W W Chin

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (279)1410.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To study the role of the thyroid hormone (TH) in cerebellar development, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative TH receptor (TR) in cerebellar Purkinje cells. A mutant human TRβ1 (G345R), which binds to the TH-response element but cannot bind to T3, was subcloned into exon 4 of the full-length L7/ Pcp-2 gene, which is specifically expressed in Purkinje and retinal rod bipolar cells. The transgene was specifically expressed in Purkinje cells in the postnatal cerebellum. Purkinje cell dendrite arborization was significantly delayed in the transgenic mice. Surprisingly, granule cell migration was also significantly delayed. In the primary cerebellar culture, TH-induced Purkinje cell dendrite arborization was also suppressed. In quantitative realtime RT-PCR analysis, the expression levels of several TH-responsive genes were altered. The expression levels of inositol trisphosphate receptor type 1 and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α mRNAs, which are mainly expressed in Purkinje cells, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA, which is expressed in both Purkinje and granule cells were significantly decreased. The expression levels of neurotrophin-3 and hairless mRNAs, which are mainly expressed in granule cells, and myelin basic protein mRNA, which is mainly expressed in oligodendrocytes were also decreased. The motor coordination of transgenic mice was significantly disrupted. These results indicate that TH action through its binding to TR in Purkinje cells is required for the normal cerebellar development. TH action through TR in Purkinje cells is also important for the development of other subsets of cerebellar cells such as granule cells and oligodendrocytes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Endocrinology
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists are currently the agents of choice for the treatment of psoriasis, a skin inflammatory indication that is believed to involve an autoimmune component. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, has shown efficacy in animal autoimmune disease models of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type I diabetes. However, the side effect of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and its synthetic secosteroidal analogs is hypercalcemia, which is a major impediment in their clinical development for autoimmune diseases. Hypercalcemia develops as a result of the action of VDR agonists on the intestine. Here, we describe the identification of a VDR modulator (VDRM) compound A that was transcriptionally less active in intestinal cells and as a result exhibited less calcemic activity in vivo than 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). Cytokine analysis indicated that the VDRM not only modulated the T-helper cell balance from Th1 to Th2 effector function but also inhibited Th17 differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the oral administration of compound A inhibited the induction and progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice without causing hypercalcemia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Five hypothyroid patients are reported with increased pituitary TSH response to TRH during administration of T3. In one patient treated with intravenous T3, 50 μg daily for 10 days, the peak serum TSH and total pituitary TSH reserve after TRH increased coincident with increases in serum T3 and T4 levels and a decrease in the basal TSH concentration. In four patients treated with oral T3, the peak serum TSH and total pituitary TSH reserve after TRH increased during administration of subphysiological doses of T3. Peak serum T3 levels occurred 4 h after ingestion and increased progressively with increasing T3 doses. Serum TSH levels decreased modestly with the nadir at 4 h after T3 ingestion and then returned to basal levels at 24 h. Augmentation of TSH responses to TRH occurred simultaneously with decreases in serum cholesterol, a swell as increases in the pituitary prolactin response to TRH, and increases in the GH and cortisol response to insulin induced hypoglycaemia where these responses could be studied. These data demonstrated a positive effect of subphysiological T3 therapy in these hypothyroid patients on the TSH response to TRH as well as increases in the responses of other pituitary hormones to stimulation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Clinical Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligands are therapeutic agents for the treatment of psoriasis, osteoporosis, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. VDR ligands also show immense potential as therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases and cancers of skin, prostate, colon, and breast as well as leukemia. However, the major side effect of VDR ligands that limits their expanded use and clinical development is hypercalcemia that develops as a result of the action of these compounds mainly on intestine. In order to discover VDR ligands with less hypercalcemia liability, we sought to identify tissue-selective VDR modulators (VDRMs) that act as agonists in some cell types and lack activity in others. Here, we describe LY2108491 and LY2109866 as nonsecosteroidal VDRMs that function as potent agonists in keratinocytes, osteoblasts, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells but show poor activity in intestinal cells. Finally, these nonsecosteroidal VDRMs were less calcemic in vivo, and LY2108491 exhibited more than 270-fold improved therapeutic index over the naturally occurring VDR ligand 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] in an in vivo preclinical surrogate model of psoriasis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) plays a crucial role in nuclear receptor-mediated transcription including thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-dependent gene expression. Interaction of the TR-ligand binding domain and SRC-1 through LXXLL motifs is required for this action. However, potential interactions between the TRbeta1-N terminus (N) and SRC-1 have not been explored and thus are examined in this manuscript. Far-Western studies showed that protein construct containing TRbeta1-N + DNA binding domain (DBD) bound to nuclear receptor binding domain (NBD)-1 (amino acid residue, aa 595-780) of SRC-1 without ligand. Mammalian two-hybrid studies showed that NBD-1, as well as SRC-1 (aa 595-1440), bound to TRbeta1-N+DBD in the absence of ligand in CV-1 cells. However, NBD-2 (aa 1237-1440) did not bind to this protein. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down studies showed that TRbeta1-N (aa 1-105) bound to the broad region of SRC-1-C terminus. Expression vectors encoding a series of truncations and/or point mutations of TRbeta1 were used in transient transfection-based reporter assays in CV-1 cells. N-terminal truncated TRbeta1 (DeltaN-TRbeta1) showed lower activity than that of wild-type in both artificial F2-thyroid hormone response element and native malic enzyme response element. These results suggest that there is the interaction between N terminus of TRbeta1 and SRC-1, which may serve a full activation of SRC-1, together with activation function-2 on TRbeta1-mediated transcription.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Endocrinology
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    Toshiharu Iwasaki · Noriyuki Koibuchi · William W Chin
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    ABSTRACT: We previously cloned and characterized a novel RNA-binding motif-containing coactivator, named coactivator activator (CoAA), as a thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein-interacting protein using a Sos-Ras yeast two-hybrid screening system. A database search revealed that CoAA is identical with synovial sarcoma translocation (SYT)-interacting protein. Thus, we hypothesized that SYT could also function as a coactivator. Subsequently, we isolated a cDNA encoding a larger isoform of SYT, SYT-long (SYT-L), from the brain and liver total RNA using RT-PCR. SYT-L possesses an additional 31 amino acids in its C terminus compared with SYT, suggesting that these two SYT isoforms may be expressed from two mRNAs produced by alternative splicing of a transcript from a single gene. By Northern blot analysis, we found that SYT-L mRNA is expressed in several human embryonic tissues, such as the brain, liver, and kidney. However, we could not detect SYT-L in adult tissues. Glutathione-S-transferase pull-down studies showed that SYT binds to the C-terminus of CoAA, but not to the coactivator modulator. Both isoforms of SYT function as transcriptional coactivators of nuclear hormone receptors in a ligand- and dose-dependent manner in CV-1, COS-1, and JEG-3 cells. However, the pattern of transactivation was different between SYT and SYT-L among these cells. SYT synergistically activates transcription with CoAA. In addition, SYT activates transcription through activator protein-1, suggesting that SYT may function as a general coactivator. These results indicate that SYT activates transcription, possibly through CoAA, to interact with the histone acetyltransferase complex.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: The splicing factor SPF45 (RBM17) is frequently overexpressed in many solid tumors, and stable expression in HeLa cells confers resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine. In this study, we characterized stable transfectants of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. In a 3-day cytotoxicity assay, human SPF45 overexpression conferred 3- to 21-fold resistance to carboplatin, vinorelbine, doxorubicin, etoposide, mitoxantrone, and vincristine. In addition, resistance to gemcitabine and pemetrexed was observed at the highest drug concentrations tested. Knockdown of SPF45 in parental A2780 cells using a hammerhead ribozyme sensitized A2780 cells to etoposide by approximately 5-fold relative to a catalytically inactive ribozyme control and untransfected cells, suggesting a role for SPF45 in intrinsic resistance to some drugs. A2780-SPF45 cells accumulated similar levels of doxorubicin as vector-transfected and parental A2780 cells, indicating that drug resistance is not due to differences in drug accumulation. Efforts to identify small molecules that could block SPF45-mediated drug resistance revealed that the selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators tamoxifen and LY117018 (a raloxifene analogue) partially reversed SPF45-mediated drug resistance to mitoxantrone in A2780-SPF45 cells from 21-fold to 8- and 5-fold, respectively, but did not significantly affect the mitoxantrone sensitivity of vector control cells. Quantitative PCR showed that ERbeta but not ERalpha was expressed in A2780 transfectants. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SPF45 and ERbeta physically interact in vivo. Thus, SPF45-mediated drug resistance in A2780 cells may result in part from effects of SPF45 on the transcription or alternate splicing of ERbeta-regulated genes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: To effectively direct targeted repression, the class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) associate with many important regulatory proteins. In this paper we describe the molecular characterization of a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family of proteins, and demonstrate its binding to both class I HDACs and the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). JMJD2 proteins are characterized by the presence of two leukemia-associated protein/plant homeodomain (LAP/PHD) zinc fingers, one JmjN, one JmjC (containing an internal retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (RBBP2)-like sequence), and two Tudor domains. The first member of this group, JMJD2A, is widely expressed in human tissues and cell lines, and high endogenous expression of JMJD2A mRNA was found in several cell types, including human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cell lines. JMJD2A and JMJD2B exhibit cell type-specific responses to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. We show that the JMJD2A protein associates in vivo with pRb and class I HDACs, and mediates repression of E2F-regulated promoters. In HTLV-1 virus-infected cells, we find that JMJD2A binds to the viral Tax protein. Antibodies to JMJD2A recognize the native protein but also a half-sized protein fragment, the latter up-regulated in THP-1 cells during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. The ability of JMJD2A to associate with pRb and HDACs and potentiate pRb-mediated repression of E2F-regulated promoters implies an important role for this protein in cell proliferation and oncogenesis.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: In the vertebrate brain, the thalamus serves as a relay and integration station for diverse neuronal information en route from the periphery to the cortex. Deficiency of TH during development results in severe cerebral abnormalities similar to those seen in the mouse when the retinoic acid receptor (ROR)alpha gene is disrupted. To investigate the effect of the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) on RORalpha gene expression, we used intact male mice, in which the genes encoding the alpha and beta TRs have been deleted. In situ hybridization for RORalpha mRNA revealed that this gene is expressed in specific areas of the brain including the thalamus, pons, cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus. Our quantitative data showed differences in RORalpha mRNA expression in different subthalamic nuclei between wild-type and knock-out mice. For example, the centromedial nucleus of the thalamus, which plays a role in mediating nociceptive and visceral information from the brainstem to the basal ganglia and cortical regions, has less expression of RORalpha mRNA in the knockout mice (-37%) compared to the wild-type controls. Also, in the dorsal geniculate (+72%) and lateral posterior nuclei (+58%) we found more RORalpha mRNA in dKO as compared to dWT animals. Such differences in RORalpha mRNA expression may play a role in the behavioral alterations resulting from congenital hypothyroidism.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Endocrine
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    Kyeong-Hoon Jeong · William W Chin · Ursula B Kaiser
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    ABSTRACT: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) is expressed primarily in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary. Pituitary homeobox 1 (Pitx-1) has been shown to activate pituitary-specific gene expression by direct DNA binding and/or protein-protein interaction with other transcription factors. We hypothesized that Pitx-1 might also dictate tissue-specific expression of the mouse GnRHR (mGnRHR) gene in a similar manner. Pitx-1 activated the mGnRHR gene promoter, and transactivation was localized to sequences between -308 and -264. Pitx-1 bound to this region only with low affinity. This region includes an activating protein 1 (AP-1) site, which was previously shown to be important for mGnRHR gene expression. Further characterization indicated that an intact AP-1 site was required for full Pitx-1 responsiveness. Furthermore, Pitx-1 and AP-1 were synergistic in the activation of the mGnRHR gene promoter. A Pitx-1 homeodomain (HD) point mutation, which eliminated DNA binding ability, caused only a partial reduction of transactivation, whereas deletion of the HD completely prevented transactivation. Pitx-1 interacted directly with c-Jun, and the HD was sufficient for this interaction. While the point mutation in the Pitx-1 HD did not affect interaction with c-Jun, deletion of the HD eliminated the interaction. Taken together, our studies indicate that Pitx-1 can direct transactivation of the mGnRHR gene, in part by DNA binding and in part by an action of Pitx-1 as a cofactor for AP-1, augmenting AP-1 activity through a novel protein-protein interaction between c-Jun and the HD of Pitx-1.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that in colon cancer cells, Vitamin D receptor (VDR) interacts with the catalytic subunit of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, PP1c and PP2Ac, and induces their enzymatic activity in a ligand-dependent manner. The VDR-PP1c and VDR-PP2Ac interactions were ligand independent in vivo, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3))-mediated increase in VDR-associated phosphatase activity resulted in dephosphorylation and inactivation of p70S6 kinase in colon cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that in myeloid leukemia cells, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment increased the Thr389 phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. Accordingly, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) decreased VDR-associated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase activity by dissociating VDR-PP1c and VDR-PP2Ac interactions. Further, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased the association between VDR and Thr389 phosphorylated p70S6 kinase. Finally, by using non-secosteroidal VDR ligands, we demonstrate a separation between transactivation and p70S6 kinase phosphorylation activities of VDR and show pharmacologically that p70S6 kinase phosphorylation correlates with HL-60 cell differentiation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) belongs to the thyroid hormone/retinoid receptor subfamily of nuclear receptors and functions as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor (RXR). The RXR-VDR heterodimer, in contrast to other members of the class II nuclear receptor subfamily, is nonpermissive where RXR does not bind its cognate ligand, and therefore its role in VDR-mediated transactivation by liganded RXR-VDR has not been fully characterized. Here, we show a unique facet of the intermolecular RXR-VDR interaction, in which RXR actively participates in vitamin D3-dependent gene transcription. Using helix 3 and helix 12 mutants of VDR and RXR, we provide functional evidence that liganded VDR allosterically modifies RXR from an apo (unliganded)- to a holo (liganded)-receptor conformation, in the absence of RXR ligand. As a result of the proposed allosteric modification of RXR by liganded VDR, the heterodimerized RXR shows the "phantom ligand effect" and thus acquires the capability to recruit coactivators steroid receptor coactivator 1, transcriptional intermediary factor 2, and amplified in breast cancer-1. Finally, using a biochemical approach with purified proteins, we show that RXR augments the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent recruitment of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 in the context of RXR-VDR heterodimer. These results confirm and extend the previous observations suggesting that RXR is a significant contributor to VDR-mediated gene expression and provide a mechanism by which RXR acts as a major contributor to vitamin D3-dependent transcription.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Molecular Endocrinology
  • Michael W Draper · William W Chin

    No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Lan Ko · William W Chin
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors mediate gene activation through ligand-dependent interaction with coactivators. We previously cloned and characterized thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, TRBP (NcoA6: AIB3/ASC-2/RAP250/PRIP/TRBP/NRC), as an LXXLL-containing coactivator that associates with coactivator complexes through its C terminus. To search for protein factors involved in TRBP action, we identified a distinct set of proteins from HeLa nuclear extract that interacts with the C terminus of TRBP. Analysis by mass spectrometric protein sequencing revealed a DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex including its catalytic subunit and regulatory subunits, Ku70 and Ku86. DNA-PK is a heterotrimeric nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that functions in DNA repair, recombination, and transcriptional regulation. DNA-PK phosphorylates TRBP at its C-terminal region, which directly interacts with Ku70 but not Ku86 in vitro. In addition, in the absence of DNA, TRBP itself activates DNA-PK, and the TRBP-stimulated DNA-PK activity has an altered phosphorylation pattern from DNA-stimulated activity. An anti-TRBP antibody inhibits TRBP-induced kinase activity, suggesting that protein content of TRBP is responsible for the stimulation of DNA-independent kinase activity. Furthermore, in DNA-PK-deficient scid cells, TRBP-mediated transactivation is significantly impaired, and nuclear localization of TRBP is altered. The activation of DNA-PK in the absence of DNA ends by the coactivator TRBP suggests a novel mechanism of coactivator-stimulated DNA-PK phosphorylation in transcriptional regulation.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Yifei Wu · William W Chin · Yong Wang · Thomas P Burris
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    ABSTRACT: The activation function 2 (AF-2)-dependent recruitment of coactivator is essential for gene activation by nuclear receptors. We show that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) (NR1C3) coactivator-1 (PGC-1) requires both the intact AF-2 domain of PPARgamma and the LXXLL domain of PGC-1 for ligand-dependent and ligand-independent interaction and coactivation. Although the AF-2 domain of PPARgamma is absolutely required for PGC-1-mediated coactivation, this coactivator displayed a unique lack of requirement for the charge clamp of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor that is thought to be essential for LXXLL motif recognition. The mutation of a single serine residue adjacent to the core LXXLL motif of PGC-1 led to restoration of the typical charge clamp requirement. Thus, the unique structural features of the PGC-1 LXXLL motif appear to mediate an atypical mode of interaction with PPARgamma. Unexpectedly, we discovered that various ligands display variability in terms of their requirement for the charge clamp of PPARgamma for coactivation by PGC-1. This ligand-selective variable requirement for the charge clamp was coactivator-specific. Thus, distinct structural determinants, which may be unique for a particular ligand, are utilized by the receptor to recognize the coactivator. Our data suggest that even subtle differences in ligand structure are perceived by the receptor and translated into a unique display of the coactivator-binding surface of the ligand-binding domain, allowing for differential recognition of coactivators that may underlie distinct pharmacological profiles observed for ligands of a particular nuclear receptor.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta). Here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an LXR antagonist by directly binding to LXRs. Likewise, ester forms, but not carboxylic acid forms, of other members of the fibrate class of molecules antagonize the LXRs. The fibrate esters display greater affinity for LXRs than the corresponding fibric acids have for PPARalpha. Thus, these two nuclear receptors display a degree of conservation in their recognition of ligands; yet, the acid/ester moiety acts as a chemical switch that determines PPARalpha versus LXR specificity. Consistent with its LXR antagonistic activity, fenofibrate potently represses LXR agonist-induced transcription of hepatic lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, fenofibrate does not repress LXR-induced transcription of various ATP-binding cassette transporters either in liver or in macrophages, suggesting that fenofibrate manifests variable biocharacter in the context of differing gene promoters. These findings provide not only an unexpected mechanism by which fenofibrate inhibits lipogenesis but also the basis for examination of the pharmacology of an LXR ligand in humans.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for growth and development of brain, including the cerebellum. Deficiency of TH during the perinatal period results in abnormal cerebellar development, which is well documented in rodent animal models. TH exerts its major effect by binding to the nuclear TH receptor (TR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. Although TR is highly expressed in many brain regions, including the cerebellum, TH-target genes that likely play critical roles in brain development have not yet been fully clarified. At present, however, expression of many cerebellar genes is known to be altered by perinatal hypothyroidism. Interestingly, after the critical period of TH action (first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rodent cerebellum), the activities of many genes that are altered by perinatal hypothyroidism return to the same levels as those of euthyroid animal despite morphological alterations. Several prominent candidate genes that may play key roles in TH-mediated cerebellar development are discussed in this review. On the other hand, TR-mediated transcription may be modulated by various substances. The nuclear hormone receptor superfamily contains more than 40 transcriptional factors and, most of these receptors are present in the brain. Possible interactions between TR and such transcription factors are also discussed. Further, several additional issues that need to be clarified are discussed. One such issue is the discrepancy of phenotypes among TR-knockout and perinatal hypothyroid mice. Recent studies have provided several important clues to address this issue. Another current area that needs attention is the effect of endocrine disruptors on brain development. Since the molecular structures of TH and several endocrine disrupting chemicals are similar, the effect of such chemicals on brain may be exerted at least in part through the TH system. Recent studies have shown the possible interaction between TR and such chemicals. Overall, this review provides current findings regarding molecular mechanisms on TH action in cerebellar development.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · The Cerebellum
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    ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid β-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ). Here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an LXR antagonist by directly binding to LXRs. Likewise, ester forms, but not carboxylic acid forms, of other members of the fibrate class of molecules antagonize the LXRs. The fibrate esters display greater affinity for LXRs than the corresponding fibric acids have for PPARα. Thus, these two nuclear receptors display a degree of conservation in their recognition of ligands; yet, the acid/ester moiety acts as a chemical switch that determines PPARαversus LXR specificity. Consistent with its LXR antagonistic activity, fenofibrate potently represses LXR agonist-induced transcription of hepatic lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, fenofibrate does not repress LXR-induced transcription of various ATP-binding cassette transporters either in liver or in macrophages, suggesting that fenofibrate manifests variable biocharacter in the context of differing gene promoters. These findings provide not only an unexpected mechanism by which fenofibrate inhibits lipogenesis but also the basis for examination of the pharmacology of an LXR ligand in humans.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Philippe Delerive · William W Chin · Chen S Suen
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor superfamily comprises a large number of ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in numerous biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and homeostasis. ROR(alpha) (NR1F1) and Reverb(alpha) (NR1D1) are two members of this family whose biological functions are largely unknown. In addition, no ligand has been yet identified for these two receptors; therefore, they are referred as orphan receptors. Here, we show that ROR(alpha) and Reverb(alpha) are expressed with a similar tissue distribution and are both induced during the differentiation of rat L6 myoblastic cells. Ectopic expression of ROR(alpha)1 in L6 cells significantly induces Reverb(alpha) expression as demonstrated by Northern blot analysis. Using reverse transcription-PCR to analyze Reverb(alpha) gene expression from staggerer mice, we found that there was a significant reduction of Reverb(alpha) mRNA in the skeletal muscle comparing it with the wild-type mice, which suggests that ROR(alpha) is involved in the regulation of Reverb(alpha) gene expression. Transient transfection assays using the Reverb(alpha) promoter demonstrate that ROR(alpha) regulates the Reverb(alpha) gene at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, mutagenesis experiments indicate that ROR(alpha) regulates Reverb(alpha) transcription via a monomeric ROR response element located in the Reverb(alpha) gene promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that ROR(alpha) binds strongly to this site in a specific-manner. Finally, overexpression of GRIP-1/TIF-2, but not SRC-1, potentiates ROR(alpha)-stimulated Reverb(alpha) promoter activity in transient transfection experiments. Together, our results identify Reverb(alpha) as a novel target gene for ROR(alpha).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Stats

14k Citations
1,410.13 Total Impact Points


  • 1981-2015
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1980-2008
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Reproductive Endocrine Unit
      • • Endocrine Unit
      • • Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1982-2006
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Genetics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2003
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • Gene+
      Fleurbaix, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2001
    • The Rockefeller University
      • Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1999
    • Tokushima Bunri University
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 1986-1999
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Genetics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1985-1996
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Medicine
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1993
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1990
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Animal and Food Sciences
      Delaware, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Medicine
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 1987
    • National Institute of Immunology
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 1985-1987
    • Joslin Diabetes Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States