[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Smoking is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Varenicline, a nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is used to aid smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term benefits of smoking cessation on GERD and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL).
Patients treated with varenicline were asked to fill out a self-report questionnaire about their smoking habits, gastrointestinal symptoms, and HR-QOL before and 1 year after smoking cessation. The prevalence of GERD, frequency of symptoms, and HR-QOL scores were compared. We also investigated associations between clinical factors and newly-developed GERD.
A total of 141 patients achieved smoking cessation (success group) and 50 did not (failure group) at 1 year after the treatment. The GERD improvement in the success group (43.9%) was significantly higher than that in the failure group (18.2%). The frequency of reflux symptoms significantly decreased only in the success group. There were no significant associations between newly developed GERD and clinical factors including increased body mass index and successful smoking cessation. HR-QOL significantly improved only in the success group.
Smoking cessation improved both GERD and HR-QOL. Smoking cessation should be recommended for GERD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Gastrointestinal endoscopy and Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) eradication therapy are commonly performed even among the elderly population. The aim of this study was to understand the way endoscopists viewed the application of endoscopy and H. pylori eradication in the elderly of East Asian countries.
Self-administered questionnaires containing 13 questions on endoscopy and H. pylori eradication in the elderly were distributed to major institutions in Japan, South Korea, China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Two hundred and fifteen endoscopists (111 in Japan, 39 in China, 24 in Korea, 21 in Indonesia, and 20 in the Philippines) participated in this study. In the institutions where these endoscopists were associated, around 50% of patients undergoing endoscopy were above the age of 60 years. The participating endoscopists indicated that the necessity of screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy was lower in populations aged over 81 than the other age groups. They hesitated to perform therapeutic endoscopy, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, more often in patients over 85. They also hesitated to perform H. pylori eradication in patients aged over 81, especially in Japan.
Endoscopists had significantly different attitudes regarding the indications for screening or therapeutic endoscopy and H. pylori eradication therapy in younger and elderly populations in East Asian countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 64-year-old man presented with epigastralgia and nausea after an acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed remarkable thickening of the gastric wall and intramural hypodense areas. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer surrounded by an edematous mucosa and mucopus. The results of a culture from a biopsy of the lesion indicated phlegmonous gastritis. The patient was successfully treated with an antibiotic without gastrectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The necessity of additional gastrectomy for patients not meeting the inclusion criteria after endoscopic submu cosal dissection (ESD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to elucidate the risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) and residual cancer (RC) in patients not meeting the inclusion criteria after ESD and to determine additional treatment strategies.
Of 1443 gastric cancer patients who underwent ESD between 2004 and 2013, 167 patients diagnosed as having a lesion not meeting the inclusion criteria after ESD were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 167 cases, 100 cases underwent additional gastrectomy, and 67 cases were observed without surgery.
Overall, 9.0 % (9/100) and 9.0 % (9/100) of patients not meeting the inclusion criteria after ESD presented with LNM and RC, respectively, but neither was observed in 83 patients (83.0 %). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymphovascular involvement (LVI) (OR 38.38; 95 % CI 1.94-761.43, p = 0.017) and undifferentiated type (OR 45.58; 95 % CI 2.88-720.94, p = 0.007) were independent risk factors for LNM, and positive horizontal margin was an independent risk factor for RC (OR 9.48; 95 % CI 1.72-52.13, p = 0.010). In differentiated types without LVI, no cases had LNM (0/38) in the additional gastrectomy group, and there was no lymph node or distant recurrence (0/39) in the observation group.
Additional treatment is necessary for patients with LVI, undifferentiated type, and positive horizontal margin. Careful follow-up may be acceptable for patients with the differentiated type without LVI, especially for the elderly or patients with severe comorbidities.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
The detailed risk factors such as bleeding pattern, comorbidities, and medication usage of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) are largely unknown. We evaluated the risk factors related to ulcerative and vascular lesions of the small intestine diagnosed by capsule endoscopy or balloon-assisted endoscopy in OGIB cases.
We retrospectively evaluated 390 OGIB cases (occult, n = 101; overt, n = 289) in our hospital between January 2005 and March 2011 using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the related risk factors.
