Yves Lévy

Hôpital Albert Chenevier – Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Créteil, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (129)689.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The inflammasome is activated in response to a variety of pathogens and has an important role in shaping adaptive immunity, yet the spatiotemporal orchestration of inflammasome activation in vivo and the mechanisms by which it promotes an effective immune response are not fully understood. Using an in vivo reporter to visualize inflammasome assembly, we establish the distribution, kinetics and propagation of the inflammasome response to a local viral infection. We show that modified vaccinia Ankara virus induces inflammasome activation in subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages, which is immediately followed by cell death and release of extracellular ASC specks. This transient inflammasome signaling in the lymph node generates a robust influx of inflammatory cells and mobilizes T cells from the circulation to increase the magnitude of T cell responses. We propose that after infection, SCS macrophages deliver a burst response of inflammasome activity and cell death that translates into the broadening of T cell responses, identifying an important aspect of inflammasome-driven vaccination strategies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nature Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The development of new immunization strategies requires a better understanding of early molecular and cellular events occurring at the site of injection. The skin is particularly rich in immune cells and represents an attractive site for vaccine administration. Here, we specifically targeted vaccine antigens to epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) using a fusion protein composed of HIV antigens and a monoclonal antibody targeting Langerin. We developed a fluorescence imaging approach to visualize, in vivo, the vaccine-targeted cells. Studies were performed in non-human primates (NHPs) because of their relevance as a model to assess human vaccines. We directly demonstrated that in NHPs, intradermally injected anti-Langerin-HIVGag specifically targets epidermal LCs and induces rapid changes in the LC network, including LC activation and migration out of the epidermis. Vaccine targeting of LCs significantly improved anti-HIV immune response without requirement of an adjuvant. Although the co-injection of the TLR-7/8 synthetic ligand, R-848 (resiquimod), with the vaccine, did not enhance significantly the antibody response, it stimulated recruitment of HLA-DR+ inflammatory cells to the site of immunization. This study allowed us to characterize the dynamics of early local events following the injection of a vaccine-targeted epidermal LCs and R-848. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are the major antiviral effector population of the innate immune system. We previously found that S100A9 is a novel ligand of the receptor CD85j and that S100A9 tetramers enhance the anti-HIV activity of NK cells. Also, we found that dendritic cells (DCs) infected by the HIV vaccine candidate, MVAHIV, prime NK cells to specifically control HIV infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we analyzed whether stimulation of NK cells by S100A9 tetramers prior to the priming by MVAHIV-infected DCs modulates the subsequent anti-HIV activity of NK cells. We found that S100A9 tetramers activate NK cells and that DCs enhance the anti-HIV activity of NK cells. Interestingly, we observed that stimulation of NK cells by S100A9 tetramers, prior to the priming, significantly increased the subsequent anti-HIV activity of NK cells and that the enhanced anti-HIV activity was observed following different conditions of priming, including the MVAHIV-priming. As S100A9 tetramers alone directly increase the anti-HIV activity of NK cells and as this increased anti-HIV activity is also observed following the interaction of NK cells with MVAHIV-infected DCs, we propose S100A9 tetramers as potential adjuvants to stimulate the anti-HIV activity of NK cells.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting dendritic cell-specific endocytic receptors using monoclonal antibodies fused to desired antigens is an approach widely used in vaccine development to enhance the poor immunogenicity of protein-based vaccines and to induce immune responses. Here, we engineered an anti-human DCIR recombinant antibody, which cross-reacts with the homologous cynomolgous macaque receptor and was fused via the heavy chain C-terminus to HIV Gagp24 protein (αDCIR.Gagp24). In vitro, αDCIR.Gagp24 expanded multifunctional antigen-specific memory CD4+ T cells recognizing multiple Gagp24 peptides from HIV-infected patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In non human primates, priming with αDCIR.Gagp24 without adjuvant elicited a strong anti-Gagp24 antibody response after the second immunization, while in the non-targeted HIV Gagp24 protein control groups the titers were weak. The presence of the double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) adjuvant significantly enhanced the anti-Gagp24 antibody response in all the groups and reduced the discrimination between the different vaccine groups. The avidity of the anti-Gagp24 antibody responses was similar with either αDCIR.Gagp24 or Gagp24 immunization, but increased from medium to high avidity in both groups when poly(I:C) was co-administered. This data provides a comparative analysis of DC-targeted and non-targeted proteins for their capacity to induce antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo. This study supports the further development of DCIR-based DC-targeting vaccines for protective durable antibody induction, especially in the absence of adjuvant.