[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Few studies have described the neuropsychological outcomes and frequency of structural brain or genetic abnormalities in adolescents with single ventricle who underwent the Fontan procedure.
Methods and results:
In a cross-sectional, single-center study, we enrolled 156 subjects with single ventricle, mean age 14.5±2.9 years, who had undergone the Fontan procedure. Scores in the entire cohort on a standard battery of neuropsychological tests were compared with those of normative populations or to those of a group of 111 locally recruited healthy adolescents. They also underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and were evaluated by a clinical geneticist. Genetic abnormalities were definite in 16 subjects (10%) and possible in 49 subjects (31%). Mean Full-Scale IQ was 91.6±16.8, mean Reading Composite score was 91.9±17.2, and mean Mathematics Composite score was 92.0±22.9, each significantly lower than the population means of 100±15. Mean scores on other neuropsychological tests were similarly lower than population norms. In multivariable models, risk factors for worse neuropsychological outcomes were longer total support and circulatory arrest duration at first operation, presence of a genetic abnormality, more operations and operative complications, more catheterization complications, and seizure history. The frequency of any abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging was 11 times higher among Fontan adolescents than referents (66% versus 6%); 19 (13%) patients had evidence of a stroke, previously undiagnosed in 7 patients (40%).
The neuropsychological deficits and high frequencies of structural brain abnormalities in adolescents who underwent the Fontan procedure highlight the need for research on interventions to improve the long-term outcomes in this high-risk group.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the structural brain characteristics of adolescent patients with d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA), repaired with the arterial switch operation in early infancy, using quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging.
Ninety-two patients with d-TGA from the Boston Circulatory Arrest Study (76% male; median age at scan 16.1 years) and 49 control subjects (41% male; median age at scan 15.7 years) were scanned using a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Subcortical and cortical gyral volumes and cortical gyral thicknesses were measured using surface-based morphometry. Group differences were assessed with linear regression.
Compared with controls, patients with d-TGA demonstrated significantly reduced subcortical volumes bilaterally in the striatum and pallidum. Cortical regions that showed significant volume and thickness differences between groups were distributed throughout parietal, medial frontoparietal, cingulate, and temporal gyri. Among adolescents with d-TGA, volumes and thicknesses correlated with several perioperative variables, including age at surgery, cooling duration, total support time, and days in the cardiac intensive care unit.
Adolescents with d-TGA repaired early in life exhibit widespread differences from control adolescents in gray matter volumes and thicknesses, particularly in parietal, midline, and subcortical brain regions, corresponding to white matter regions already known to demonstrate altered microstructure. These findings complement observations made in white matter in this group and suggest that the adolescent d-TGA cognitive profile derives from altered brain development involving both white and gray matter.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been routinely used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for more than a decade; however, there is a paucity of follow-up studies examining the effects of prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI on developmental outcome.
The objective of this study was to assess the safety of 1.5-T fetal MRI by evaluating functional outcomes of preschool children who were exposed in utero.
In the context of a prospective observational study, healthy pregnant women underwent a 1.5-T MRI study using single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) sequences during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The study was approved by the institutional review board at our institution, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. MRI scanning times were recorded, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were collected prospectively. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a widely used, norm-referenced and psychometrically sound functional assessment.
We studied 72 healthy pregnant women, who underwent fetal MRI at a mean gestational age of 30.5 ± 3.1 weeks. The cohort of fetuses was composed of 43% females, and 18 fetuses were scanned during the second trimester. All fetuses were born at term with appropriate birth weights (3.54 ± 0.5 kg) for gestational age. Mean age at follow-up testing was 24.5 ± 6.7 months. All children had age-appropriate scores in the communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills subdomains of the VABS (z-scores, P > 0.05). Furthermore, all children passed their newborn otoacoustic emission test and had normal hearing at preschool age. MRI study duration and exposure time to radio frequency waves and SSFSE sequences were not associated with adverse functional outcomes or hearing impairment.
