[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite much evidence that combination of morphine and gabapentin can be beneficial for managing postoperative pain, the nature of the pharmacological interaction of the two drugs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of morphine and gabapentin in range of different dose combinations and investigate whether co-administration leads to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations in total) were evaluated in the rat plantar incision model using an electronic von Frey device. The percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and the area under the response curve (AUC) were used for evaluation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the drugs. Identification of synergistic interactions was based on Loewe additivity response surface analyses. The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response ranged between 26 and 58 % for the synergistic doses. The finding of dose-dependent synergistic effects highlights that choosing the right dose-dose combination is of importance in postoperative pain therapy. Our results indicate benefit of high doses of gabapentin as adjuvant to morphine. If these findings translate to humans, they might have important implications for the treatment of pain in postoperative patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An overwhelming amount of evidence demonstrates sex-induced variation in pain processing, and has thus increased the focus on sex as an essential parameter for optimization of in vivo models in pain research. Mammary cancer cells are often used to model metastatic bone pain in vivo, and are commonly used in both males and females. Here we demonstrate that compared to males, females have an increased capacity for recovery following inoculation of MRMT-1 mammary cells, thus potentially causing a sex-dependent bias of the progression of the pain state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pain is a common and highly debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms including both inflammatory and neuropathic processes and also some unique changes. Strong opioids are a mainstay of treatments but side effects are problematic and can compromise optimal pain control. Tapentadol is a novel dual-action drug, both stimulating inhibitory μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and mediating noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI) leading to activation of the inhibitory α-2 adrenoceptor. It has been demonstrated to treat effectively both acute and chronic pain. We here demonstrate the efficacy in a model of cancer-induced bone pain.MethodsMRMT-1 mammary carcinoma cells were inoculated into the tibia of 6-week-old rats and 2 weeks after, the neuronal responses to a wide range of peripheral stimulation were evaluated. The recordings were made from wide-dynamic range neurons in lamina V of the dorsal horn before and after administration of tapentadol as well as antagonists of the two mechanisms, naloxone or atipamezole.ResultsWe found marked inhibitions of the neuronal activity with efficacy against mechanical, thermal and electrically evoked activity following tapentadol administration. In addition, the effects of the drug were fully reversible by naloxone and partly by atipamezole, supporting the idea of MOR-NRI dual actions.Conclusions
These findings add to the mechanistic understanding of cancer-induced bone pain and support the sparse clinical data indicating a possible use of the drug as a therapeutic alternative for cancer patients with metastatic pain complication.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · European journal of pain (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nav1.7, a peripheral neuron voltage-gated sodium channel, is essential for pain and olfaction in mice and humans. We examined the role of Nav1.7 as well as Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in different mouse models of chronic pain. Constriction-injury-dependent neuropathic pain is abolished when Nav1.7 is deleted in sensory neurons, unlike nerve-transection-related pain, which requires the deletion of Nav1.7 in sensory and sympathetic neurons for pain relief. Sympathetic sprouting that develops in parallel with nerve-transection pain depends on the presence of Nav1.7 in sympathetic neurons. Mechanical and cold allodynia required distinct sets of neurons and different repertoires of sodium channels depending on the nerve injury model. Surprisingly, pain induced by the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin and cancer-induced bone pain do not require the presence of Nav1.7 sodium channels or Nav1.8-positive nociceptors. Thus, similar pain phenotypes arise through distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms. Therefore, rational analgesic drug therapy requires patient stratification in terms of mechanisms and not just phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain caused by bone metastases has a severe impact on the quality of life for many patients with cancer. Good translational in vivo models are required to understand the molecular mechanism and develop better treatment. In the current study we evaluated the influence of sex differences on the progression of cancer-induced bone pain.
4T1-luc2 mammary cancer cells were introduced into the femoral cavity of female and male BALB/cJ mice. Bioluminescence tumor signal, pain-related behavior and bone degradation were monitored for 14 days.
Female mice demonstrated a significantly greater bioluminescence signal on day 2 compared to male mice and, in addition, a significant earlier onset of pain-related behavior was observed in the females. No sex difference was observed for bone degradation. Finally, a strong correlation between pain-related behavior and bone degradation was observed for both sexes.