In occult (n = 36) and overt (n = 120) OGIB cases, some lesions were detected in the small intestine. Ulcerative and vascular lesions were detected in both occult (n = 25, 69.4 %; n = 8, 22.2 %, respectively) and overt (n = 57, 47.5 %; n = 39, 32.5 %, respectively) cases. For ulcerative lesions, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were identified as a risk factor in overt cases [odds ratio (OR) 2.974, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.522-5.809, P = 0.001]. For vascular lesions, lowest hemoglobin level (OR 0.634, 95 % CI 0.422-0.953, P = 0.028) and hematologic disease (OR 8.575, 95 % CI 1.076-68.309, P = 0.042) were identified as risk factors in occult cases, whereas hemodialysis (OR 3.71, 95 % CI 1.315-10.467, P = 0.013) was identified in overt cases. Additionally, liver cirrhosis was noted as a risk factor in both occult (OR 7.453, 95 % CI 1.213-45.773, P = 0.013) and overt (OR 4.900, 95 % CI 2.099-11.443, P < 0.001) OGIB cases.
There are differences in risk factors related to ulcerative versus vascular lesions in the small intestine in occult and overt OGIB cases. Differences were seen in both medication usage and comorbidities.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins (ILs), in the small intestine via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent pathway, leading to intestinal ulceration. Activation of the inflammasome promotes pro-caspase-1 cleavage, leading to pro-IL-1β maturation. We examined the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in NSAID-induced enteropathy. Small intestinal damage developed 3 h after indomethacin administration, accompanied by increases in IL-1β and NLRP3 mRNA expression and mature caspase-1 and IL-1β levels. In vivo blocking of IL-1β using neutralizing antibodies attenuated indomethacin-induced damage, whereas exogenous IL-1β aggravated it. NLRP3(-/-) and caspase-1(-/-) mice exhibited resistance to the damage with reduction of mature IL-1β production. This resistance was abolished by exogenous IL-1β. TLR4 deficiency prevented intestinal damage and inhibited upregulation of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNAs and maturation of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1β, whereas TLR4 activation by its agonists exerted opposite effects. Apyrase, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) scavenger, or Brilliant Blue G, a purinergic P2X7 receptor antagonist, inhibited the damage as well as caspase-1 activation and IL-1β processing, despite there being sufficient amounts of pro-IL-1β and NLRP3. These results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β plays a crucial role in NSAID-induced enteropathy and that both TLR4- and P2X7-dependent pathways are required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 9 September 2015; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.89.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Mucosal Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous study has demonstrated that locally administered growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor can accelerate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats. That study indicates that locally administered growth factors can exert potent biological effects resulting in enhanced gastric ulcers healing. However, the fate of injected growth factors, their retention and localization to specific cellular compartments have not been examined. In our preliminary study, we demonstrated that local injection of nerve growth factor to the base of experimental gastric ulcers dramatically accelerates ulcer healing, increases angiogenesis - new blood vessel formation, and improves the quality of vascular and epithelial regeneration. Before embarking on larger, definitive and time sequence studies, we wished to determine whether locally injected nerve growth factor is retained in gastric ulcer's tissues and taken up by specific cells during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in anesthetized rats by local application of acetic acid using standard methods; and, 60 min later fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor was injected locally to the ulcer base. Rats were euthanized 2, 5 and 10 days later. Gastric specimens were obtained and processed for histology. Unstained paraffin sections were examined under a fluorescence microscope, and the incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor into various gastric tissue cells was determined and quantified. In addition, we performed immunostaining for S100β protein that is expressed in neural components. Five and ten days after ulcer induction labeled nerve growth factor (injected to the gastric ulcer base) was incorporated into endothelial cells of blood vessels, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells, myofibroblasts and muscle cells. This study demonstrates for the first time that during gastric ulcer healing locally administered exogenous nerve growth factor is retained in gastric tissue and is taken up by endothelial, neural, muscle and epithelial cells. This is likely the basis for the therapeutic action of locally administered nerve growth factor and its stimulation of angiogenesis, tissue regeneration and gastric ulcer healing.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG) E2 promotes gastrointestinal carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The total amount of biologically active PGE2 in tissues is determined by a balance of PG biosynthesis and degradation pathways, which involve the PG transporter (PGT). We investigated PGT in gastric adenocarcinoma by determining its expression pattern and examining associations of PGT with prognosis and tumor angiogenesis.