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Total liquid ventilation provides ultrafast and potently neuro- and cardioprotective cooling after shockable cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction in animals. Our goal was to decipher the effect of hypothermic total liquid ventilation on the systemic and cerebral response to asphyxial cardiac arrest using an original pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation strategy in rabbits. Randomized animal study. Academic research laboratory. New Zealand Rabbits. Thirty-six rabbits were submitted to 13 minutes of asphyxia, leading to cardiac arrest. After resumption of spontaneous circulation, they underwent either normothermic life support (control group, n = 12) or hypothermia induced by either 30 minutes of total liquid ventilation (total liquid ventilation group, n = 12) or IV cold saline (conventional cooling group, n = 12). Ultrafast cooling with total liquid ventilation (32°C within 5 min in the esophagus) dramatically attenuated the post-cardiac arrest syndrome regarding survival, neurologic dysfunction, and histologic lesions (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs). Final survival rate achieved 58% versus 0% and 8% in total liquid ventilation, control, and conventional cooling groups (p < 0.05), respectively. This was accompanied by an early preservation of the blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral hemodynamics as well as reduction in the immediate reactive oxygen species production in the brain, heart, and kidneys after cardiac arrest. Later on, total liquid ventilation also mitigated the systemic inflammatory response through alteration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8 transcripts levels compared with control. In the conventional cooling group, cooling was achieved more slowly (32°C within 90-120 min in the esophagus), providing none of the above-mentioned systemic or organ protection. Ultrafast cooling by total liquid ventilation limits the post-cardiac arrest syndrome after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rabbits. This protection involves an early limitation in reactive oxidative species production, blood-brain barrier disruption, and delayed preservation against the systemic inflammatory response.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Critical care medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the immunogenicity of a prime/boost vaccine strategy combining 5 lipopeptides (HIV-Lipo-5) and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA-HIV) in cynomolgus macaques. Both of these vaccine components deliver HIV LAI Gag, Pol, and Nef antigens. Systemic and local safety was excellent in all groups. Immunization with HIV-Lipo-5 alone induced significant serum anti-HIV antibody titers which were not modified by rMVA-HIV immunization. However, induction of T-cell responses, as measured by IFNγ and IL-2 producing cells upon short-term stimulation with HIV peptide pools, required combined immunization with rMVA-HIV. Responses were preferentially observed against Gag antigen. Interestingly, HIV-Lipo-5 efficiently primed HIV induced T-cell responses upon the injection of rMVA-HIV, which may help to reduce the required number of vector injections. Our results provide a rationale for the use of a strategy involving HIV-Lipo-5 priming followed by rMVA-HIV booster immunization as a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine approach against HIV infection and AIDS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 replication depends on the state of cell activation and division. It is established that SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells. The modulation of SAMHD1 expression during T-cell activation and proliferation, however, remains unclear, as well as a role for SAMHD1 during HIV-1 pathogenesis. SAMHD1 expression was assessed in CD4 T cells after their activation and in-vitro HIV-1 infection. We performed phenotype analyzes using flow cytometry on CD4 T cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes from cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral treatment or not, and controls. We show that SAMHD1 expression decreased during CD4 T-cell proliferation in association with an increased susceptibility to in-vitro HIV-1 infection. Additionally, circulating memory CD4 T cells are enriched in cells with low levels of SAMHD1. These SAMHD1 cells are highly differentiated, exhibit a large proportion of Ki67 cycling cells and are enriched in T-helper 17 cells. Importantly, memory SAMHD1 cells were depleted from peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals. We also found that follicular helper T cells present in secondary lymphoid organs lacked the expression of SAMHD1, which was accompanied by a higher susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro. We demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression is decreased during CD4 T-cell activation and proliferation. Also, CD4 T-cell subsets known to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection, for example, T-helper 17 and follicular helper T cells, display lower levels of SAMHD1. These results pin point a role for SAMHD1 expression in HIV-1 infection and the concomitant depletion of CD4 T cells.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: HIV vaccine strategies are expected to be a crucial component for controlling the HIV epidemic. Despite the large spectrum of potential candidate vaccines for both prophylactic and therapeutic use, the overall development process of an efficacious HIV vaccine strategy is lengthy. The design of clinical trials and the progression of a candidate strategy through the different clinical development stages remain methodologically challenging, mainly due to the lack of validated correlates of protection. In this review, we describe recent advances in clinical trial designs to increase the efficiency of the clinical development of candidate HIV vaccine strategies. The methodological aspects of the designs for early- (phase I and II) and later -stage (phase IIB and III) development are discussed, taking into account the specificities of both prophylactic and therapeutic HIV vaccine development.