Flavio Gaspari

Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (116)914.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Formulas do not estimate renal function with acceptable precision and accuracy. We compared 51 creatinine-based and/or cystatin c-based formulas with a gold standard (iohexol plasma clearance) in 193 renal transplant recipients using concordance correlation coefficient, total deviation index, coverage probability and the error in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage classification. No formula showed a concordance correlation coefficient greater than 0.90 (average for creatinine-based formulas: ∼0.70 and for cystatin c-based formulas: ∼0.85). A wide total deviation index was observed: approximately 70% (creatinine-based) and approximately 50% (cystatin c-based), indicating that 90% of the estimations showed bounds of error of ±70% or ±50%, respectively, compared with the gold standard. No formula included 90% of the estimations within a coverage probability of ±10%. Half the CKD stages classified by creatinine-based formulas were incorrect, mainly due to overestimation of renal function. One of 3 CKD stages diagnosed by cystatin c-based formulas was incorrect, with both overestimation and underestimation. Overall, the formulas showed very low precision and accuracy and a high degree of error in reflecting real renal function. In conclusion, formulas do not properly reflect renal function in kidney transplantation, which makes their use in clinical practice unreliable. Moreover, their use in clinical trials should be avoided.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Combined ACE inhibitor, angiotensin-receptor-blocker, non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel-blocker, and statin therapy (Remission Clinic) reduced proteinuria and halted progression in non-diabetic nephropathies, but their efficacy in Alport syndrome (AS) nephropathy is unknown. From February 2004 to September 2007, we included nine albuminuric AS adults with creatinine clearance >20 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in a single-center, open-label, prospective, off-on-off academic study. After the 1-month wash-out from RAS inhibition (Run-in), patients entered the 4-month, add-on, treatment period with benazepril (10-20 mg/day), valsartan (80-160 mg/day), diltiazem (60-120 mg/day), and fluvastatin (40-80 mg/day) followed by the 1-month wash-out (Recovery). The primary outcome was albuminuria at month 4. After recovery, patients were kept on the Remission Clinic protocol and followed until July 2014 (Extension). The median (IQR) albuminuria progressively declined from 657.7 (292.7-1,089.6) μg/min at baseline to 71.4 (21.7-504.9) μg/min at treatment end (p = 0.009) and raised to 404.3 (167.9-446.8) μg/min after recovery. Albumin and IgG fractional clearances significantly (p ≤ 0.005) decreased from 66.9 (53.6-80.8) to 9.4 (4.6-26.0) and from 5.1 (3.0-8.4) to 1.1 (0.6-3.2), and then recovered toward baseline. Blood pressure and lipids significantly decreased on treatment, without changes in inulin-measured GFR or para-aminohippuric-measured RPF. After recovery, one patient refused to enter the extension, one with severe renal insufficiency at baseline reached ESRD, and seven retained normal serum creatinine until the end of the study. At the final visit, three were microalbuminuric and one was normoalbuminuric. Treatment was well tolerated. The Remission Clinic approach safely ameliorated albuminuria, blood pressure, lipids, and glomerular selectivity in AS patients and halted long-term progression in those without renal insufficiency to start with. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We studied associations of the stress hormones copeptin and cortisol, with outcome and organ dysfunction after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Plasma was obtained after next of kin consent in the FINNRESUSCI study conducted in 21 Finnish intensive care units (ICU) between 2010 and 2011. We measured plasma copeptin (pmol/L) and free cortisol (nmol/L) on ICU admission (245 patients) and at 48 hours (additional 33 patients). Organ dysfunction was categorised with 24 hour Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Twelve month neurological outcome (available in 276 patients) was classified with cerebral performance categories (CPC), and dichotomised into good (CPC 1-2) or poor (CPC 3-5). Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges (IQR). A Mann-Whitney U test, multiple linear and logistic regression tests with odds ratios (OR) 95% confidence intervals (CI) and beta (B) values, repeated measure analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC), were performed. Patients with a poor 12-month outcome had higher levels of copeptin (89, IQR 41 to 193 versus 51, IQR 29 to 11 pmol/L, P = 0.0014) and cortisol (728, IQR 522 to 1017 versus 576, IQR 355 to 850 nmol/L, P = 0.0013). Copeptin levels fell between admission and 48 hours (P <0.001), independently of outcome (P = 0.847). Cortisol levels did not change between admission and 48 hours (P = 0.313), independently of outcome (P = 0.221). The AUC for predicting long-term outcome was weak for copeptin (0.62, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.69) and cortisol (0.62, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.69). With logistic regression admission copeptin (standard deviation (SD) increase OR 1.4 95% CI 1.03 to 1.98) and cortisol (SD increase OR 1.5 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) predicted of ICU mortality but not 12-month outcome. Admission factors correlating with SOFA were: shockable rhythm (B -1.3, 95% CI -2.2 to -0.5), adrenaline use (B 1.0, 95% CI 0.2 to 2.0), therapeutic hypothermia (B 1.2, 95% CI 0.3 to 2.1) and copeptin (B 0.05, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.07). Admission copeptin and free cortisol were not of prognostic value regarding 12-month neurological outcome after OHCA. Higher admission copeptin and cortisol were associated with ICU death, and copeptin predicted subsequent organ dysfunction.