[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder associated with chromosomal fragility, bone-marrow failure, congenital abnormalities and cancer. The gene for complementation group A (FAA), which accounts for 60-65% of all cases, has been cloned, and is composed of an open reading frame of 4.3 kb, which is distributed among 43 exons. We have investigated the molecular pathology of FA by screening the FAA gene for mutations in a panel of 90 patients identified by the European FA research group, EUFAR. A highly heterogeneous spectrum of mutations was identified, with 31 different mutations being detected in 34 patients. The mutations were scattered throughout the gene, and most are likely to result in the absence of the FAA protein. A surprisingly high frequency of intragenic deletions was detected, which removed between 1 and 30 exons from the gene. Most microdeletions and insertions occurred at homopolymeric tracts or direct repeats within the coding sequence. These features have not been observed in the other FA gene which has been cloned to date (FAC) and may be indicative of a higher mutation rate in FAA. This would explain why FA group A is much more common than the other complementation groups. The heterogeneity of the mutation spectrum and the frequency of intragenic deletions present a considerable challenge for the molecular diagnosis of FA. A scan of the entire coding sequence of the FAA gene may be required to detect the causative mutations, and scanning protocols will have to include methods which will detect the deletions in compound heterozygotes.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1999 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive chromosomal breakage disorder with diverse clinical symptoms including progressive bone marrow failure and increased cancer risk. FA cells are hypersensitive to crosslinking agents, which has been exploited to assess genetic heterogeneity through complementation analysis. Five complementation groups (FA-A through FA-E) have so far been distinguished among the first 20 FA patients analyzed. Complementation groups in FA are likely to represent distinct disease genes, two of which (FAC and FAA) have been cloned. Following the identification of the first FA-E patient, additional patients were identified whose cell lines complemented groups A-D. To assess their possible assignment to the E group, we introduced selection markers into the original FA-E cell line and analyzed fusion hybrids with three cell lines classified as non-ABCD. All hybrids were complemented for cross-linker sensitivity, indicating nonidentity with group E. We then marked the three non-ABCDE cell lines and examined all possible hybrid combinations for complementation, which indicated that each individual cell line represented a separate complementation group. These results thus define three new groups, FA-F, FA-G, and FA-H, providing evidence for a minimum of eight distinct FA genes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1997 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) is a dominantly inherited disorder with parkinsonism. We performed PET with [18F]fluorodopa (FD) and, later, gene testing in 12 asymptomatic relatives at risk from a family with PPND and compared the striatal FD uptake constant (Ki) in them with 4 symptomatic individuals and 10 normal control subjects. Four relatives with positive linkage had a significantly reduced Ki from the normal control subjects but to a lesser degree than the symptomatic patients. The mean Ki in the relatives with negative linkage (n = 8) did not differ from normal control subjects. In conclusion, we identified reduced dopaminergic function in asymptomatic relatives with positive genetic linkage from the PPND family. Most of the reduction in this disorder occurs in the fifth decade, when the disease manifests clinically.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a diversity of clinical symptoms including skeletal abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and a marked predisposition to cancer. FA cells exhibit chromosomal instability and hyper-responsiveness to the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of bifunctional alkylating (cross-linking) agents, such as diepoxybutane (DEB) and mitomycin C (MMC). Five complementation groups (A-E) have been distinguished on the basis of somatic cell hybridization experiments, with group FA-A accounting for over 65% of the cases analysed. A cDNA for the group C gene (FAC) was reported and localized to chromosome 9q22.3 (ref.8). Genetic map positions were recently reported for two more FA genes, FAA (16q24.3) and FAD (3p22-26). Here we report the isolation of a cDNA representing the FAA gene, following an expression cloning method similar to the one used to clone the FAC gene. The 5.5-kb cDNA has an open reading frame of 4,368 nucleotides. In contrast to the 63-kD cytosolic protein encoded by the FAC gene, the predicted FAA protein (M(r) 162, 752) contains two overlapping bipartite nuclear localization signals and a partial leucine zipper consensus, which are suggestive of a nuclear localization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapidly progressive autosomal dominant parkinsonism and dementia with pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) is a neurodegenerative disorder which begins later in life (> 30 years of age) and is characterized by rapidly progressive parkinsonism, dystonia, dementia, perservative vocalizations and pyramidal tract dysfunction. The disease is observed in a large American family that includes almost 300 members in nine generations with 34 affected individuals. In this kindred evidence for linkage to chromosome 17q21 was obtained with a maximum lod score of 9.08 for the D17S958 locus. Multilocus analysis positions the disease gene in an approximately 10 cM region between D17S250 and D17S943. Notably, the disease locus for a clinically distinct familial neurodegenerative disease named 'disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex' (DDPAC) was recently mapped to the same region of chromosome 17, suggesting that PPND and DDPAC may possibly originate from mutations in the same gene.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with diverse developmental abnormalities, bone-marrow failure and predisposition to cancer. FA cells show increased chromosome breakage and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents such as diepoxybutane and mitomycin C. Somatic-cell hybridisation analysis of FA cell lines has demonstrated the existence of at least five complementation groups (FA-A to FA-E), the most common of which is FA-A. This genetic heterogeneity has been a major obstacle to the positional cloning of FA genes by classical linkage analysis. The FAC gene was cloned by functional complementation, and localised to chromosome 9q22.3 (ref. 2), but this approach has thus far failed to yield the genes for the other complementation groups. We have established a panel of families classified as FA-A by complementation analysis, and used them to search for the FAA gene by linkage analysis. We excluded the previous assignment by linkage of an FA gene to chromosome 20q, and obtained conclusive evidence for linkage of FAA to microsatellite markers on chromosome 16q24.3. Strong evidence of allelic association with the disease was detected with the marker D16S303 in the Afrikaner population of South Africa, indicating the presence of a founder effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bullous dystrophy, hereditary macular type (McKusick 302000), is an X-linked disorder and was originally described in a single kindred in the Netherlands by Mendes da Costa and Van der Valk in 1908. To determine the location of the bullous dystrophy gene, segregation studies were performed in this family and in a recently described Italian family. Using informative polymorphic markers, the gene could initially be localized on the Xq27-q28 region. No recombinants were noted with loci in Xq27.3-q28. Fine mapping places the bullous dystrophy locus distal to DXS102 (Xq26.3) in the Italian family and distal to DXS998 (Xq27.3) in the Dutch family.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1995 · The American Journal of Human Genetics