Although differences were observed between the sexes, these were minor and did not affect the overall progression of the pain state.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), encoded by the GCH1 gene, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain in rats. In humans, homozygous carriers of a “pain-protective” (PP) haplotype of the GCH1 gene have been identified exhibiting lower pain sensitivity, but only following pain sensitisation. Ex vivo, the PP GCH1 haplotype is associated with decreased induction of GCH1 after stimulation, whereas the baseline BH4 production is not affected. Contrary, loss of function mutations in the GCH1 gene results in decreased basal GCH1 expression, and is associated with DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD). So far it is unknown if such mutations affect acute and inflammatory pain.
In the current study, we examined the involvement of the GCH1 gene in pain models using the hyperphenylalaninemia 1 (hph-1) mouse, a genetic model for DRD, with only 10% basal GTP-CH1 activity compared to wild type mice. The study included assays for determination of acute nociception as well as models for pain after sensitisation. Pain behavioural analysis of the hph-1 mice showed reduced pain-like responses following intraplantar injection of CFA, formalin and capsaicin; whereas decreased basal level of GTP-CH1 activity had no influence in naïve hph-1 mice on acute mechanical and heat pain thresholds. Moreover, the hph-1 mice showed no signs of motor impairment or dystonia-like symptoms.
In this study, we demonstrate novel evidence that genetic mutations in the GCH1 gene modulate pain-like hypersensitivity. Together, the present data suggest that BH4 is not important for basal heat and mechanical pain, but they support the hypothesis that BH4 plays a role in inflammation-induced hypersensitivity. Our studies suggest that the BH4 pathway could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain conditions. Moreover, the hph-1 mice provide a valid model to study the consequence of congenital deficiency of GCH1 in painful conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer-induced bone pain severely compromises the quality of life of many patients suffering from bone metastasis, as current therapies leave some patients with inadequate pain relief. The recent development of specific animal models has increased the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer-induced bone pain including the involvement of ATP and the purinergic receptors in the progression of the pain state. In nociception, ATP acts as an extracellular messenger to transmit sensory information both at the peripheral site of tissue damage and in the spinal cord. Several of the purinergic receptors have been shown to be important for the development and maintenance of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and studies have demonstrated the importance of both peripheral and central mechanisms. We here provide an overview of the current literature on the role of purinergic receptors in cancer-induced bone pain with emphasis on some of the difficulties related to studying this complex pain state.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Osteoporosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are in the peripheral nervous system almost exclusively confined to afferent sensory neurons, where they are found both at peripheral and central synapses. The P2X3 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of the P2X3 receptor in chronic cancer-induced bone pain is less known. Here we investigated the effect of systemic acute and chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist (5-[[[(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid sodium salt hydrate) (A-317491) in a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain. Chronic administration of A-317491 (30 μmol/kgs.c., b.i.d.) resulted in a transient attenuation of pain related behaviours in the early stage of the bone cancer model, but had no effect in the late and more progressed stage of bone cancer. Also, acute administration of A-317491 (100 μmol/kgs.c.) had no effect in the progressed stage of the bone cancer pain model. Thus, systemically administered A-317491 did not demonstrate a robust effect in the present mouse model of cancer-induced bone pain.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state compared with those of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the recent discovery of a P2X7 receptor splice variant expressed in the knockout mice used for this study complicates the interpretation of the results. The P2X7 splice variant receptor was detected in the spinal cord but not in osteoclasts of the P2X7R KO mouse. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of the P2X7 receptors in bone cancer pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal anastomotic leakage. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induces MMPs and may influence anastomosis repair.
