipitation by RPX-5 and the resulting reduction of PBE activity were dependent on RPX-5 concentrations. Sandwich ELISA using RPX-5 could be used to assay PBE in the range of 30 to 2000 ng protein/ml. In rat hepatocyte cultures, the PBE amount by this assay correlated well with PBE activity, with correlation coefficients of 0.965. Studying the mechanisms of peroxisomal induction, patterns of peroxisomal induction were examined by co-treatment of rat hepatocytes with various peroxisome proliferators (PxPs). Treatment with clofibrate and bezafibrate resulted in neither an additive nor synergistic effect on PBE level. On the other hand, co-treatment with either bezafibrate-Wy-14,643 or clofibrate-MEHP(mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) both resulted in an additive effect. From these results, it is suggested that PxPs of the fibrate group may exert their functions via a common process, and non-fibrate PxPs via a different process in hepatocytes. The cognition site for peroxisome proliferators, therefore, might not involve a single site for inducing peroxisomal enzymes.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of kininogen mRNAs has been studied in cultures of three different types of cells in rat brain, including neurons and astrocytes from cerebral cortex and meningeal cells from the leptomeninges/choroid plexus. T-kininogen mRNA was expressed by meningeal cells, but not by neurons and astrocytes, and the expression in meningeal cells was enhanced by culture with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP). Low-molecular-weight kininogen mRNA was not detected in these cultures of cells, even after treatment with PGE2. Although expression of high-molecular-weight kininogen mRNA was very low in these cultures of cells, PGE2 or Bt2cAMP markedly stimulated its expression in cultures of meningeal cells and slightly in neurons, but not in astrocytes. We also found that expression of plasma kallikrein mRNA was strong in cultures of meningeal cells and slight in astrocytes, but absent in neurons. These results suggest that cells in the leptomeninges/choroid plexus are major sources of kininogens in rat brain which may function as precursor proteins for kinins and/or potent cysteine proteinase inhibitors during cerebral inflammation.
No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue distribution of bikunin mRNA, which encodes a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-inhibitor family (IalphaI), was studied in rats and mice by the reverse-transcripsion polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the liver as well as other tissues, such as the kidney, testis and adrenal gland, expressed bikunin mRNA. Although signals of bikunin mRNA were faint in the whole brain of rats and mice, distinct signals were found in limited portions of rat brain, such as the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and pituitary, but undetectable in cerebellum, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus, striatum, midbrain and choroid plexus. In three distinct types of cells, such as neurons, astrocytes and meningeal cells, in primary cultures isolated from the cerebral cortex and meninges of 1-day-old newborn rats, only neurons positively expressed bikunin mRNA. These results suggest that, in addition to peripheral tissues, neurons in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex produce bikunin, suggesting a potential role of bikunin/IalphaI family in these brain regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effect of long-chain fatty acids on peroxisomal βoxidation in rat hepatocytes was examined. Out of four long-chain fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) increased the β-oxidation activity 1.7-2.7 fold without cell toxicity. Total fatty acid content in linoleic acid-treated hepatocytes was increased more than twofold. Addition of nafenopin to the culture medium, instead of linoleic acid, produced a reciprocal relation between the β-oxidation activity and the fatty acid content with a coefficient r=0.906. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in peroxisomal β-oxidation activity by linoleic acid to 50% of that in cultures without cycloheximide. Results of these experiments suggest that the increase in fatty acid content in hepatocytes may have a significant role in the induction of peroxisomal β-oxidation and that the enzyme proteins in the peroxisomal β-oxidation system induced by linoleic acid were the result of de novo synthesis.
No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta-CG concentration in the chicken brain was high during embryonic development and decreased rapidly to a lower level close to hatching, while the concentration in the eyeball which was also high during the embryonic life retained a fairly high level after hatching. The distribution of beta-CG in the bovine eye was determined. About 95% of total beta-CG content in the whole eye was localized in the lens. However, the distribution of beta-CG in the eye varied depending on species. beta-CG was exclusively localized in the lens in the eyes of fish and mammals, but distributed in both lens and retina in frogs. The molecule was localized in the retina rather than the lens in the chicken eye, although the concentrations was extremely low compared to those in the mammalian, amphibian and fish eyes. It was found that beta-CG is present ubiquitously in the lens or retina in various species. The distribution of beta-CG in the bovine lens was determined in the three cortex regions and nucleus. beta-CG was present at the highest concentration in the equatorial cortex, at a moderate concentration in the posterior and anterior cortex, and at the lowest concentration in the nucleus. Similar distribution patterns were also found in the rabbit and rat lens. When embryonic chick lens epithelial cells were cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum, the cells elongated, differentiated into fiber cells and formed lentoid bodies. The cells of lentoid bodies were stained strongly by the anti-beta-CG antibody, while cells around the structures were not. In addition, the beta-CG content in the lenses from the galactose cataractous rat decreased to about 20-30% of that in the normal lens. These findings suggest that beta-CG may play a role in the differentiation of epithelial cells into fiber cells.
No preview · Article · Nov 1995 · Experimental Eye Research