Prenatal exposure to 1.5-T MRI during the second or third trimester of pregnancy in a cohort of healthy fetuses is not associated with disturbances in functional outcomes or hearing impairment at preschool age.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECT Moyamoya can cause cerebral ischemia and stroke in Down syndrome (DS) patients. In this study, the authors defined a surgically treated population of patients with DS and moyamoya and compared their clinical presentation, response to surgical treatment, and long-term prognosis with those of the general population of patients with moyamoya but without DS. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of a consecutive operative series of moyamoya patients with DS treated at Boston Children's Hospital from 1985 through 2012. RESULTS Thirty-two patients, average age 9.7 years (range 1.8-29.3 years), underwent surgery for moyamoya in association with DS. The majority presented with ischemic symptoms (87% stroke, 42% transient ischemic attacks). Twenty-four patients (75%) had congenital heart disease. Nineteen patients (59%) had bilateral moyamoya on presentation, and 13 presented with unilateral disease, of which 2 progressed to surgery on the opposite side at a later date. Patients were followed for a median of 7.5 years (1-20.2 years) after surgery, with no patients lost to follow-up. Follow-up arteriography demonstrated Matsushima Grade A collaterals in 29 of 39 (74%) hemispheres, Grade B in 5 (13%), and Grade C in 5 (13%). Complications included postoperative strokes in 2 patients, which occurred within 48 hours of surgery in both; one of these patients had arm weakness and the other confusion (both had recovered completely at follow-up). Seizures occurred in 5 patients perioperatively, including one who had a new seizure disorder related to hypocalcemia. CONCLUSIONS Moyamoya disease is a cause of stroke in patients with DS. Both the incidence of preoperative stroke (87% vs 67%) and the average age at diagnosis for children under age 21 (8.4 vs 6.5 years) were greater in patients with DS and moyamoya than in the general moyamoya surgical population, suggesting a possible delay in reaching a correct diagnosis of the cause of cerebral ischemia in the DS patient population. Pial synangiosis provided long-term protection from stroke in all patients treated.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain injury is a major complication in neonates with complex congenital heart disease. Preliminary evidence suggests that fetuses with congenital heart disease are at greater risk for brain abnormalities. However, the nature and frequency of these brain abnormalities detected by conventional fetal MR imaging has not been examined prospectively. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence and spectrum of brain abnormalities detected on conventional clinical MR imaging in fetuses with complex congenital heart disease and, second, to compare the congenital heart disease cohort with a control group of fetuses from healthy pregnancies.
We prospectively recruited pregnant women with a confirmed fetal congenital heart disease diagnosis and healthy volunteers with normal fetal echocardiogram findings who underwent a fetal MR imaging between 18 and 39 weeks gestational age.
A total of 338 fetuses (194 controls; 144 with congenital heart disease) were studied at a mean gestational age of 30.61 ± 4.67 weeks. Brain abnormalities were present in 23% of the congenital heart disease group compared with 1.5% in the control group (P < .001). The most common abnormalities in the congenital heart disease group were mild unilateral ventriculomegaly in 12/33 (36.4%) and increased extra-axial spaces in 10/33 (30.3%). Subgroup analyses comparing the type and frequency of brain abnormalities based on cardiac physiology did not reveal significant associations, suggesting that the brain abnormalities were not limited to those with the most severe congenital heart disease.
This is the first large prospective study reporting conventional MR imaging findings in fetuses with congenital heart disease. Our results suggest that brain abnormalities are prevalent but relatively mild antenatally in fetuses with congenital heart disease. The long-term predictive value of these findings awaits further study.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Few data are available on the neuropsychological, behavioural, or structural brain imaging outcomes in adolescents who underwent corrective surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot.
In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we enrolled 91 adolescents (13-16 years old) with tetralogy of Fallot and 87 referent subjects. Assessments included tests of academic achievement, memory, executive functions, visual-spatial skills, attention, and social cognition, as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging.
