Orit Rubinstein

Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Yerushalayim, Jerusalem, Israel

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Publications (4)13.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hypogonadism is a major feature of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), but clinical manifestations are variable. Sexual interests and behavior in this population have not been previously described. We studied PWS adolescents and young adults to assess 1) satisfaction with physical and sexual development, 2) frequency of romantic and sexual experiences, 3) aspirations and expectations regarding marriage, 4) possible relationships between sexual interests and hormone levels, and 5) the desire for hormonal replacement therapy. The study population consisted of 27 individuals (13 males) ages 17-32 (mean 23.5) years with genetically confirmed PWS. Mean intelligence quotient (IQ) was 75 (range 50-100). We conducted structured interviews using questionnaires specifically designed for this study. There was a significant negative correlation between IQ and body image in both males and females. IQ showed a positive correlation with interest in dating and romantic activities. Approximately half of PWS males and females reported having been on a date and kissing romantically. All males and 64% of the females wished to be married. Seventy-seven per cent of PWS males wanted hormonal treatment to increase phallic size. We found no correlation between hormone levels and sexual interests. Only 43% of PWS females wanted hormonal medication to achieve regular menstruation. Despite documented hypogonadism, PWS young adults are interested in sexual and romantic issues. The range of sexual activities and expectations is variable. Understanding specific sexual characteristics of each individual is important in order to offer proper anticipatory sexual guidance counseling and for appropriate recommendations for hormone replacement.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
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    ABSTRACT: The variable hypogonadism in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) has generally been attributed to hypothalamic dysfunction. Recent studies have documented primary testicular dysfunction in PWS males. Our aims were to characterize sexual development and reproductive hormones in PWS females and to investigate the etiology of hypogonadism. A cross-sectional study. Physical examination was performed on 45 PWS females (aged 6 weeks to 32 years) and blood samples were obtained for hormonal analyses. Age of onset and progression of puberty varied; most adults had incomplete sexual development. Spontaneous menarche was reported in four (aged 15-30 years) but all had subsequently developed secondary amenorrhea or oligomennorrhea. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels were within the normal range in all age groups. Inhibin B was consistently low or undetectable; only five women had levels in the low-normal range (20-54 pg/ml). LH was normal in most children, but low (<1.0 IU/l) in 9 of 15 adults. FSH was within the normal range for age in most children, but low (<0.5 IU/l) in 10 and high in four adults. Estradiol levels were normal-low and androgen levels were normal in the majority. Pubertal development in PWS females, as in males, is characterized by normal adrenarche, pubertal arrest, and hypogonadism due to variable combinations of a unique primary gonadal defect and hypothalamic dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · European Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies challenge the assumption that hypogonadism in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is due only to hypothalamic dysfunction. The aims of the study were to characterize sexual development and reproductive hormones in PWS males and investigate the etiology of hypogonadism. Physical examination and blood sampling were performed on 37 PWS males, ages 4 months to 32 yr. Results: All had a history of undescended testes; age at orchiopexy ranged from 2 months to 6 yr. Pubertal signs were variable, but none achieved full genital development. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in PWS boys were near the lower limits of normal, decreasing from 44.4 +/- 17.8 ng/ml (mean +/- sd) in young children to 5.9 +/- 4.7 ng/ml in adolescents, similar to normal males. In contrast, inhibin B was consistently low (27.1 +/- 36.1 pg/ml) or undetectable in all age groups. In adult males, FSH levels were high (20.3 +/- 18.3 IU/liter), LH levels were normal (4.2 +/- 4.3 IU/liter), and testosterone levels were low (1.87 +/- 1.17 ng/ml). Only two adults had severe hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with undetectable levels of LH and FSH and high AMH levels (34.9 and 36.7 ng/ml), unlike the other nine adults with AMH levels 2.6 +/- 2.1 ng/ml. Androstenedione (1.06 +/- 0.30 ng/ml) and DHEAS (281.1 +/- 143.6 microg/dl) in adult PWS were normal. Pubertal development in PWS is characterized by normal adrenarche, variable hypothalamic dysfunction, and hypogonadism due to a unique testicular defect. Primary testicular dysfunction is a major component of hypogonadism in PWS.
    Preview · Article · May 2009 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the etiology of hypogonadism in women with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Ten women aged 23 +/- 5.5 years with PWS and 10 age- and BMI-matched controls were included. Blood samples were drawn and abdominal ultrasounds were performed on days 2-4 of spontaneous cycles or at random from amenorrheic women. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B (INB), gonadotropins, sex steroids, TSH, prolactin, ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) in PWS women were compared with results from controls and the reference ranges. Compared to controls, PWS women had lower INB (mean +/- SD = 17.6 +/- 12.8 pg/ml vs. 110.6 +/- 54.5; p = 0.0002) and AMH levels (1.18 +/- 0.86 ng/ml vs. 3.53 +/- 2.42; p = 0.01). INB levels were exceptionally low in all PWS women, but individual AMH levels overlapped with the levels in the controls. Ovarian volume (mean +/- SD = 3.7 +/- 2.3 ml vs. 30.5 +/- 28.8; p = 0.03) and AFC (6.4 +/- 6.9 vs. 14.0 +/- 8.2; p = 0.01) were lower in the PWS group compared to the controls. Three PWS patients had abnormally high follicle-stimulating hormone levels, while only 1 had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our results suggest a unique follicular stage-specific insult in women with PWS. Thus, primary ovarian dysfunction is a major component of hypogonadism in PWS.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Hormone Research