Tung-Ping Su

Taipei Veterans General Hospital, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (166)581.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Low-dose ketamine has been found to have robust and rapid antidepressant effects. A hypoactive prefrontal cortex (PFC) and a hyperactive amygdala have been suggested to be associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, it is unclear whether the rapid antidepressant mechanisms of ketamine on TRD involve changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PFC and the amygdala. Methods: A group of 48 TRD patients were recruited and equally randomized into three groups (A: 0.5 kg/mg-ketamine; B: 0.2 kg/mg-ketamine; and C: normal saline [NS]). Standardized uptake values (SUV) of glucose metabolism measured by (18) F-FDG positron-emission-tomography before and immediately after a 40-min ketamine or NS infusion were used for subsequent region-of-interest (ROI) analyses (a priori regions: PFC and amygdala) and whole-brain voxel-wise analyses and were correlated with antidepressant responses, as defined by the Hamilton depression rating scale score. The (18) F-FDG signals were used as a proxy measure of glutamate neurotransmission. Results: The ROI analysis indicated that Group A and Group B, but not Group C, had increases in the SUV of the PFC (group-by-time interaction: F = 7.373, P = 0.002), whereas decreases in the SUV of the amygdala were observed in all three groups (main effect of time, P < 0.001). The voxel-wise analysis further confirmed a significant group effect on the PFC (corrected for family-wise errors, P < 0.05; post hoc analysis: Group A<Group C, Group B<Group C). The SUV differences in the PFC predicted the antidepressant responses at 40 and 240 min post-treatment. The PFC changes did not differ between those with and without side effects. Conclusion: Ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects involved the facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PFC. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Human Brain Mapping
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    ABSTRACT: Backgrounds: Several cross-sectional studies suggested a link between endometriosis and mood disorders. However, the temporal association between endometriosis and mood disorders (depression and anxiety disorders) is still unclear. Methods: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 10,439 women with endometriosis and 10,439 (1:1) age-/sex-matched controls between 1998 and 2009 were enrolled, and followed up to the end of 2011. Those who developed depression or anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. Results: Women with endometriosis had an increased risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.24-1.97), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.25-1.65), and anxiety disorders (HR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.22-1.70) in later life compared to those without endometriosis. Stratified by age group, women with endometriosis aged <40 years and those aged ≧40 years were both prone to developing major depression (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15-1.99; HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.09-2.62), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.21-1.69; HR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56), and anxiety disorders (HR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71; HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.15-2.04). Limitation: the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders may be underestimated since only those who sought medical consultation and help would be enrolled in our study. Conclusion: Endometriosis was associated with an elevated likelihood of developing depression and anxiety disorders. Further studies may be required to investigate the underlying pathophysiology between endometriosis and both depression and anxiety disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Even during symptomatic remission, many patients with medication resistant depression (MRD) still demonstrate impaired cognitive function, especially executive function (EF). Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) modulates cortical excitability and may treat MRD. Evidences from previous studies show that intermittent TBS (iTBS) produces cortical excitatory effects, while continuous TBS (cTBS) produces a reduction of cortical excitability. EF is highly dependent on prefrontal activity, but the effects of different forms of prefrontal TBS on EF remain unknown. Methods: 60 MRD patients were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four groups. Treatment was determined by the group to which an individual was assigned; A: cTBS 1800pulses/session; B: iTBS 1800pulses/session; C: a combination of cTBS+iTBS, 1800pulses/session for each; and D: sham TBS. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for the performance of EF was evaluated before and after 10 daily treatment sessions RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA, with each WCST index at baseline and 2weeks after TBS as within-subject factors, demonstrated that a statistically significant interaction of TBS groups (G) and antidepressant responses [(R), responses were defined as >50% reduction of depression scores after 2-weeks TBS treatment] on the before-versus-after changes of all WCST indexes (G×R, p<0.05). Responders in Group B, but not in the other groups, showed a significant improvement in WCST performance. Only nonresponders in Group A showed a trend for EF worsening. Conclusions: Our findings showed that left prefrontal iTBS, not right prefrontal cTBS, improved EF, and this can be independent from its antidepressant effects.