PGT expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma specimens obtained from 96 patients who underwent surgical resection. Correlations between PGT expression level and clinicopathological factors were statistically analyzed. Angiogenesis in the tumor tissue was evaluated by counting the number of microvessels. The role of PGT in mRNA and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined in gastric cancer cells stimulated by PGE2 .
Based on multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses, negativity for PGT expression was an independent poor prognostic factor. There were more microvessels in PGT-negative tumors than in PGT-positive tumors. Transfection of AGS and MKN7 gastric cancer cells with PGT-specific siRNA led to increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression accompanied by increased PGE2 in the culture media.
PGT expression is an independent predictor of poor survival and is associated with tumor angiogenesis in gastric adenocarcinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), an acid-related disease, is usually treated with acid inhibitory drugs including proton pump inhibitor (PPI) according to the clinical practice guidelines for GERD in Japan. However, it is recognized that there are some GERD patients who are resistant to PPI treatment. There are some evidences that various traditional medicines especially for rikkunshito are often combined with Western medicines and prescribed for patients with PPI-refractory GERD at that time. Accordingly, rikkunshito may be useful for treating PPI-refractory GERD via its proper functions such as regulation of gastorintestinal motility and physiological integrity for acid exposure to the esophageal mucosa, because rikkunshito has no inhibitory action on gastric acid secretion.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has become accepted for the treatment of superficial esophageal cancer, the incidence of stricture formation caused by ESD for widespread lesions is high and leads to a low quality of life. A few studies reported that locoregional steroid injections are useful for the prevention of such stricture formation compared with historical controls. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic locoregional steroid injections for stricture formation caused by ESD using quasi-randomized analysis.
This matched case-control study included 461 superficial esophageal cancers from 305 patients who underwent ESD between 2006 and 2013. We used two methods of locoregional steroid injection to prevent stricture formation after ESD. A propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce the effects of a selection bias for steroid injections and other potential confounding factors. In addition, generalized estimating equations were used to analyze repeated measures data. We compared the incidence of stricture formation with or without steroid injections.
Forty-two lesions were treated with locoregional steroid injection (dexamethasone/triamcinolone, 23/19) after ESD and esophageal stricture formation occurred in 36 lesions. Fifty-six lesions treated with or without steroid injections were matched after propensity score matching. Locoregional steroid injection reduced the incidence of stricture formation to 10.7 % (3/28) of patients compared with 35.7 % (10/28) in the control group (odds ratio 4.63, 95 % confidence interval 1.11-19.25, p = 0.035).
Locoregional steroid injections could be efficient for the prevention of stricture formation after ESD for superficial esophageal cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Once gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, it may be life-threatening. Therefore, an earlier accurate diagnosis of macroscopic and microscopic features using an appropriate modality improves the prognosis of patients with suspected GI-GVHD.
In patients experiencing watery diarrhea within 100 days after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we evaluated the severity of mucosal injury at the proximal ileum, terminal ileum, and rectum according to previously reported criteria using transanal single balloon endoscopy. GI-GVHD was diagnosed by the presence of gland apoptosis without inflammatory or infectious factors in the biopsied specimens obtained from their respective site regardless of the mucosal lesion.
Consecutive suspected GI-GVHD patients with watery diarrhea (11 men and 5 women, mean age: 45.6 years, coexistent symptoms: nausea [38%] and exanthema [69%]) were enrolled. GI-GVHD was identified pathologically in 11 patients (69%), all of whom had pathological findings of GI-GVHD at the rectum. However, eight patients (73%) had pathological findings of GI-GVHD at both the ileum and the rectum and none had pathological findings of GI-GVHD at the ileum alone. The accuracies for a pathological diagnosis of GI-GVHD based on endoscopic features were 44%, 44%, and 38% at the proximal ileum, terminal ileum, and rectum, respectively. The severity of mucosal injury had no association with the diagnostic rate of pathological GI-GVHD at any site.
A pathological evaluation of the rectum but not the ileum may be important and useful for the accurate diagnosis of early GI-GVHD.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology