[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders (MRCDs) are one of the most common congenital metabolic diseases, there is no cumulative data of enzymatic diagnoses and clinical manifestations about MRCDs in Japan and Asia.
We evaluated 675 Japanese patients having profound lactic acidemia, or patients having symptoms or signs of multiple-organ origin simultaneously without lactic acidemia by respiratory chain enzyme activity assay and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Quantitative PCR was used to diagnose mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MTDPS). Mutation analysis of several genes responsible for MTDPS was also performed.
A total of 232 patients were diagnosed with a probable or definite MRCDs. MRCDs are common, afflicting one in every several thousand people in Japan. More than one in ten of the patients diagnosed lacked lactic acidemia. A subsequent analysis of the causative genes of MTDPS revealed novel mutations in six of the patients. A 335-base pair deletion in DGUOK (g.11692_12026del335 (p.A48fsX90)) was noted in two unrelated families, and may therefore be a common mutation in Japanese. The proportion of all patients with MTDPS, and particularly those with recessive POLG mutations, appears to be lower in Japan than in other studies. This is most likely due to the relatively high prevalence of ancient European POLG mutations in Caucasian populations. No other significant differences were identified in a comparison of the enzymatic diagnoses, disease classifications or prognoses in Japanese and Caucasian patients of MRCDs.
MTDPS and other MRCDs are common, but serious, diseases that occur across all races.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Pediatrics International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are associated with a diverse spectrum of clinical phenotypes, and may be caused by mutations in either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)). Isolated complex I deficiency is the most common enzyme defect in mitochondrial disorders, particularly in children in whom family history is often consistent with sporadic or autosomal recessive inheritance, implicating a nuclear genetic cause. In contrast, although a number of recurrent, pathogenic mtDNA mutations have been described, historically, these have been perceived as rare causes of paediatric complex I deficiency. We reviewed the clinical and genetic findings in a large cohort of 109 paediatric patients with isolated complex I deficiency from 101 families. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations were found in 29 of 101 probands (29%), 21 in MTND subunit genes and 8 in mtDNA tRNA genes. Nuclear gene defects were inferred in 38 of 101 (38%) probands based on cell hybrid studies, mtDNA sequencing or mutation analysis (nuclear gene mutations were identified in 22 probands). Leigh or Leigh-like disease was the most common clinical presentation in both mtDNA and nuclear genetic defects. The median age at onset was higher in mtDNA patients (12 months) than in patients with a nuclear gene defect (3 months). However, considerable overlap existed, with onset varying from 0 to >60 months in both groups. Our findings confirm that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a significant cause of complex I deficiency in children. In the absence of parental consanguinity, we recommend whole mitochondrial genome sequencing as a key approach to elucidate the underlying molecular genetic abnormality.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first and largest multimeric complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Human complex I comprises seven subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA and 38 nuclear-encoded subunits that are assembled together in a process that is only partially understood. To date, mutations causing complex I deficiency have been described in all 14 core subunits, five supernumerary subunits, and four assembly factors. We describe complex I deficiency caused by mutation of the putative complex I assembly factor C20orf7. A candidate region for a lethal neonatal form of complex I deficiency was identified by homozygosity mapping of an Egyptian family with one affected child and two affected pregnancies predicted by enzyme-based prenatal diagnosis. The region was confirmed by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, and 11 candidate genes encoding potential mitochondrial proteins were sequenced. A homozygous missense mutation in C20orf7 segregated with disease in the family. We show that C20orf7 is peripherally associated with the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane and that silencing its expression with RNAi decreases complex I activity. C20orf7 patient fibroblasts showed an almost complete absence of complex I holoenzyme and were defective at an early stage of complex I assembly, but in a manner distinct from the assembly defects caused by mutations in the assembly factor NDUFAF1. Our results indicate that C20orf7 is crucial in the assembly of complex I and that mutations in C20orf7 cause mitochondrial disease.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are complex organelles whose dysfunction underlies a broad spectrum of human diseases. Identifying all of the proteins resident in this organelle and understanding how they integrate into pathways represent major challenges in cell biology. Toward this goal, we performed mass spectrometry, GFP tagging, and machine learning to create a mitochondrial compendium of 1098 genes and their protein expression across 14 mouse tissues. We link poorly characterized proteins in this inventory to known mitochondrial pathways by virtue of shared evolutionary history. Using this approach, we predict 19 proteins to be important for the function of complex I (CI) of the electron transport chain. We validate a subset of these predictions using RNAi, including C8orf38, which we further show harbors an inherited mutation in a lethal, infantile CI deficiency. Our results have important implications for understanding CI function and pathogenesis and, more generally, illustrate how our compendium can serve as a foundation for systematic investigations of mitochondria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, complex I of the respiratory chain is composed of seven mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and 38 nuclear-encoded subunits that assemble together in a process that is poorly defined. To date, only two complex I assembly factors have been identified and how each functions is not clear. Here, we show that the human complex I assembly factor CIA30 (complex I intermediate associated protein) associates with newly translated mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits at early stages in their assembly before dissociating at a later stage. Using antibodies we identified a CIA30-deficient patient who presented with cardioencephalomyopathy and reduced levels and activity of complex I. Genetic analysis revealed the patient had mutations in both alleles of the NDUFAF1 gene that encodes CIA30. Complex I assembly in patient cells was defective at early stages with subunits being degraded. Complementing the deficiency in patient fibroblasts with normal CIA30 using a novel lentiviral system restored steady-state complex I levels. Our results indicate that CIA30 is a crucial component in the early assembly of complex I and mutations in its gene can cause mitochondrial disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biochemical diagnosis of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders requires caution to avoid misdiagnosis of secondary enzyme defects, and can be improved by the use of conservative diagnostic criteria. Pathogenic mutations causing mitochondrial disorders have now been identified in more than 30 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes encoding respiratory chain subunits, ribosomal- and t-RNAs. mtDNA mutations appear to be responsible for most adult patients with mitochondrial disease and approximately a quarter of paediatric patients. A family history suggesting maternal inheritance is the exception rather than the norm for children with mtDNA mutations, many of whom have de novo mutations. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis can be offered to some women at risk of transmitting a mtDNA mutation, particularly those at lower recurrence risk. Mutations in more than 30 nuclear genes, including those encoding for respiratory chain subunits and assembly factors, have now been shown to cause mitochondrial disorders, creating difficulties in prioritising which genes should be studied by mutation analysis in individual patients. A number of approaches offer promise to guide the choice of candidate genes, including Blue Native-PAGE immunoblotting and microarray expression analysis.
Preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: complex I deficiency, the most common respiratory chain defect, is genetically heterogeneous: mutations in 8 nuclear and 7 mitochondrial DNA genes encoding complex I subunits have been described. However, these genes account for disease in only a minority of complex I-deficient patients. We investigated whether there may be an unknown common gene by performing functional complementation analysis of cell lines from 10 unrelated patients. Two of the patients were found to have mitochondrial DNA mutations. The other 8 represented 7 different (nuclear) complementation groups, all but 1 of which showed abnormalities of complex I assembly. It is thus unlikely that any one unknown gene accounts for a large proportion of complex I cases. The 2 patients sharing a nuclear complementation group had a similar abnormal complex I assembly profile and were studied further by homozygosity mapping, chromosome transfers, and microarray expression analysis. NDUFS6, a complex I subunit gene not previously associated with complex I deficiency, was grossly underexpressed in the 2 patient cell lines. Both patients had homozygous mutations in this gene, one causing a splicing abnormality and the other a large deletion. This integrated approach to gene identification offers promise for identifying other unknown causes of respiratory chain disorders.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Journal of Clinical Investigation