We assessed the efficacies of the nonselective hydroxamate MMP inhibitor GM6001, the selective hydroxamate MMP inhibitor AG3340 and a TNF-α antagonist with respect to anastomotic breaking strength of left-sided colon anastomoses in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Systemic GM6001 treatment effectively blocked MMP activity and maintained the initial breaking strength day 0 of the anastomoses when administered subcutaneously as daily depositions (100 mg/kg) or continuously (10 mg/kg/day). In contrast, the anastomotic biomechanic strength was lowered by 55% (p < 0.001) in vehicle-treated rats on postoperative day 3. GM6001 treatment increased breaking strength by 88% (p < 0.0005) compared with vehicle-treated rats day 3 and reduced (p = 0.003) the occurrence of spontaneous anastomotic dehiscence. Histologically, the anastomotic wound was narrower (p < 0.05) in the longitudinal direction in GM6001-treated animals whereas GM6001 had no significant effect on inflammatory cell infiltration or epithelialization. AG3340 (10 mg/kg) increased (p < 0.012) breaking strength by 47% compared with vehicle on day 3 but did not significantly prevent the reduction of the initial breaking strength on day 0. Although the increased TNF-α levels in the wound were attenuated, the anastomotic breaking strength was not improved (p = 0.62) by the TNF-α (10 mg/kg) inhibitor given systemically.
Pharmacological nonselective MMP inhibition ought to be explored as a prophylactic regimen to reduce anastomotic complications following colorectal resection. The involvement of TNF-α was insignificant in anastomotic wound healing in an experimental model.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate, breast and lung cancers readily develop bone metastases which lead to fractures, hypercalcemia and pain. Malignant growth in the bones depends on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and in this regard bisphosphonate compounds, which have high-bone affinity and inhibit osteoclast activity, have been found to alleviate bone cancer symptoms. In this study, the bisphosphonate risedronate and its phosphonocarboxylate derivative NE-10790 was tested in a murine bone cancer pain model. Risedronate decreased bone cancer-related bone destruction and pain-related behavior and decreased the spinal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, whereas NE-10790 had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, risedronate but not NE-10790 induced dose-dependent toxicity in NCTC-2472 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the direct toxic effect of risedronate on tumor cells observed in vitro opens the possibility that a direct toxic effect on tumor cells may also be present in vivo and be related to the efficacy of bisphosphonate compounds. In conclusion, these results suggest that risedronate treatment may lead to an increased life quality, in patient suffering from bone cancer, in terms of decreased osteolysis and pain, and merits further study.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain due to bone malignancies is one of the most difficult types of cancer pain to fully control and may further decrease the patients' quality of life. Animal models of chronic pain conditions resulting from peripheral inflammatory reactions or nerve injuries are responsive to treatment with cannabinoid agonists. However, the use of cannabinoid agonists in humans may be hampered by CNS related side effects and development of tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated low dose administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 on bone cancer pain and neuropathic pain in mice. In addition, we investigated the development of CNS related side effects and tolerance. We found that 0.5 mg/kg/day for 18 days reduced pain related behavior and expression of spinal glial fibrillary acidic protein in the bone cancer pain model but not in the neuropathic pain model. Furthermore, this treatment strategy was not found to induce measurable CNS related side effects or tolerance. Cancer cell viability assays and bone volume fraction assessed by micro computed tomography (microCT) demonstrated that these effects were not due to changes in cancer progression. The difference in WIN 55,212-2 efficacy between the bone cancer and neuropathic pain models may reflect the different pain generating mechanisms, which may be utilized in designing new therapeutic drugs.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of spinal cord microglia and astrocytes is a common phenomenon in nerve injury pain models and is thought to exacerbate pain perception. Following a nerve injury, a transient increase in the presence of microglia takes place while the increased numbers of astrocytes stay elevated for an extended period of time. It has been proposed that activated microglia are crucial for the development of neuropathic pain and that they lead to activation of astrocytes which then play a role in maintaining the long term pathological pain sensation. In the present report, we examined the time course of spinal cord glial activation in three different murine pain models to investigate if microglial activation is a general prerequisite for astrocyte activation in pain models. We found that two different types of cancer induced pain resulted in severe spinal astrogliosis without activation of microglia. In contrast, sciatic nerve injury led to a transient activation of microglia and sustained astrogliosis. These results show that development of hypersensitivity and astrocyte activation in pain models can take place independent of microglial activation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · European journal of pain (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After resection and repair of the intestines, tissue degradation leads to weakening of the repair site and risk of postoperative leakage. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to be responsible for collagenolysis in the direct vicinity of surgical sutures in many tissues. Several experimental studies show that MMP inhibitors administered systemically alleviate postoperative weakening of intestinal anastomoses. We hypothesised that local delivery of MMP inhibitors would achieve a similar effect.
Implementing a novel method for the coating of biomaterials, we coated sutures with a cross-linked fibrinogen film and bound the MMP inhibitor doxycycline into this film. The sutures were then used in a standard rat model for evaluating mechanical properties of colonic anastomoses 3 days after surgery.
The breaking strength of the anastomoses on the critical third day after operation was 17% higher with doxycycline-coated sutures compared to controls (P = 0.026). Energy uptake at failure was enhanced by 20% (P = 0.047).
Drug delivery by means of MMP-inhibitor-coated sutures appears to improve tissue integrity during anastomotic repair and may reduce postoperative complications.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · International Journal of Colorectal Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the majority of cases, the cause of spontaneous aortic dissection and rupture is unknown. An inherited risk is associated with Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, and loci mapped to diverse autosomal chromosomes. Analysis of pedigrees however has indicated that it may be also inherited as an X-linked trait. The biglycan gene, found on chromosome X in humans and mice, encodes a small leucine-rich proteoglycan involved in the integrity of the extracellular matrix. A vascular phenotype has never been described in mice deficient in the gene for small leucine-rich proteoglycans. In the breeding of BALB/cA mice homozygous for a null mutation of the biglycan gene, we observed that 50% of biglycan-deficient male mice died suddenly within the first 3 months of life.
Necropsies revealed a major hemorrhage in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and histology showed aortic rupture that involved an intimal and medial tear as well as dissection between the media and adventitia. By transmission electron microscopy and biomechanical testing, the aortas of biglycan-deficient mice showed structural abnormalities of collagen fibrils and reduced tensile strength. Similar collagen fibril changes were observed in male as well as in female biglycan-deficient mice, which implies a role of additional determinants such as gender-related response to stress in the development of this vascular catastrophe only in male mice.
The spontaneous death of biglycan-deficient male mice from aortic rupture implicates biglycan as essential for the structural and functional integrity of the aortic wall and suggests a potential role of biglycan gene defects in the pathogenesis of aortic dissection and rupture in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglyans (SLRPs) are major skeletal extracellular matrix (ECM) components that comprise a family of 13 members containing repeats of a leucine-rich motif. To examine SLRP function, we generated mice deficient in one or more member and analyzed them at the tissue, cell and molecular levels. This review outlines the novel research findings uncovered using these new animal models.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mass is maintained by a fine balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. Although osteoblasts and osteoclasts have different developmental origins, it is generally believed that the differentiation, function, and survival of osteoclasts are regulated by osteogenic cells. We have previously shown that the extracellular matrix protein, biglycan (Bgn), plays an important role in the differentiation of osteoblast precursors. In this paper, we showed that Bgn is involved in regulating osteoclast differentiation through its effect on osteoblasts and their precursors using both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The in vivo osteolysis experiment showed that LPS (lipopolisaccharide)-induced osteolysis occurred more rapidly and extensively in bgn deficient mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. To further understand the mechanism of action, we determined the effects of Bgn on 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3))-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in an co-culture of calvariae-derived pre-osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors derived from spleen or bone marrow. Time course and dose response experiments showed that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinuclear cells appeared earlier and more extensively in the co-cultures containing calvarial cells from bgn deficient mice than WT mice, regardless of the genotype of osteoclast precursors. The osteoblast abnormality that stimulated osteoclast formation appeared to be independent of the differential production of soluble RANKL and OPG and, instead, due to a decrease in osteoblast maturation accompanied by increase in osteoblastic proliferation. In addition to the imbalance between differentiation and proliferation, there was a differential decrease in secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (slpi) in bgn deficient osteoblasts treated with 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). These findings point to a novel molecular factor made by osteoblasts that could potentially be involved in LPS-induced osteolysis.