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vaccination has been poorly investigated. We have reported that vaccination with ex vivo-generated dendritic-cells (DC) loaded with HIV-lipopeptides (LIPO-5-DC vaccine) in HIV-infected patients was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These responses and their relation to viral replication following analytical treatment interruption (ATI) were variable. Here, we investigated whether the presence of HIV-specific Tregs might explain these differences. Co-expression of CD25, CD134, CD39 and FoxP3 was used to delineate both antigen-specific Tregs and effectors T cells (Teffs). Median LIPO-5 specific-CD25+CD134+ polyfunctional T cells increased from 0.1% (IQR 0-0.3) before vaccination (week -4) to 2.1% (IQR 1.1-3.9) at week 16 following 4 immunizations (p=0.001) and were inversely correlated with maximum viral load following ATI (r=-0.77, p=0.001). Vaccinees who displayed lower levels of HIV-specific CD4+CD134+CD25+CD39+FoxP3+ Tregs responded better to the LIPO-5-DC vaccine. After vaccination, the frequency of HIV-specific Tregs decreased (from 69.3 at week -4 to 31.7% at week 16) and inversely correlated with HIV-specific IFN-γ-producing cells (r=-0.64, p=0.002). We show that therapeutic immunization skewed the HIV-specific response from regulatory to effector phenotype which impacts on the magnitude of viral replication following ATI.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS Pathogens
  • Philippe Colson · Yves Levy · Didier Raoult

    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term spontaneous evolution between humans and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well characterized; many species, including humans, exhibit remnants of other retroviruses in their genomes that question such possible endogenization of HIV. We investigated two HIV-infected patients with no HIV-related disease and no detection with routine tests of plasma HIV RNA or cell-associated HIV DNA. We used Sanger and deep sequencing to retrieve HIV DNA sequences integrated in the human genome and tested the host humoral and cellular immune responses. We noticed that viruses from both patients were inactivated by the high prevalence of the transformation of tryptophan codons into stop codons (25% overall (3-100% per gene) and 24% overall (0-50% per gene)). In contrast, the humoral and/or cellular responses were strong for one patient and moderate for the other, indicating that a productive infection occurred at one stage of the infection. We speculate that the stimulation of APOBEC, the enzyme group that exchanges G for A in viral nucleic acids and is usually inhibited by the HIV protein Vif, has been amplified and made effective from the initial stage of the infection. Furthermore, we propose that HIV cure may occur through HIV endogenization in humans, as observed for many other retroviruses in mammals, rather than clearance of all traces of HIV from human cells which defines viral eradication.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we have investigated the functional profile of CD4 T cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), including production of cytokines and proliferation in response to bacteria and virus-derived antigens. We show that the functional impairment of CD4 T cells, including the reduced capacity to proliferate and to produce IFN-γ and IL-2, was restricted to bacteria-specific and not virus-specific CD4 T cells. High levels of endotoxins were found in the plasma of patients with CVID, suggesting that CD4 T cell dysfunction might be caused by bacterial translocation. Of note, endotoxemia was associated with significantly higher expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1) on CD4 T cells. The blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1/2 axis in vitro restored CD4 T cell proliferation capacity, thus indicating that PD-1 signaling negatively regulates CD4 T cell functions. Finally, we showed that intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) treatment significantly reduced endotoxemia and the percentage of PD-1(+) CD4 T cells, and restored bacteria-specific CD4 T cell cytokine production and proliferation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the CD4 T cell exhaustion and functional impairment observed in CVID patients is associated with bacterial translocation and that IVIG treatment resolves bacterial translocation and restores CD4 T cell functions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal in preventing autoimmunity. They play a major but still ambiguous role in cancer and viral infections. Functional studies of human Tregs are often hampered by numerous technical difficulties arising from imperfections in isolating and depleting protocols, together with the usual low cell number available from clinical samples. We standardized a simple procedure (Single Step Method, SSM), based on magnetic beads technology, in which both depletion and isolation of human Tregs with high purities are simultaneously achieved. SSM is suitable when using low cell numbers either fresh or frozen from both patients and healthy individuals. It allows simultaneous Tregs isolation and depletion that can be used for further functional work to monitor suppressive function of isolated Tregs (in vitro suppression assay) and also effector IFN-γ responses of Tregs-depleted cell fraction (OX40 assay). To our knowledge, there is no accurate standardized method for Tregs isolation and depletion in a clinical context. SSM could thus be used and easily standardized across different laboratories.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Immunological Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Efforts aimed at restoring robust immune responses limiting therapeutically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication are warranted. We report that vaccination with dendritic cells (DC) generated ex vivo and loaded with HIV lipopeptides in patients (n = 19) on antiretroviral therapy was well tolerated and immunogenic. Vaccination increased: i) the breadth of the immune response from 1 (1-3) to 4 (2-5) peptide-pool responses/patient (P = 0.009); ii) the frequency of functional T cells (producing at least 2 cytokines among IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) from 0.026 to 0.32% (P = 0.002) and from 0.26 to 0.35% (P = 0.005) for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively; and iii) the breadth of cytokines secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon antigen exposure, including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-21, IL-17 and IL-13. Fifty percent of patients experienced a peak of viral load (VL) 1 log10 lower than the other half following antiviral treatment interruption. An inverse correlation was found between the peak of VL and the frequency of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells (P = 0.007), production of IL-2 (P = 0.006,), IFN-γ (P = 0.01), IL-21 (P = 0.006) and IL-13 (P = 0.001). These results suggest an association between vaccine responses and a better control of viral replication. These findings will help in the development of strategies for a functional cure for HIV infection.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · European Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Innate mechanisms are critical for the development of the host immune responses to antigen. Particularly, early interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and dendritic cells (DC) greatly impacts the establishment of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, using an autologous in vitro co-culture system we analyzed the NK cell response against MVAHIV-infected DC as well as the subsequent ability of these MVAHIV-primed NK cells to control HIV-1 infection in autologous DC. We found that NK cells responded early to MVAHIV- or MVAWT-infected DC in terms of degranulation and cytokine production. After a 4-day priming of NK cells by MVAHIV- or MVAWT-infected DC we observed an enhanced proliferation and modulation in the NK cell receptor repertoire expression. Interestingly, we found that MVAHIV-primed NK cells had a significant higher ability to control HIV-1 infection in autologous DC compared to MVAWT-primed NK cells; and this enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity appeared to be HIV-specific as MVAHIV-primed NK cells did not have a better ability to control other viral infections or respond against tumoral cells. Furthermore, we observed that NK cell receptors NKG2D and NKp46 modulate the priming of NK cells. This data provides evidence that in vitro NK cells can be primed by viral vector-infected DC, in the context of a NK/DC culture, to specifically target viral infected cells.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Natural Killer (NK) cells are the major antiviral effector cell population of the innate immune system. It has been demonstrated that NK-cell activity can be modulated by the interaction with dendritic cells (DCs). The HIV-1 vaccine candidate Modified Vaccinia Ankara encoding an HIV polypeptide (MVAHIV ), developed by the French National Agency for Research on AIDS (ANRS), has the ability to prime NK cells to control HIV-1 infection in DCs. However, whether or not MVAHIV -primed NK cells are able to better control HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells, and the mechanism underlying the specific priming, remain undetermined. In this study we show that MVAHIV -primed NK cells display a greater capacity to control HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. We also highlight the importance of NKG2D engagement on NK cells and DC-produced IL-15 to achieve the anti-HIV-1 specific priming, as blockade of either NKG2D or IL-15 during MVAHIV -priming lead to a subsequent decreased control of HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore we show that the decreased control of HIV-1 infection in CD4(+) T cells might be due, at least in part, to the decreased expression of membrane-bound IL-15 (mbIL-15) on DCs when NKG2D is blocked during MVAHIV -priming of NK cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · European Journal of Immunology
  • John J Zaunders · Yves Lévy · Nabila Seddiki
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-7 is a non-redundant growth, differentiation and survival factor for human T lymphocytes. Most circulating, mature T cells express the receptor for IL-7, but not all. Importantly, CD4 Tregs express greatly reduced levels of IL-7R compared to conventional CD4 T cells, presenting an opportunity to selectively target the latter cells with either more IL-7 to boost responses, or to block IL-7 signalling to limit responses. This article reviews what is known about regulation of IL-7R expression, and recent progress in therapeutic approaches related to IL-7 and its receptor.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

Publication Stats

3k Citations
689.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2015
    • Hôpital Albert Chenevier – Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Paris-Est
      La Haye-Descartes, Centre, France
  • 2007-2015
    • Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne - Université Paris 12
      • Faculty of medicine
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009-2012
    • ANRS - Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
    • Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
      Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003-2012
    • Hôpital Henri Mondor (Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor)
      • Service de Neuroradiologie
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • L'Agence nationale de la recherche
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009-2010
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France