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Critical care (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) is the best indicator of renal function in children and adolescents. GFR determination using iohexol clearance has been increasingly accepted and applied in clinical practice because it is accurate, readily available, non-radioactive, safe and is used intravenously even in the presence of renal disease. This study describes the development and evaluation of a semi-automated method for determination of iohexol in human serum using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Design and methods: Iohexol was extracted from serum using a MICROLAB® NIMBUS4 automation robot and supernatant was dried under nitrogen gas and reconstituted in mobile phase. Ioversol was used as the internal standard. Chromatography was performed using a C-8 analytical column (Phenomenex, 3 μm, 50 × 3.0 mm I.D.) at room temperature and a gradient LC method on a Waters 2795 Alliance HT HPLC system. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the retention times were 2.36 min and 2.14 min for iohexol and ioversol, respectively. Detection by MS/MS was achieved using a (Micromass Quattro Micro) tandem mass spectrometer operated in the ESI-positive mode. The multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) method used ion transitions m/z 821.9 to 803.7 for iohexol and m/z 807.9 to 588.7 for ioversol. Method validation studies were conducted to determine the linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effects and stability. A method comparison of blinded, residual patient samples was conducted with a well-established method. Results: The method was linear from 7.7 μg/mL to 2000.0 μg/mL. The low limit of quantification and the detection limit were established at 7.7 and 3.0 μg/mL, respectively. Within-run and between-run precisions were found to be <6% CV and measured values deviated no more than 5% from target concentrations. Carryover and matrix effects were not significant. Comparison to a well-established method showed very good agreement with correlation coefficient of 0.996 for iohexol and 0.993 for GFR/1.73 m(2). Conclusions: This method accurately and precisely quantifies iohexol in 50 μL of serum, enabling determination of mGFR by iohexol clearance. The method is highly correlated to a reference method. Use of an automated liquid handler reduces labor-intensive, manual sample preparation steps. The stability of this analyte and the robustness of this assay fit well within our clinical workflow and we have successfully applied this method to determine mGFR in pediatric patients.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Rituximab induces nephrotic syndrome (NS) remission in two-thirds of patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN), even after other treatments have failed. To assess the relationships among treatment effect, circulating nephritogenic anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) autoantibodies and genetic polymorphisms predisposing to antibody production we serially monitored 24-hour proteinuria and antibody titer in patients with primary MN and long-lasting NS consenting to rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) therapy and genetic analyses. Over a median (range) follow-up of 30.8 (6.0-145.4) months, 84 of 132 rituximab-treated patients achieved complete or partial NS remission (primary end point), and 25 relapsed after remission. Outcomes of patients with or without detectable anti-PLA2R antibodies at baseline were similar. Among the 81 patients with antibodies, lower anti-PLA2R antibody titer at baseline (P=0.001) and full antibody depletion 6 months post-rituximab (hazard ratio [HR], 7.90; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.54 to 24.60; P<0.001) strongly predicted remission. All 25 complete remissions were preceded by complete anti-PLA2R antibody depletion. On average, 50% anti-PLA2R titer reduction preceded equivalent proteinuria reduction by 10 months. Re-emergence of circulating antibodies predicted disease relapse (HR, 6.54; 95% CI, 1.57 to 27.40; P=0.01), whereas initial complete remission protected from the event (HR, 6.63; 95% CI, 2.37 to 18.53; P<0.001). Eighteen patients achieved persistent antibody depletion and complete remission and never relapsed. Outcome was independent of PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 polymorphisms and of previous immunosuppressive treatment. Therefore, assessing circulating anti-PLA2R autoantibodies and proteinuria may help in monitoring disease activity and guiding personalized rituximab therapy in nephrotic patients with primary MN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 μg/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex. We attempted to identify all available data on causes of death for 187 countries from 1980 to 2010 from vital registration, verbal autopsy, mortality surveillance, censuses, surveys, hospitals, police records, and mortuaries. We assessed data quality for completeness, diagnostic accuracy, missing data, stochastic variations, and probable causes of death. We applied six different modelling strategies to estimate cause-specific mortality trends depending on the strength of the data. For 133 causes and three special aggregates we used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach, which uses four families of statistical models testing a large set of different models using different permutations of covariates. Model ensembles were developed from these component models. We assessed model performance with rigorous out-of-sample testing of prediction error and the validity of 95% UIs. For 13 causes with low observed numbers of deaths, we developed negative binomial models with plausible covariates. For 27 causes for which death is rare, we modelled the higher level cause in the cause hierarchy of the GBD 2010 and then allocated deaths across component causes proportionately, estimated from all available data in the database. For selected causes (African trypanosomiasis, congenital syphilis, whooping cough, measles, typhoid and parathyroid, leishmaniasis, acute hepatitis E, and HIV/AIDS), we used natural history models based on information on incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality. We separately estimated cause fractions by aetiology for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and meningitis, as well as disaggregations by subcause for chronic kidney disease, maternal disorders, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. For deaths due to collective violence and natural disasters, we used mortality shock regressions. For every cause, we estimated 95% UIs that captured both parameter estimation uncertainty and uncertainty due to model specification where CODEm was used. We constrained cause-specific fractions within every age-sex group to sum to total mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. In 2010, there were 52·8 million deaths globally. At the most aggregate level, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes were 24·9% of deaths worldwide in 2010, down from 15·9 million (34·1%) of 46·5 million in 1990. This decrease was largely due to decreases in mortality from diarrhoeal disease (from 2·5 to 1·4 million), lower respiratory infections (from 3·4 to 2·8 million), neonatal disorders (from 3·1 to 2·2 million), measles (from 0·63 to 0·13 million), and tetanus (from 0·27 to 0·06 million). Deaths from HIV/AIDS increased from 0·30 million in 1990 to 1·5 million in 2010, reaching a peak of 1·7 million in 2006. Malaria mortality also rose by an estimated 19·9% since 1990 to 1·17 million deaths in 2010. Tuberculosis killed 1·2 million people in 2010. Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by just under 8 million between 1990 and 2010, accounting for two of every three deaths (34·5 million) worldwide by 2010. 8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago; of these, 1·5 million (19%) were from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed 12·9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990; 1·3 million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990. The fraction of global deaths due to injuries (5·1 million deaths) was marginally higher in 2010 (9·6%) compared with two decades earlier (8·8%). This was driven by a 46% rise in deaths worldwide due to road traffic accidents (1·3 million in 2010) and a rise in deaths from falls. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of death in 2010. Ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, stroke, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) in 2010, similar to what was estimated for 1990, except for HIV/AIDS and preterm birth complications. YLLs from lower respiratory infections and diarrhoea decreased by 45-54% since 1990; ischaemic heart disease and stroke YLLs increased by 17-28%. Regional variations in leading causes of death were substantial. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes still accounted for 76% of premature mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. Age standardised death rates from some key disorders rose (HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease in particular), but for most diseases, death rates fell in the past two decades; including major vascular diseases, COPD, most forms of cancer, liver cirrhosis, and maternal disorders. For other conditions, notably malaria, prostate cancer, and injuries, little change was noted. Population growth, increased average age of the world's population, and largely decreasing age-specific, sex-specific, and cause-specific death rates combine to drive a broad shift from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes towards non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes remain the dominant causes of YLLs in sub-Saharan Africa. Overlaid on this general pattern of the epidemiological transition, marked regional variation exists in many causes, such as interpersonal violence, suicide, liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, melanoma, and others. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of sound epidemiological assessments of the causes of death on a regular basis. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Lancet
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease slowly progresses to end-stage renal disease and has no eff ective therapy. A pilot study suggested that the somatostatin analogue octreotide longacting release (LAR) could be nephroprotective in this context. We aimed to assess the eff ect of 3 years of octreotide-LAR treatment on kidney and cyst growth and renal function decline in participants with this disorder. Methods We did an academic, multicentre, randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in fi ve hospitals in Italy. Adult (>18 years) patients with estimated glomerular fi ltration rate (GFR) of 40 mL/min per 1·73 m² or higher were randomly assigned (central allocation by phone with a computerised list, 1:1 ratio, stratifi ed by centre, block size four and eight) to 3 year treatment with two 20 mg intramuscular injections of octreotide-LAR (n=40) or 0·9% sodium chloride solution (n=39) every 28 days. Study physicians and nurses were aware of the allocated group; participants and outcome assessors were masked to allocation. The primary endpoint was change in total kidney volume (TKV), measured by MRI, at 1 year and 3 year follow-up. Analyses were by modifi ed intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00309283. Findings Recruitment was between April 27, 2006, and May 12, 2008. 38 patients in the octreotide-LAR group and 37 patients in the placebo group had evaluable MRI scans at 1 year follow-up, at this timepoint, mean TKV increased signifi cantly less in the octreotide-LAR group (46·2 mL, SE 18·2) compared with the placebo group (143·7 mL, 26·0; p=0·032). 35 patients in each group had evaluable MRI scans at 3 year follow-up, at this timepoint, mean TKV increase in the octreotide-LAR group (220·1 mL, 49·1) was numerically smaller than in the placebo group (454·3 mL, 80·8), but the diff erence was not signifi cant (p=0·25). 37 (92·5%) participants in the octreotide-LAR group and 32 (82·1%) in the placebo group had at least one adverse event (p=0·16). Participants with serious adverse events were similarly distributed in the two treatment groups. However, four cases of cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitis occurred in the octreotide-LAR group and were probably treatment-related. Interpretation These fi ndings provide the background for large randomised controlled trials to test the protective eff ect of somatostatin analogues against renal function loss and progression to end-stage kidney disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: Effective reduction of albuminuria and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes who have nephropathy is seldom achieved with available treatments. We tested the effects of treatment of such patients with daglutril, a combined endothelin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase inhibitor. We did this randomised, crossover trial in two hospitals in Italy. Eligibility criteria were: age 18 years or older, urinary albumin excretion 20-999 μg/min, systolic blood pressure (BP) less than 140 mm Hg, and diastolic BP less than 90 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomised sequence to receive either daglutril (300 mg/day) then placebo for 8 weeks each or vice versa, with a 4-week washout period. Patients also took losartan throughout. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was 24-h urinary albumin excretion in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints were median office and ambulatory (24 h, daytime, and night-time) BP, renal haemodynamics and sieving function, and metabolic and laboratory test results. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00160225. We screened 58 patients, of whom 45 were enrolled (22 assigned to daglutril then placebo, 23 to placebo then daglutril; enrolment from May, 2005, to December, 2006) and 42 (20 vs 22) were included in the primary analysis. Daglutril did not significantly affect 24-h urinary albumin excretion compared with placebo (difference in change -7·6 μg/min, IQR -78·7 to 19·0; p=0·559). 34 patients had complete 24-h BP readings; compared with placebo, daglutril significantly reduced 24-h systolic (difference -5·2 mm Hg, SD 9·4; p=0·0013), diastolic (-2·5, 6·2; p=0·015), pulse (-3·0, 6·3; p=0·019), and mean (-3·1, 6·2; p=0·003) BP, as well as all night-time BP readings and daytime systolic, pulse, and mean BP, but not diastolic BP. Compared with placebo, daglutril also significantly reduced office systolic BP (-5·4, 15·4; p=0·028), but not diastolic (-1·8, 9·9; p=0·245), pulse (-3·1, 10·6; p=0·210), or mean (-2·1, 10·4; p=0·205) BP, and increased big endothelin serum concentration. Other secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between treatment periods. Three patients taking placebo and six patients taking daglutril had mild treatment-related adverse events-the most common was facial or peripheral oedema (in four patients taking daglutril). Daglutril improved control of BP in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy and had an acceptable safety profile. Combined endothelin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase inhibition could provide a new approach to hypertension in this high-risk population. Solvay Pharmaceuticals.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: In this single-center matched-cohort study, we evaluated the phenotype of repopulating B cells and its correlation with donor-specific anti-HLA Ab development and long-term graft function in 16 renal transplant recipients and 32 age- and gender-matched controls induced with alemtuzumab or basiliximab (Bas)/low-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG), respectively. Alemtuzumab, but not Bas/rATG, profoundly depleted peripheral B cells in the first 2 mo posttransplantation. Early posttransplant, naive B cells were significantly depleted, whereas Ag-experienced and memory B cells were partially spared. Transitional B cells transiently increased 2 mo posttransplant. At month 6 posttransplant, pregerminal center B cells emerged, a process promoted by increased BAFF serum levels. Thereafter, B cell counts increased progressively, mainly due to expansion of naive B cells. Conversely, Bas/rATG did not modify the B cell phenotype throughout the follow-up period. Alemtuzumab was associated with a higher incidence of de novo DSA compared with Bas/rATG. DSA development was predicted by changes in the B cell compartment and correlated with worse long-term graft function. Thus, alemtuzumab-induced B cell depletion/reconstitution may promote chronic humoral responses against the graft.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Bardoxolone methyl is an antioxidant inflammation modulator acting through induction of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. Results from a recent phase IIb clinical trial reported that bardoxolone methyl was associated with improvement in the estimated GFR in patients with advanced CKD and type 2 diabetes. However, increases in albuminuria, serum transaminase, and frequency of adverse events were noted. We studied the effect of three-month treatment with RTA 405, a synthetic triterpenoid analog of bardoxolone methyl in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with overt type 2 diabetes. Rats were treated from 3 months of age with vehicle, RTA 405, ramipril, RTA 405 plus ramipril. RTA 405 caused severe changes in food intake and diuresis with decline in body weight, worsening of dyslipidemia and increase in blood pressure. Early elevation in serum transaminase was followed by liver injury. RTA 405 worsened proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubular damage. Ramipril was renoprotective, but when given with RTA 405 it was not able to limit its worsening effects. These data could be due to degradation products in the drug substance used, as disclosed by the company once the study was concluded. To overcome such a drawback, the company offered to test dh404, a variant of RTA 450, in ZDF rats. dh404 did not display beneficial effects on proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial inflammation. Rather, kidneys from three rats receiving dh404 showed the presence of a granulomatous and inflammatory process reminiscent of a pseudotumor. Altogether these data raise serious concerns on the use of bardoxolone analogues in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
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    ABSTRACT: There are no adequate studies that have formally tested the performance of different estimating formulas in patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without overt nephropathy. Here we evaluated the agreement between baseline GFRs, GFR changes at month 6, and long-term GFR decline measured by iohexol plasma clearance or estimated by 15 creatinine-based formulas in 600 type 2 diabetics followed for a median of 4.0 years. Ninety patients were hyperfiltering. The number of those identified by estimation formulas ranged from 0 to 24:58 were not identified by any formula. Baseline GFR was significantly underestimated and a 6-month GFR reduction was missed in hyperfiltering patients. Long-term GFR decline was also underestimated by all formulas in the whole study group and in hyper-, normo-, and hypofiltering patients considered separately. Five formulas generated positive slopes in hyperfiltering patients. Baseline concordance correlation coefficients and total deviation indexes ranged from 32.1% to 92.6% and from 0.21 to 0.53, respectively. Concordance correlation coefficients between estimated and measured long-term GFR decline ranged from -0.21 to 0.35. The agreement between estimated and measured values was also poor within each subgroup considered separately. Thus, our study questions the use of any estimation formula to identify hyperfiltering patients and monitor renal disease progression and response to treatment in type 2 diabetics without overt nephropathy.Kidney International advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.47.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Lancet
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    ABSTRACT: Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Effective and affordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Lancet

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10k Citations
914.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983-2015
    • Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2013
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII
      Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1991-2007
    • Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo
      • Department of Hematology
      Bérgamo, Lombardy, Italy