Genetic abnormalities or syndromes were present in 25% of tetralogy of Fallot patients, who had markedly greater neuropsychological morbidities than did patients without a syndrome. However, even patients without a syndrome performed significantly worse than the referent group or population norms in all of the neuropsychological domains assessed. In multivariable regression in those without a genetic/phenotypic syndrome, the strongest predictors of adverse late neurodevelopmental outcomes included a greater number of complications at the first operation, more total surgical complications across all operations, and occurrence of post-operative seizures. The presence of at least one abnormality on structural magnetic resonance imaging was more frequent in tetralogy of Fallot patients than the referent group (42% versus 8%).
Adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot are at increased neurodevelopmental risk and would benefit from ongoing surveillance and educational supports even after childhood.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Cardiology in the Young
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolated inferior vermian hypoplasia (iiVH) is one of the most common fetal cerebellar anomalies presenting for fetal neurological counselling with controversial postnatal neurodevelopmental outcome. In the present study, we characterised the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of prenatally diagnosed iiVH at school age.
We prospectively followed 20 children with fetal MRI diagnosis of iiVH including their postnatal MRI result and developmental outcome at school age (mean 6.1 years±1.9 years SD) using a comprehensive age-appropriate developmental testing battery, which encompassed cognitive, language, social and behavioural domains. Parental stress level and socioeconomic status were also evaluated.
All children with postnatally confirmed iiVH had a normal neurodevelopmental outcome. A subgroup of children (2/20) who demonstrated cognitive delays and behavioural impairments had more extensive cerebellar malformation. Despite a normal developmental outcome, the parents of children with postnatally confirmed iiVH had higher parental stress compared with those parents whose children had normal postnatal MRI.
Children with postnatally confirmed iiVH show age appropriate functioning at school age. Postnatal MRI is important to confirm the diagnosis of iiVH and to exclude associated anomalies that impact neurodevelopmental outcome. A diagnosis of iiVH is associated with persistent elevated parental stress despite normal developmental outcomes in these children suggesting the need for ongoing parental support.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arachnoid cyst is a common congenital anomaly in the pediatric population. The cysts are often asymptomatic, but they can cause headache and other symptoms. Occasionally a cyst may rupture after head trauma producing a subdural hematoma. The authors present the case of an 11-year-old boy who presented after a week of progressive and severe back pain radiating to the back of his thighs. Imaging revealed a spinal subdural blood collection at the L4-S1 level. This finding prompted further cephalad imaging of the spine and the brain, which revealed a sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst with intracystic hemorrhage and frontoparietal subdural hematoma. The child did not have headache at this time, although he had experienced chronic headaches since the age of 4 years. He was treated with a course of oral steroids, which immediately relieved his back and leg pain. Subsequent imaging showed resolution of the cranial and spinal subdural blood collections and diminished size of the arachnoid cyst. No surgical treatment was necessary.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The purpose of this article is to describe the imaging features of different types of surgical cerebral revascularization techniques.
Surgical cerebral revascularization involves direct and indirect techniques. Direct revascularization entails anastomosing a branch of the external carotid artery to a cerebral artery. Indirect revascularization involves delivering an extracranial vascular supply in proximity to the surface of the brain. The results of these techniques have distinctive imaging features.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · American Journal of Roentgenology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants' neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). METHODS: Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother's intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks' lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. RESULTS: Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore, executive function, spectral coherence and brain structural measures discriminated controls from experimentals. Executive function correlated with coherence and brain structure measures, and with newborn-period neurobehavioral assessment. CONCLUSION: The intervention in the intensive care nursery improved executive function as well as spectral coherence between occipital and frontal as well as parietal regions. The experimentals' cerebella were significantly larger than the controls'. These results, while preliminary, point to the possibility of long-term brain improvement even of intrauterine growth compromised preterms if individualized intervention begins with admission to the NICU and extends throughout transition home. Larger sample replications are required in order to confirm these results.Clinical trial registration: The study is registered as a clinical trial. The trial registration number is NCT00914108.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Our objective was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter microstructure in adolescents with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) who underwent the arterial switch operation in early infancy with typically developing control adolescents. We also examined correlates between patient demographic and medical risk factors and white matter as assessed by regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values.
We used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study 49 adolescents with D-TGA and 29 control adolescents. MRI data, including whole brain DTI and conventional anatomic MRI, were acquired from each subject. Each subject's data were analyzed using random effects analysis to evaluate regional white matter differences in FA between D-TGA and control adolescents.
While multifocal punctate MRI hypointensities on T1-weighted (T1W) imaging suggestive of mineralization were found, other evidence of gross white matter injury was absent. Eighteen discrete regions of significantly reduced FA in D-TGA adolescents compared with controls were observed in deep white matter of cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and midbrain. Among D-TGA adolescents, lower FA correlated with younger gestational age, shorter duration of intraoperative cooling, higher intraoperative minimum tympanic temperature, longer intensive care unit stay after repair, and greater total number of open cardiac operations.
Despite scant white matter injury evident on conventional brain MRI, adolescents with D-TGA repaired in infancy demonstrate significant white matter FA reduction that may relate to their reported neurocognitive deficits. Among adolescents with D-TGA, FA values are associated with patient and perioperative factors, some of which are modifiable.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Object:
Chorea is a movement disorder characterized by brief, irregular, involuntary contractions that appear to flow from 1 muscle to another. There are a limited number of reports in the literature that have linked moyamoya disease and chorea. The authors describe their experience in treating moyamoya disease in patients in whom chorea developed as part of the clinical presentation.
The authors conducted a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 316 children who underwent pial synangiosis revascularization for moyamoya disease at the Boston Children's Hospital.
Of 316 surgically treated patients with moyamoya disease, 10 (3.2%; 6 boys and 4 girls) had chorea as a part of their presentation. The average age at surgical treatment was 9.9 years (range 3.8-17.9 years). All patients had evidence of hypertrophied lenticulostriate collateral vessels through the basal ganglia on preoperative angiography and/or MRI on affected sides. Two patients had cystic lesions in the basal ganglia. Nine patients underwent bilateral craniotomies for pial synangiosis, and 1 patient underwent a single craniotomy for unilateral disease. Follow-up was available in 9 patients (average 50.1 months). The mean duration of chorea was 1.36 years (range 2 days to 4 years), with resolution of symptoms in all patients. One patient developed chorea 3 years after surgical treatment, 4 patients had transient chorea that resolved prior to surgery, and 5 patients experienced resolution of the chorea after surgery (average 13 months).