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic inflammation plays an important role in schizophrenia and atopic diseases, and studies have suggested that chronic inflammation is associated with an increased risk of stroke. The role of atopic diseases in the development of stroke among patients with schizophrenia is still unknown. Methods: A total of 63,913 patients with schizophrenia without a stroke history between 2002 and 2008 and 63,913 age- and sex-matched controls were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Patients with schizophrenia and the reference group were divided into subgroups based on the presence or absence of atopic diseases. Individuals who developed stroke during follow-up were identified. Results: Patients with schizophrenia had an increased risk of developing ischemic stroke (no atopic disease: hazard ratio [HR] = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88-2.53; with atopic disease: HR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.63-3.69) compared with the reference group without atopic diseases. Among patients with schizophrenia, the presence of atopic diseases increased the risk of developing ischemic stroke (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.24-1.66), with a cumulative relationship between greater numbers of atopic comorbidities and a greater risk of ischemic stroke (one atopic disease: HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.19-1.63; two atopic comorbidities: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-2.00; at least 3 atopic comorbidities: HR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.55-5.12). Conclusions: The combined presence of schizophrenia and atopic diseases is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in later life compared with individuals without these conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Psychosomatic Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age <30 years) was only associated with the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.47∼11.72). Patients who had experienced ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in bipolar disorder, but none has investigated the temporal association between allergic rhinitis (AR) and bipolar disorder. Methods: Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 9506 adolescents aged 12-18years with allergic rhinitis were enrolled between 2000 and 2008 and compared to 38,024 age-and gender-matched (1:4) control groups. Subjects of bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31, 2011) were identified. Results: Adolescents with AR had a significantly higher incidence of developing bipolar disorder (0.77 vs. 0.18 per 1000 person-years, p<0.001) during the follow-up period than the controls. Adolescents with AR had an increased risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.17-6.75) of developing bipolar disorder in their later life compared to the control group after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases. Discussion: This is the first study showing a temporal association between AR and bipolar disorder, in that patients who had AR in adolescence exhibited an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder in later life. Further study would be required to investigate the underlying mechanism about this association.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of psychosomatic research
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional retrospective study suggested a link between allergic diseases and Parkinson's disease. However, the temporal association between asthma and Parkinson's disease remains unknown. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 10,455 patients who were diagnosed with asthma between 1998 and 2008 and aged ≧ 45 years and 41,820 age- and sex-matched controls were selected for our study and observed until the end of 2011. Those who developed Parkinson's disease during the follow-up period were identified. We also examined the asthma severity, as indicated by the frequency of admission (times per year) for asthma exacerbation, and the risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease. Patients with asthma had an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.20-4.36) after we adjusted for demographic data, health system use, medical comorbidities, and medication use. Sensitivity tests yielded consistent findings after we excluded observations on the first year (HR: 2.90, 95% CI: 2.04-4.13) and first 3 years (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.64-3.69). Patients with asthma who had more frequent admissions (times per year) during the follow-up period exhibited a greater risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease (> 2: HR: 16.42, 95% CI: 5.88-45.91; 1-2: 12.69, 95% CI: 5.03-31.71; 0-1: HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.49). Patients with asthma had an elevated risk of developing Parkinson's disease later in life, and we observed a dose-dependent relationship between greater asthma severity and a higher risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Allergy
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar I disorder (BD) is a highly heritable disorder characterized by mood swings between high-energy and low-energy states. Amygdala hyperactivity and cortical inhibitory hypoactivity [e.g., of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)] have been found in patients with BD, as evidenced by their abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and glucose utilization (GU). However, it has not been determined whether functional abnormalities of the dlPFC-amygdala circuit exist in unaffected, healthy siblings of the patients with BD (BDsib). Twenty euthymic patients with BD, 20 unaffected matching BDsib of the patient group, and 20 well-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. We investigated seed-based FC (seeds: dlPFC) with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and GU in the regions of interest (e.g., dlPFC and amygdala) using (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The FC in the dlPFC (right)-amygdala circuit was statistically abnormal in patients with BD and BDsib, but only the patients with BD demonstrated hypoactive GU bilaterally in the dlPFC and hyperactive GU bilaterally in the amygdala. Facilitating differentiation between the BD groups, the altered FC between dlPFC (right) and amygdala (left) was even more prominent in the patients with BD (p < 0.05). There was a dysfunctional connection with intact GU in the dlPFC-amygdala circuit of the BDsib, which highlights the vulnerability in families with BD. Diminished top-down control from the bilateral dlPFC, which prevents adequate inhibition of limbic hyperactivity, might mediate the development of BD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Bipolar Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been suggested to be considered as quantitative traits. This study investigated the structural and functional correlates of autistic traits measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in neurotypical adolescents. Twenty-six neurotypical male adolescents (12-18 years old) were recruited for this study and underwent structural and resting functional magnetic resonance image scanning, and intelligence quotient and SRS evaluations. We used the automated surface-based method (FreeSurfer) to measure cortical thickness and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to derive the FC map of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). Brain-wise regression analyses of cortical thickness and FC maps on SRS scores were performed using a general linear model. The results indicated that higher autistic trait ratings of total SRS scores were associated with a thinner cortex in the left insula, right insula, and right superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we observed that only higher scores of social awareness were correlated with increased FC between the dACC and right superior temporal gyrus and decreased FC between the dACC and right putamen and thalamus. These results indicated that a quantitative trait in social cognition is associated with structural and connectivity variations linked to ASD patients. Autism Res 2015. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Autism Research
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    ABSTRACT: Several cross-sectional studies have reported a common comorbidity between depression and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). However, a bidirectional temporal association between these two distinct diseases has rarely been investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 25,969 patients with FMS and without any psychiatric disorder and 17,142 patients with depression and without FMS between 2000 and 2008 were enrolled and separately compared with age- and sex-matched (1:4) control groups. Patients with FMS who developed a new-onset depression and those with depression who developed a new-onset FMS were identified during the follow-up (to the end of 2011). The conditional Cox regression analyses, after adjustment for demographic data and medical comorbidities, showed that the patients with FMS were associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.77-8.22) of subsequent depression, and that those with depression were associated with an increased risk (HR = 6.28, 95% CI = 5.67-6.96) of subsequent FMS. Our results supported a bidirectional temporal association between depression and FMS. Each disease occurring first may increase the risk of the other subsequently. Further study may be necessary to determine the underlying mechanism between depression and FMS, and to clarify whether a prompt intervention for depression or FMS may decrease the risk of the other later in life. Our study supported a bidirectional temporal association between depression and FMS that each disease occurring first may increase the risk of the other subsequently. This result may imply a shared pathophysiology between FMS and depression, but it needs the further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society
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    ABSTRACT: Cortico-thalamic connections are thought to be abnormal in schizophrenia due to their important roles in sensory relay and higher cognitive control, both of which are affected by this devastating illness. This study tested the cortico-thalamic dysconnection hypothesis in schizophrenia and further explored cortico-thalamic network properties using functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI). Forty-eight participants with schizophrenia and 48 healthy controls underwent resting fMRI scans and clinical evaluations. Six a priori cortical regions of interests (ROIs) were used to derive the six networks: dorsal default mode network (dDMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN), cingulo-opercular network (CON), primary sensorimotor network (SM1), primary auditory network (A1) and primary visual network (V1). The cortico-thalamic connectivity for each network was calculated for each participant and then compared between groups. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant group×network interactions (F(5, 90)=9.5, P<0.001), which were driven by a significant increase in FC within the SM1 (t(94)=4.1, P<0.001) and A1 (t(94)=4.2, P<0.001) networks in schizophrenics, as well as a significant decrease within the CON (t(94)=-2.8, P=0.04). The cortico-thalamic dysconnection did not correlate with symptom severity, representing a state independent abnormality. The network analysis indicates that cortico-thalamic dysconnection in schizophrenia involves multiple networks and shows network specific changes. The findings provide support for dysfunctional thalamus-related networks in schizophrenia and further elaborate their network properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested a comorbid association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and depressive disorder as well as anxiety disorders, but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 8208 AD patients aged 12 and older without psychiatric history and age-/sex-matched (1:1) controls between 1998 and 2008 were enrolled in our study and followed to the end of 2011. Subjects who developed major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders during the follow-up were identified. The Cox regression analysis after adjusting for demographic data and atopic comorbidities demonstrated that patients with AD had an elevated risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.64-11.84), any depressive disorder (HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.99-7.44), and anxiety disorders (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 2.55-4.98). Stratified by age group, both adolescents and adults with AD were prone to developing major depression (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.39-13.13; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.75-15.23), any depressive disorder (HR: 4.38, 95% CI: 2.09-9.18; HR: 5.66, 95% CI: 4.01-7.99), and anxiety disorders (HR: 5.40, 95% CI: 2.02-14.39; HR: 3.36, 95% CI: 2.38-4.80). AD in both adolescence and adulthood increased the risk of developing major depression, any depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to clarify the possible underlying mechanism between AD and depression as well as anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Both major depression and bipolar disorder are associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, the differential risk of dementia between major depression and bipolar disorder is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 2291 patients aged ≥55 years (major depression: 1946 and bipolar disorder: 345) and 2291 age-and sex-matched controls were enrolled between 1998 and 2008, and followed to the end of 2011. Participants who developed dementia during the follow-up were identified. Both patients with bipolar disorder [hazard ratio (HR) 5.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.26-7.32] and those with major depression (HR 3.02, 95% CI 2.46-3.70) had an increased risk of developing dementia in later life, after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. The sensitivity tests after excluding the 1-year (bipolar disorder: HR 4.73, 95% CI 3.50-6.35; major depression: HR 2.62, 95% CI 2.11-3.25) and 3-year (HR 3.92, 95% CI 2.78-5.54; HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.73-2.83, respectively) follow-up duration also revealed consistent findings. Furthermore, patients with bipolar disorder were associated with an 87% increased risk (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.48-2.37) of subsequent dementia compared with patients with major depression. Midlife individuals with bipolar disorder or major depression were associated with an elevated risk of developing dementia in later life. Further studies may be required to clarify the underlying mechanisms among major depression, bipolar disorder, and dementia, and to investigate whether prompt intervention may decrease this risk. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown. Aims To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development of stroke. Method Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 5217 individuals aged ≥ 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke, and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002 and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the development of stroke. Results Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44-4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR = 3.47, 95% CI 2.23-5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13-4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.79-4.66) after excluding the first year of observation. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide is among the leading causes of death among people with bipolar disorder and has gained substantial attention in the psychiatric and public health fields. However, the role of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in suicide among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder remains unknown. Using Taiwan׳s National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 500 adolescents and young adults from 2002 to 2008 aged between 15 and 24 years with bipolar disorder and ADHD. The sample was matched according to age and sex with 1500 (1:3) patients with bipolar disorder only and observed until the end of 2011. The patients who attempted suicide during the follow-up period were identified. Adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder and ADHD had a greater incidence of attempted suicide than did those with bipolar disorder only (3.0% vs. 1.1%, p=0.005). After adjustment for demographic factors and psychiatric comorbidities, a Cox regression analysis determined that ADHD was an independent risk factor for attempted suicide (hazard ratio: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-5.00) later in life among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder and ADHD had an increased likelihood of attempted suicide compared with adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder only. Further study is required to investigate the possible pathophysiology among ADHD, bipolar disorder, and attempted suicide, and to assess whether prompt intervention for ADHD may reduce the risk of attempted suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable and associated with dysregulation of brain glucose utilizations (GU). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 10398A polymorphism, as a reported BD risk factor, leads to deficient glycolytic energy production by affecting mitochondrial matrix pH and intracellular calcium levels. However, whether mtDNA-10398A has functional effects on the brain and how our body responds remain elusive. We compared peripheral and central glucose-utilizing patterns between mtDNA A10398G polymorphisms in BD and their unaffected siblings (BDsib). Since siblings carry identical mtDNA, we hypothesized that certain characteristics co-segregate in BD families. We recruited twenty-seven pairs of non-diabetic BD patients and their BDsib and 30 well-matched healthy control subjects (HC). The following were investigated: mtDNA, fasting plasma glucose/insulin, cognitive functions including Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and brain GU at rest. Insulin resistance was rechecked in sixty-one subjects (19-BD, 18-BDsibib, and 24-HC) six months later. We found that BD-pairs (BD+BDsib) carried more mtDNA-10398A and had higher fasting glucose, even after controlling for many covariates. BD-pairs had abnormally lower dorso-prefrontal-GU and higher cerebellar-GU, but only BD demonstrated lower medio-prefrontal-GU and MoCA. Subjects carrying mtDNA-10398A had significantly lower prefrontal-GU (FWE-corrected p<0.05). An abnormal inverse pattern of insulin-GU and insulin-MoCA correlation was found in BD-pairs. The insulin-MoCA correlation was particularly prominent in those carrying mtDNA-10398A. mtDNA-10398A predicted insulin resistance 6 months later. In conclusion, mtDNA-10398A was associated with impaired prefrontal-GU. An up-regulation of glucose utilizations was found in BD-pairs, probably compensating for mtDNA-10398A-related energy loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Medication-resistant depression (MRD) is associated with poorer attentional performance and immense socioeconomic costs. Aims We aimed to investigate the central pathophysiology of MRD, previously linked to impaired prefrontal cortex function. Method A total of 54 participants (22 with MRD, 16 with non-resistant depression, 16 healthy controls) were recruited. Non-MRD status was confirmed by a prospective 6-week antidepressant trial. All medication-free participants underwent a go/no-go task to study prefrontal cortical function (attention) and positron emission tomography scans to study regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglu) at rest. Results The MRD group had worse attentional ratings and decreased rCMglu compared with the non-MRD and control groups. Attentional performance was positively associated with prefrontal cortex rCMglu. The prefrontal cortex differences between MRD and non-MRD groups remained after adjusting for past depressive episodes (F(1,35) = 4.154, P = 0.043). Conclusions Pronounced hypofrontality, with the associated attentional deficits, has a key role in the neuropathology of medication-resistant depression. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of osteoporotic fracture (OF), a condition that leads to higher morbidity and mortality in the elderly, is increasing yearly worldwide. However, most studies of OF have focused on the epidemiology of initial fractures, mainly in female and white populations. This study aimed to explore the incidence and the risk factors for repeat osteoporotic fracture (ROF) in Taiwan. We performed a retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database (NHIRD) from 1995 through 2011. Individuals aged 65 years or older who experienced an initial OF were included. The patients were followed until death, the end of registration in the NHIRD, ROF occurrence, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2011), whichever occurred first. The incidence of ROF over ≥5 years after the initial fracture was analyzed, and the risk factors for ROF were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. The incidence rates of ROF were 950.5, 321.4, 158.7, 92.8, and 70.2 per 1000 person-years among subjects in their first, second, third, fourth, and fifth years after the initial OF, respectively. Nearly 45% of the subjects sustained a ROF in the first year after OF. ROF risk increased with age and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score. Greater risk for ROF was observed among female subjects and those who had suffered from hip and vertebral fracture at the first OF, had undergone OF-related surgery, and had received bone-related medications. The incidence of ROF in the Taiwanese elderly is higher during the first year after the initial OF, and ROF risk increases with age, female sex, high CCI score, and in those who have undergone OF-related surgery, sustained hip or vertebral fracture, and used bone-related medications.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) and zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon (Z-drugs) are commonly prescribed to HIV-infected patients. We hypothesized that frequent BZD and Z-drug use among these patients may be associated with psychiatric illnesses, particularly in long-term users. Methods. We included 1,081 patients with HIV between 1998 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and matched them according to age, sex, and comorbidity with uninfected controls to investigate the psychiatric diagnoses and prescriptions of BZDs and Z-drugs. Cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD) was assessed as the indicator of the duration of medication exposure. Patients exhibiting a cDDD exceeding 180 were defined as long-term users. Results. The patients with HIV had an increased risk of any use (odds ratio (OR): 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.82-10.97) and long-term use (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 3.63-7.04) of BZD and Z-drugs compared with those without HIV during the follow-up after demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities were adjusted. Conclusion. A large proportion of the HIV-infected patients received prescriptions of BZDs and Z-drugs. Mood disorders, insomnia, anxiety disorders, HIV infection, and substance use disorder were substantial predictors among the BZD and Z-drug users. These findings suggest that providing psychiatric services for HIV-infected patients is vital.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · BioMed Research International
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    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, but the comorbid effect of ASD and ADHD relative to the comorbid risk of other psychiatric disorders is still unknown. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 725 patients with ASD-alone, 5694 with ADHD-alone, 466 with ASD + ADHD, and 27,540 (1:4) age-/gender-matched controls were enrolled in our study. The risk of psychiatric comorbidities was investigated. The ADHD + ASD group had the greatest risk of developing schizophrenia (hazard ratio [HR]: 95.89; HR: 13.73; HR: 174.61), bipolar disorder (HR: 74.93; HR: 19.42; HR: 36.71), depressive disorder (HR: 17.66; HR: 12.29; HR: 9.05), anxiety disorder (HR: 49.49; HR: 50.92; HR: 14.12), disruptive behavior disorder (HR: 113.89; HR: 93.87; HR: 26.50), and tic disorder (HR: 8.95; HR: 7.46; HR: 4.87) compared to the ADHD-alone, ASD-alone, and control groups. Patients with ADHD + ASD were associated with the greatest risk of having comorbid bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, disruptive behavior disorder, and tic disorder. The diagnoses of ASD and ADHD preceded the diagnoses of other psychiatric comorbidities. A comprehensive interview scrutinizing the psychiatric comorbidities would be suggested when encountering and following patients with both ASD and ADHD in clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders