[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin plays a key role in the regulation of the whole-body energy homeostasis by modulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Although obesity-induced reduction of adiponectin expression is primarily ascribed to a transcriptional regulation failure, the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. Here we show that DNA hypermethylation of a particular region of the adiponectin promoter suppresses adiponectin expression through epigenetic control and, in turn, exacerbates metabolic diseases in obesity. Obesity-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokines promote DNMT1 expression and its enzymatic activity. Activated DNMT1 selectively methylates and stimulates compact chromatin structure in the adiponectin promoter, impeding adiponectin expression. Suppressing DNMT1 activity with a DNMT inhibitor resulted in the amelioration of obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in an adiponectin-dependent manner. These findings suggest a critical role of adiponectin gene epigenetic control by DNMT1 in governing energy homeostasis, implying that modulating DNMT1 activity represents a new strategy for the treatment of obesity-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence in adipocytes points to a role for synuclein-γ in metabolism and lipid droplet dynamics, but interestingly this factor is also robustly expressed in peripheral neurons. Specific regulation of the synuclein-γ gene (Sncg) by PPARγ requires further evaluation, especially in peripheral neurons, prompting us to test if Sncg is a bona fide PPARγ target in murine adipocytes and peripheral somatosensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Sncg mRNA was decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (~68%) by rosiglitazone, and this effect was diminished by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed PPARγ protein binding at two promoter sequences of Sncg during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Rosiglitazone did not affect Sncg mRNA expression in murine cultured DRG neurons. In subcutaneous human WAT samples from two cohorts treated with pioglitazone (>11 wks), SNCG mRNA expression was reduced, albeit highly variable and most evident in type 2 diabetes. Leptin (Lep) expression, thought to be coordinately-regulated with Sncg based on correlations in human adipose tissue, was also reduced in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by rosiglitazone. However, Lep was unaffected by PPARγ antagonist, and the LXR agonist T0901317 significantly reduced Lep expression (~64%) while not impacting Sncg. The results support the concept that synuclein-γ shares some, but not all, gene regulators with leptin and is a PPARγ target in adipocytes but not DRG neurons. Regulation of synuclein-γ by cues such as PPARγ agonism in adipocytes is logical based on recent evidence for an important role for synuclein-γ in the maintenance and dynamics of adipocyte lipid droplets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Akt2 and its downstream effectors mediate insulin-stimulated GLUT4-storage vesicle (GSV) translocation and fusion with the plasma membrane (PM). Using mass spectrometry, we identify actin-capping protein Tropomodulin 3 (Tmod3) as an Akt2-interacting partner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrate that Tmod3 is phosphorylated at Ser71 on insulin-stimulated Akt2 activation, and Ser71 phosphorylation is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 PM insertion and glucose uptake. Phosphorylated Tmod3 regulates insulin-induced actin remodelling, an essential step for GSV fusion with the PM. Furthermore, the interaction of Tmod3 with its cognate tropomyosin partner, Tm5NM1 is necessary for GSV exocytosis and glucose uptake. Together these results establish Tmod3 as a novel Akt2 effector that mediates insulin-induced cortical actin remodelling and subsequent GLUT4 membrane insertion. Our findings suggest that defects in cytoskeletal remodelling may contribute to impaired GLUT4 exocytosis and glucose uptake.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive actin cytoskeleton remodeling occurs during adipocyte development. We previously showed that disruption of stress fibers by the actin-severing protein cofilin is a requisite step in adipogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether actin nucleation and assembly into the cortical structure is essential for adipocyte development. Here we investigated the role of cortical actin assembly and of actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex in adipogenesis. Cortical actin structure formation started with accumulation of F-actin patches near the plasma membrane during adipogenesis. Depletion of Arp2/3 by knockdown of its subunits Arp3 or ARPC3 strongly impaired adipocyte differentiation, while adipogenesis-initiating factors were unaffected. Moreover, the assembly of F-actin-rich structures at the plasma membrane was suppressed and cortical actin structure poorly developed after adipogenic induction in Arp2/3-deficient cells. Finally, we provide evidence that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is essential for efficient GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis and insulin signal transduction. These results show that the Arp2/3 complex is an essential regulator of adipocyte development by controlling the formation of cortical actin structures, which may facilitate nutrient uptake and signaling events.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipolysis is a delicate process involving complex signaling cascades and sequential enzymatic activations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, fasting induces various physiological changes, including a dramatic decrease in lipid contents through lipolysis. Interestingly,
C. elegans lacks perilipin family genes which play a crucial role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis in other species. Here, we
demonstrate that in the intestinal cells of C. elegans, a newly identified protein, lipid droplet protein 1 (C25A1.12; LID-1), modulates lipolysis by binding to adipose triglyceride lipase 1 (C05D11.7; ATGL-1) during nutritional deprivation. In fasted worms, lipid droplets were decreased in intestinal cells, whereas
suppression of ATGL-1 via RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in retention of stored lipid droplets. Overexpression of ATGL-1
markedly decreased lipid droplets, whereas depletion of LID-1 via RNAi prevented the effect of overexpressed ATGL-1 on lipolysis.
In adult worms, short-term fasting increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, which activated protein kinase A (PKA) to stimulate
lipolysis via ATGL-1 and LID-1. Moreover, ATGL-1 protein stability and LID-1 binding were augmented by PKA activation, eventually
leading to increased lipolysis. These data suggest the importance of the concerted action of lipase and lipid droplet protein
in the response to fasting signals via PKA to maintain lipid homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Sterol regulatory element binding protein1c (SREBP1c) is a key transcription factor for de novo lipogenesis during the postprandial state. During nutritional deprivation, hepatic SREBP1c is rapidly suppressed by fasting signals to prevent lipogenic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms that control SREBP1c turnover in response to fasting status are not thoroughly understood. To elucidate which factors are involved in the inactivation of SREBP1c, we attempted to identify SREBP1c-interacting proteins by mass spectrometry analysis. Since we observed that ring finger protein20 (RNF20) ubiquitin ligase was identified as one of SREBP1c-interacting proteins, we hypothesized that fasting signaling would promote SREBP1c degradation in an RNF20-dependent manner. In this work, we demonstrate that RNF20 physically interacts with SREBP1c, leading to degradation of SREBP1c via ubiquitination. In accordance with these findings, RNF20 represses the transcriptional activity of SREBP1c and turns off the expression of lipogenic genes that are targets of SREBP1c. In contrast, knockdown of RNF20 stimulates the expression of SREBP1c and lipogenic genes and induces lipogenic activity in primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase A (PKA) with glucagon or forskolin enhances the expression of RNF20 and potentiates the ubiquitination of SREBP1c via RNF20. In wild-type and db/db mice, adenoviral overexpression of RNF20 markedly suppresses FASN promoter activity and reduces the level of hepatic triglycerides, accompanied by a decrease in the hepatic lipogenic program. Here, we reveal that RNF20-induced SREBP1c ubiquitination down-regulates hepatic lipogenic activity upon PKA activation.
RNF20 acts as a negative regulator of hepatic fatty acid metabolism through degradation of SREBP1c upon PKA activation. Knowledge regarding this process enhances our understanding of how SREBP1c is able to turn off hepatic lipid metabolism during nutritional deprivation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia is a well-recognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and can be regulated by adipokines. Expression of the adipokine resistin-like molecule alpha (Retnla) is regulated by food intake; whether Retnla has a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is unknown. Here we report that Retnla has a cholesterol-lowering effect and protects against atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. On a high-fat diet, Retnla deficiency promotes hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis, whereas Retnla overexpression reverses these effects and improves the serum lipoprotein profile, with decreased cholesterol in the very low-density lipoprotein fraction concomitant with reduced serum apolipoprotein B levels. We show that Retnla upregulates cholesterol-7-α-hydroxylase, a key hepatic enzyme in the cholesterol catabolic pathway, through induction of its transcriptional activator liver receptor homologue-1, leading to increased excretion of cholesterol in the form of bile acids. These findings define Retnla as a novel therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In obesity, adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play a key role in mediating proinflammatory responses in the adipose tissue, which are associated with obesity-related metabolic complications. Recently, adipose tissue hypoxia has been implicated in the regulation of ATMs in obesity. However, the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α, one of the major transcription factors induced by hypoxia, has not been fully elucidated in ATMs. In this study, we demonstrate that elevation of macrophage HIF-2α would attenuate adipose tissue inflammation and improve insulin resistance in obesity. In macrophages, overexpression of HIF-2α decreased nitric oxide production and suppressed expression of proinflammatory cytokines through induction of arginase 1. HIF-2α-overexpressing macrophages alleviated proinflammatory responses and improved insulin resistance in adipocytes. In contrast, knockdown of macrophage HIF-2α augmented palmitate-induced proinflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, compared with wild-type mice, Hif-2α heterozygous-null mice aggravated insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation with more M1-like ATMs upon high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, glucose intolerance in HFD-fed Hif-2α heterozygous-null mice was relieved by macrophage depletion with clodronate treatment, implying that increase of proinflammatory ATMs is responsible for insulin resistance by haplodeficiency of Hif-2α upon HFD. Taken together, these data suggest that macrophage HIF-2α would counteract the proinflammatory responses to relieve obesity-induced insulin resistance in adipose tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipocyte differentiation, termed adipogenesis, is a complicated process in which pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into mature adipocytes. The process of adipocyte differentiation is tightly regulated by a number of transcription factors, hormones and signaling pathway molecules. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs, which belong to small noncoding RNA species, are also involved in adipocyte differentiation. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that various microRNAs affect adipogenesis by targeting several adipogenic transcription factors and key signaling molecules. In this review, we will summarize the roles of microRNAs in adipogenesis and their target genes associated with each stage of adipocyte differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in adipose tissues are involved in obesity-mediated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. Here, we summarize recent findings on the key roles of innate (neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils) and adaptive (regulatory T cells, type 1 helper T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells) immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. In particular, the roles of natural killer T cells, one type of innate lymphocyte, in adipose tissue inflammation will be discussed. Finally, a new role of adipocytes as antigen presenting cells to modulate T cell activity and subsequent adipose tissue inflammation will be proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography based mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key technology for analyzing highly complex and dynamic proteome samples. With highly accurate and sensitive LC-MS analysis of complex proteome samples, efficient data processing is another critical issue to obtain more information from LC-MS data. A typical proteomic data processing starts with protein database search engine which assigns peptide sequences to MS/MS spectra and finds proteins. Although several search engines, such as SEQUEST and MASCOT, have been widely used, there is no unique standard way to interpret MS/MS spectra of peptides. Each search engine has pros and cons depending on types of mass spectrometers and physicochemical properties of peptides. In this study, we describe a novel data process pipeline which identifies more peptides and proteins by correcting precursor ion mass numbers and unifying multi search engines results. The pipeline utilizes two open-source software, iPE-MMR for mass number correction, and iProphet to combine several search results. The integrated pipeline identified 25% more proteins in mouse epididymal adipose tissue compared with the conventional method. Also the pipeline was validated using control and colitis induced colon tissue. The results of the present study shows that the integrated pipeline can efficiently identify increased number of proteins compared to the conventional method which can be a breakthrough in identification of a potential biomarker candidate.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Mass Spectrometry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SREBP1c is a key transcription factor that regulates de novo lipogenesis during anabolic periods. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the suppression of SREBP1c under nutritional
deprivation are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase,
a protein inhibitor of activated STAT Y (PIASy), sumoylates SREBP1c at Lys98, leading to suppression of the hepatic lipogenic
program upon fasting-induced signals. In primary hepatocytes, ablation of PIASy stimulated intracellular lipid accumulation
through the induction of SREBP1c and its target genes. Given that protein kinase A (PKA) plays important roles in catabolic
responses, activated PKA enhances the sumoylation of SREBP1c and potentiates the interaction between SREBP1c and PIASy. Notably,
overexpression of PIASy in obese db/db mice ameliorated hepatic steatosis, while suppression of PIASy in lean (wild-type) mice stimulated hepatic lipogenesis with
increased expression of SREBP1c target genes. Furthermore, PKA-mediated SREBP1c phosphorylation augmented SREBP1c sumoylation,
subsequently leading to degradation of SREBP1c via ubiquitination. Together, these data suggest that PKA-induced SREBP1c sumoylation
by PIASy is a key regulatory mechanism to turn off hepatic lipogenesis during nutritional deprivation.
Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme that regulates cellular redox potential. In this study, we demonstrate that macrophage G6PD plays an important role in the modulation of proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress. The G6PD levels in macrophages in the adipose tissue of obese animals were elevated, and G6PD mRNA levels positively correlated with those of proinflammatory genes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and free fatty acids, which initiate proinflammatory signals, stimulated macrophage G6PD. Overexpression of macrophage G6PD potentiated the expression of proinflammatory and pro-oxidative genes responsible for the aggravation of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. In contrast, when macrophage G6PD was inhibited or suppressed via chemical inhibitors or siRNA, respectively, basal and LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression was attenuated. Furthermore, macrophage G6PD increased activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways, which may lead to a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cascade. Together, these data suggest that an abnormal increase of G6PD in macrophages promotes oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue of obese animals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Recent evidence suggests that obese animals exhibit increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver and adipose tissue. Although ER stress is closely associated with lipid homeostasis, it is largely unknown how ER stress contributes to hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrate that the induction of ER stress stimulates hepatic steatosis through increased expression of the hepatic very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). Among the unfolded protein response sensors, the protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase-activating transcription factor 4 signaling pathway was required for hepatic VLDLR up-regulation. In primary hepatocytes, ER stress-dependent VLDLR expression induced intracellular triglyceride accumulation in the presence of very low-density lipoprotein. Moreover, ER stress-dependent hepatic steatosis was diminished in the livers of VLDLR-deficient and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the VLDLR-deficient mice exhibited decreased hepatic steatosis upon high-fat diet feeding.
These data suggest that ER stress-dependent expression of hepatic VLDLR leads to hepatic steatosis by increasing lipoprotein delivery to the liver, which might be a novel mechanism explaining ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were preoperatively diagnosed with a negative N2 lymph node, but postoperatively confirmed as a positive N2 node based on a pathological evaluation.
The hospital records of 248 patients from 1994 to 2009 with resected primary NSCLC who were preoperatively diagnosed with negative N2 lymph node, were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, after surgery, there were 148 (59.7%) patients with pathological N0, 54 (21.8%) with pathological N1 and 46 (18.5%) with pathological N2.
The median follow-up period was 24 months (range, 1 to 132 months). The 5-year disease free survival rates were 60% in pN0, 44% in pN1, and 29% in pN2. The 5-year overall survival rates were 63.1% in pN0, 51.9% in pN1, and 33.5% in pN2. There were no statistically significant differences between pN1 and pN2 (p=0.326 and p=0.106, respectively). Thirty-three (71.7%) of the 46 pN2 patients had single-zone metastasis, and 13 patients (28.3%) had multiple-zone metastases over the two nodal zone metastasis. There were no statistical differences in the 5-year disease free survival rate and the 5-year overall survival rates between the two groups.
The 5-year disease free survival and the overall survival rate of the patients with unsuspected N2 disease were statistically similar with that of the patients with pathological N1 disease. There was no statistically significant difference between the patients with a single-zone metastasis and a multiple zone metastasis.
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.