The authors describe children with moyamoya disease and chorea as part of their clinical presentation. The data suggest that involvement of the basal ganglia by the hypertrophied collateral vessels contributes to the development of chorea, which can wax or wane depending on disease stage or involution of the vessels after revascularization surgery. In most patients, however, the chorea improves or disappears about 1 year after presentation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebellar injury is an important complication of preterm birth with far-reaching neuropsychiatric sequelae. We have previously shown a significant association between isolated injury to the premature cerebellum and subsequent impairment of regional volumetric growth in the contralateral cerebrum. In the current study, we examine the relationship between these remote regional impairments of cerebral volumetric growth and domain-specific functional deficits in these children. In 40 ex-preterm infants with isolated cerebellar injury, we performed neurodevelopmental evaluations and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies at a mean age of 34 months. We measured cortical gray matter volumes in 8 parcellated regions of each cerebral hemisphere, as well as right and left cerebellar volumes. We show highly significant associations between early signs of autism and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume (P < 0.001); gross motor scores and sensorimotor cortical volumes (P < 0.001); and cognitive and expressive language scores and premotor and mid-temporal cortical volumes (P < 0.001). By multivariate analyses, each unit increase in the corresponding regional cerebral volume was associated with lower odds of abnormal outcome score, adjusted for age at MRI and contralateral cerebellar volume. This is the first report linking secondary impairment of remote cerebral cortical growth and functional disabilities in survivors of prematurity-related cerebellar brain injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurologic impairment is a major complication of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). A growing body of evidence suggests that neurologic dysfunction may be present in a significant proportion of this high-risk population in the early newborn period prior to surgical interventions. We recently provided the first evidence that brain growth impairment in fetuses with complex CHD has its origins in utero. Here, we extend these observations by characterizing global and regional brain development in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), one of the most severe forms of CHD. Using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques, we compared in vivo brain growth in 18 fetuses with HLHS and 30 control fetuses from 25.4-37.0 weeks of gestation. Our findings demonstrate a progressive third trimester fall-off in cortical gray and white matter volumes (P < 0.001), and subcortical gray matter (P < 0.05) in fetuses with HLHS. Significant delays in cortical gyrification were also evident in HLHS fetuses (P < 0.001). In the HLHS fetus, local cortical folding delays were detected as early as 25 weeks in the frontal, parietal, calcarine, temporal, and collateral regions and appear to precede volumetric brain growth disturbances, which may be an early marker of elevated risk for third trimester brain growth failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induced hypothermia is thought to work partly by mitigating reperfusion injury in asphyxiated term neonates. The purpose of this study was to assess brain perfusion in the first week of life in these neonates.
In this prospective cohort study, MR imaging and ASL-PI were used to assess brain perfusion in these neonates. We measured regional CBF values on 1-2 MR images obtained during the first week of life and compared these with values obtained in control term neonates. The same or later MR imaging scans were obtained to define the extent of brain injury.
Eighteen asphyxiated and 4 control term neonates were enrolled; 11 asphyxiated neonates were treated with hypothermia. Those developing brain injury despite being treated with induced hypothermia usually displayed hypoperfusion on DOL 1 and then hyperperfusion on DOL 2-3 in brain areas subsequently exhibiting injury. Asphyxiated neonates not treated with hypothermia who developed brain injury also displayed hyperperfusion on DOL 1-6 in brain areas displaying injury.
Our data show that ASL-PI may be useful for identifying asphyxiated neonates at risk of developing brain injury, whether or not hypothermia is administered. Because hypothermia for 72 hours may not prevent brain injury when hyperperfusion is found early in the course of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, such neonates may be candidates for adjustments in their hypothermia therapy or for adjunctive neuroprotective therapies.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare total and regional cerebral volumes in children with isolated cerebellar malformations (CBMs) with those in typically developing children, and to examine the extent to which cerebellar volumetric reductions are associated with total and regional cerebral volumes.
This is a case-control study of children diagnosed with isolated CBMs. Each child was matched on age and sex to two typically developing children. Using advanced three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, the cerebrum was segmented into tissue classes and partitioned into eight regions. Analysis of variance was used to compare cerebral volumes between children with CBMs and control children, and linear regressions to examine the impact of cerebellar volume reduction on cerebral volumes.
Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at a mean age of 27 months in 20 children (10 males, 10 females) with CBMs and 40 typically developing children. Children with CBMs showed significantly smaller deep grey matter nuclei (p < 0.001), subgenual white matter (p = 0.03), midtemporal white matter (p = 0.02), and inferior occipital grey matter (p = 0.03) volumes than typically developing children. Greater cerebellar volumetric reduction in children with CBMs was associated with decreased total cerebral volume and deep grey matter nuclei (p = 0.02), subgenual white/grey matter (p = 0.001), midtemporal white (p = 0.02) and grey matter (p = 0.01), and parieto-occipital grey matter (p = 0.004).
CBMs are associated with impaired regional cerebral growth, suggesting deactivation of principal cerebello-cerebral pathways.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology