Masanobu Hyodo

Jichi Medical University, Totigi, Tochigi, Japan

Are you Masanobu Hyodo?

Claim your profile

Publications (76)116.4 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Laparoscopic gastric devascularization of the upper stomach in patients with gastric varices has rarely been reported. Perioperative clinical data were compared with patients who underwent open surgery. Presentation of cases: From 2009 to 2012, we performed laparoscopic gastric devascularization without splenectomy for the treatment of gastric varices in eight patients. The patients included four males and four females. Peri-gastric vessels were divided using electrical coagulating devices or other devices according to the diameter of the vessels. Two patients underwent conversion to open surgery due to intraoperative bleeding. Discussion: Intraoperative blood loss in patients who accomplished laparoscopic devascularization was very small (mean 76ml). However, once bleeding occurs, there is a risk of causing massive bleeding. Conclusion: With further improvement of laparoscopic devices, laparoscopic gastric devascularization without splenectomy must be an effective and less-invasive surgical procedure in the treatment of gastric varices.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated the safety of ABO-incompatible pediatric LDLT using preoperative plasmapheresis and rituximab; however, no reports have described the timing and dosage of rituximab administration for pediatric LDLT. This study aimed to describe a safe and effective dosage and timing of rituximab for patients undergoing pediatric ABO-incompatible LDLT based on the experience of our single center. A total of 192 LDLTs in 187 patients were examined. These cases included 29 ABO-incompatible LDLTs in 28 patients. Rituximab was used beginning in January 2004 in recipients older than two yr of age (first period: 375 mg/m(2) in two cases; second period: 50 mg/m(2) in two cases; and 200 mg/m(2) in eight cases). Two patients who received 375 mg/m(2) rituximab died of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and hemophagocytic syndrome. One patient who received 50 mg/m(2) rituximab required retransplantation as a consequence of antibody-mediated complications. All eight patients administered 200 mg/m(2) survived, and the mean CD20(+) lymphocyte count was 0.1% at the time of LDLT. In the preoperative management of patients undergoing pediatric ABO-incompatible LDLT, the administration of 200 mg/m(2) rituximab three wk prior to LDLT was safe and effective. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Pediatric Transplantation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Radical resection of bile duct carcinoma may require resection of hepatic arteries. Preoperative segmental embolization of the hepatic artery for resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma has been reported. We report a patient with bile duct carcinoma infiltrating the proper hepatic artery. Presentation of case: A 66-year old male with jaundice was diagnosed with mid-distal bile duct carcinoma. A replaced left hepatic artery originated from the left gastric artery. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) with combined resection of hepatic artery was planned. To promote the development of collateral blood flow after excision of the hepatic artery, preoperative segmental embolization of the proper hepatic artery was performed. The patient underwent PPPD with concurrent resection of the common hepatic, right hepatic, and middle hepatic arteries without arterial reconstruction. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine for six months and is alive three years after surgery without tumor recurrence. Discussion: The growth of collateral vessels after selective embolization of the proper hepatic artery has been used for hilar lesions and bile duct lesions. Resection of the hepatic artery without the need for complex arterial reconstruction, allowing a radical resection, may have contributed to this patient's relatively unremarkable recovery and long-term survival. Retroperitoneal mobilization of the pancreatic head and duodenum must be limited as important collaterals may originate in that area. Conclusion: Preoperative segmental embolization of the hepatic artery before PPPD for a patient with a replaced left hepatic artery encouraged the growth of collateral blood supply, allowing radical resection including the vessels and obviated the need for arterial reconstruction.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preoperative simulation can greatly facilitate the safe and effective conduct of surgical procedures, especially for difficult and complex operations such as hepatectomy and pancreatectomy. A computer simulation system may greatly assist surgeons to preoperatively evaluate an operation and facilitate sharing of information among the operative staff. However, there are several problems with existing simulation systems. We have developed a new surgical simulation system using a patient’s own imaging data, which has some advantages over existing systems. Individual anatomical information obtained through an imaging study is used in this system. In addition it allows interactive control, similar to what a surgeon does in a real operation. Furthermore, a surgeon can control the system intuitively using a three dimensional tactile mouse. Changing the translucency of objects makes it easy to understand complex anatomical relationships. In conclusion, this new system is a patient-specific surgical simulator and can be applied to navigation surgery, medical education and patient communication.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of donors with coagulation FIX deficiency is controversial, and there are no current protocols for peri-transplant management. We herein describe the first reported case of a pediatric LDLT from an asymptomatic donor with mild coagulation FIX deficiency. A 32-yr-old female was evaluated as a donor for her 12-month-old daughter with biliary atresia. The donor's pretransplant coagulation tests revealed asymptomatic mild coagulation FIX deficiency (FIX activity 60.8%). Freeze-dried human blood coagulation FIX concentrate was administered before the dissection of the liver and 12 h afterwards by bolus infusion (40 U/kg) and was continued on POD 1. The bleeding volume at LDLT was 590 mL. On POD 1, 3, 5, and 13, the coagulation FIX activity of the donor was 121.3%, 130.6%, 114.6%, and 50.2%, respectively. The donor's post-transplant course was uneventful, and the recipient is currently doing well at 18 months after LDLT. The FIX activity of the donor and recipient at nine months after LDLT was 39.2% and 58.0%, respectively. LDLT from donors with mild coagulation FIX deficiency could be performed effectively and safely using peri-transplant short-term coagulation FIX replacement and long-term monitoring of the plasma FIX level in the donor.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Pediatric Transplantation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract We report a 71-year-old man who had undergone pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) using PPPD-IV reconstruction for cholangiocarcinoma. For 6 years thereafter, he had suffered recurrent cholangitis, and also a right liver abscess (S5/8), which required percutaneous drainage at 9 years after PPPD. At 16 years after PPPD, he had been admitted to the other hospital because of acute purulent cholangitis. Although medical treatment resolved the cholangitis, the patient was referred to our hospital because of dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary duct (B2). Peroral double-balloon enteroscopy revealed that the diameter of the hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis was 12 mm, and cholangiography detected intrahepatic stones. Lithotripsy was performed using a basket catheter. At 1 year after lithotripsy procedure, the patient is doing well. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy at 60 minutes after intravenous injection demonstrated that deposit of the tracer still remained in the upper afferent loop jejunum. Therefore, we considered that the recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, and intrahepatic lithiasis have been caused by biliary stasis due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. Biliary retention due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome may cause recurrent cholangitis or liver abscess after hepaticojejunostomy, and double-balloon enteroscopy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy are useful for the diagnosis of nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · International surgery
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a case of hepatic choriocarcinoma in a man diagnosed at autopsy after a rapid downhill clinical course. The patient was a 49-year-old man who presented with acute right-sided abdominal pain. There were no masses palpable on physical examination. Radiographic findings showed large multi-nodular tumors mainly in the right lobe of the liver. Fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan showed uptake only in the liver, and no uptake in the testes. We initially planned to perform a liver resection for the presumed diagnosis of intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. However, the tumors grew rapidly and ruptured. Multiple lung metastases rapidly developed resulting in respiratory failure, preventing liver resection or even biopsy. He died 60 d after initial presentation with no pathological diagnosis. Postmortem studies included histopathological and immunohistological examinations which diagnosed a primary choriocarcinoma of the liver. Primary hepatic choriocarcinoma is very rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a liver tumor in a middle aged man. Establishing this diagnosis may enable treatment of the choriocarcinoma. Liver biopsy and evaluation of serum human chorionic gonadotropin are recommended in these patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old woman with a liver mass on abdominal ultrasonography was referred for further evaluation. HBs antigen and HCV antibody were negative, but HBs antibody and HBc antibody were positive. Liver function tests were normal. A 24×15 mm low echoic mass was seen in segment 4 of the liver on ultrasonography. Enhanced sonography showed early enhancement with drainage via the hepatic vein. In the Kupffer phase, the tumor appeared as a defect. Abdominal enhanced CT and MRI demonstrated a high-density mass in the arterial phase and wash out in the portal phase. Based on these imaging findings and the possibility of occult HBV, we suspected hepatocellular carcinoma and a segment 4 resection was performed. Histopathologically, perivascular epithelioid cells and a few fat cells were seen. Immunohistochemically, HMB-45, MelanA and αSMA were positive. The tumor was diagnosed as a hepatic angiomyolipoma, which may be difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Kanzo
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The double-stapling technique (DST) for esophagojejunostomy using the transorally inserted anvil (OrVil; Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan) is one of the reconstruction methods used after laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG). This technique has potential advantages in terms of less invasive surgery without the need to create a complicated intraabdominal anastomosis. Methods From 2008 to 2011, 262 patients with gastric cancer underwent total gastrectomy and reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y anastomosis, and 52 patients underwent LATG with DST. A retrospective analysis then was performed comparing the patients who experienced postoperative stenosis after LATG-DST (positive group) and the patients who did not (negative group). A comparative analysis was performed among patients comparing conventional open total gastrectomy and LATG, and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate risk factors for the development of anastomotic stenosis. Results A minor leak was found in 1 patient (1.9 %), and 11 patients experienced anastomotic stenosis (21 %) after LATG with DST. Among the patients with anastomotic stenosis, three (3/4, 75 %) anastomoses were performed with the 21-mm end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) stapler, and eight anastomoses were performed (8/47, 17 %) with the 25-mm EEA stapler. The median interval to the diagnosis of anastomotic stenosis was 43 days after surgery. The patients with stenosis needed endoscopic balloon dilation an average of four times, and the rate of perforation after dilation was 13 %. The clinical and operative characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Anastomotic stenosis after open total gastrectomy occurred in two cases (0.98 %). Multivariate analysis showed that the size of the EEA stapler and the use of DST were risk factors for anastomotic stenosis. Conclusion Esophagojejunostomy using DST with OrVil is useful in performing a minimally invasive procedure but carries a high risk of anastomotic stenosis.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Surgical Endoscopy

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Pancreatology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man was given a diagnosis of liver dysfunction by routine blood tests at a regional hospital. He was referred to our hospital in September 2008. Evaluation was consistent with an intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (main pancreatic duct type). Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP) with preservation of the splenic artery and vein was performed in June 2009. On postoperative day 25, postoperative bleeding from the drain suddenly occurred, which was caused by a ruptured aneurysm of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA), and related to a postoperative pancreatic fistula. Interventional radiology and arterial embolization was performed to control the bleeding from the aneurysm. After radiologic intervention, the postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged on postoperative day 66. In November 2009 (5 months postoperatively), abdominal computed tomography showed occlusion of the splenic vein and a gastric varix. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy also showed an isolated varix at the fornix of the stomach (Lg-cf, F2, Cb, RC sign (-)). We report a case of an isolated gastric varix caused by splenic vein occlusion after SPDP.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Nippon Shokaki Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair is commonly performed and suitable for teaching basic surgical skills. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of this procedure for surgical training, particularly in regard to patient outcomes. Retrospective case review after introduction of an integrated teaching program. University teaching hospital. The Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair is the standard procedure for adult primary unilateral inguinal hernia since 2003 at Jichi Medical University. We introduced an integrated teaching system of lectures, skill training. and videos to teach the skills for Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair to residents and junior faculty in 2003. Cases were retrospectively divided into 4 groups based on the experience of the operating surgeon; junior residents (PGY 1-2, group A), senior residents (PGY 3-5, group B), junior faculty (PGY 6-10, group C), and senior faculty (PGY 11 or more, group D). Background, perioperative factors, and outcomes were evaluated among the groups. A total of 246 elective inguinal hernia repairs (group A: 136, group B: 49, group C: 42, group D: 19) were performed. There was a significant difference in the frequency of concomitant diseases (p = 0.012) and anticoagulant therapy (p = 0.031). Average operating time was 80.7 ± 24.9, 72.6 ± 20.8, 63.5 ± 22.0, and 54.7 ± 27.9 (min ± SD) in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, with a significant difference between groups A and D (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in estimated blood loss (p = 0.216) or morbidity (p = 0.294). The Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair can be safely performed by residents and junior faculty with the appropriate supervision of senior faculty without any disadvantage to patients. This integrated teaching program for Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair is effective and feasible for training residents and junior faculty.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Surgical Education

  • No preview · Article · May 2012 · Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic splenectomy using pneumoperitoneum has been performed since 1992. The gasless abdominal wall-lifting method for laparoscopic splenectomy was introduced as an alternative. This retrospective study was undertaken to compare results using the two techniques. Between 1995 and 2010, 54 patients underwent laparoscopic splenectomy at a single institution; 30 underwent the procedure using the gasless technique and 24 using pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age, sex or BMI, but more patients underwent concurrent operations in the pneumoperitoneum group. The abdominal wall-lift system with subcutaneous K-wires was used for the gasless method. Intraoperative blood loss was similar in the two groups (193.0 ± 196.7 mL gasless, 217.3 ± 296.6 mL pneumoperitoneum; P > 0.05), but operative time (182.1 ± 92.1 min, 135.1 ± 46.1 min; P < 0.05), and resected spleen weight (306.1 ± 297.7 g, 138 ± 81.0 g; P < 0.05) were significantly different. In the gasless group, additional procedures included conversion (n = 1), mini-laparotomy (n = 2), and CO(2) insufflation (n = 2). Excluding the concurrent living-related kidney donor patients, hospital stay was similar (6.9 ± 2.5 days, 6.3 ± 2.0 days, P > 0.05). Although gasless laparoscopic splenectomy is feasible, there are disadvantages, particularly the restricted operative working space in some patients. These results suggest that either technique may be used on an individual basis in patients undergoing laparoscopic splenectomy.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cholestatic liver disease (CLD) is the main indication for liver transplantation in children. This retrospective study evaluated the outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in children with CLD. One hundred fifty-nine children with CLD who underwent 164 LDLT between May 2001 and May 2011 were evaluated. Their original diseases were biliary atresia (n=145, 91%), Alagille syndrome (n=8, 5%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n=2), and the others (n=4). The mean age and body weight of the recipients at LDLT was 42±53 months and 14.0±11.0 kg, respectively. Parents were living donors in 98%. The left lateral segment was the most common type of graft (77%). There were no reoperations and no mortality in any living donor. Recipients' postoperative surgical complications consisted mainly of hepatic arterial problems (7%), hepatic vein stenosis (5%), portal vein stenosis (13%), biliary stricture (18%), intestinal perforation (3%). The overall rejection rate was 31%. Cytomegalovirus infection and Epstein-Barr virus disease were observed in 26% and 5%, respectively. Retransplantation was performed five times in four patients; the main cause was hepatic vein stenosis (n=3). Four patients died; the main cause was gastrointestinal perforation (n=2). The body height of Alagille syndrome patients less than 2 years old significantly improved compared with older patients after LDLT. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year patient survival rates were 98%, 97%, and 97%, respectively. LDLT for CLD is an effective treatment with excellent long-term outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Transplantation Proceedings
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla is extremely rare. We present the case of a 69-year-old man diagnosed with a tumor of the second portion of the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which revealed a 1.5-cm elevated tumor with slight ulceration at the minor duodenal papilla. Biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma, and a computed tomography scan showed an enhanced tumor in the duodenum, with no abnormality in the pancreatic head. A pancreas-sparing segmental duodenectomy was performed, and the duodenum reconstructed with an end-to-end anastomosis. Microscopically, the tumor was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, with no infiltration at the cut end of the accessory pancreatic duct. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient discharged on postoperative day 11. We reviewed previously reported cases of carcinoma of the minor duodenal papilla. Early and exact preoperative diagnosis of duodenal neoplasms makes it possible to select a less invasive treatment, which also maintains curability.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report two cases of carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder. Case 1 was a 59-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 16mm polypoid lesion in the neck of the gallbladder. Tumor markers were within normal limits. Open cholecystectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of early cancer of the gallbladder. Case 2 was a 45-year-old man. A polyp in the gallbladder was incidentally detected on annual checkup. Ultrasound and CT showed an 18mm protruding lesion in the neck of the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and the tumor diagnosed as a carcinoid tumor based on the findings of funicular and tubular cells in the lamina propria mucosa, homogeneous nuclei, basophilic cytoplasm, and positive staining with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The postoperative course of both patients was uneventful, with no recurrence at 44 and 41months after surgery. In this literature review of 39 cases, classical carcinoid of the gallbladder has a favorable postoperative outcome. Of cases reviewed, 60% are located in the neck of the gallbladder and 50% have a polypoid shape. KeywordsCarcinoid tumor–Gallbladder–Neuroendocrine cell carcinoma
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urahashi T, Mizuta K, Sanada Y, Wakiya T, Umehara M, Hishikawa S, Hyodo M, Sakuma Y, Fujiwara T, Yasuda Y, Kawarasaki H. Pediatric liver retransplantation from living donors can be considered as a therapeutic option for patients with irreversible living donor graft failure. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15: 798–803. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Liver retransplantation (re-LT) is required in patients with irreversible graft failure, but it is a significant issue that remains medically, ethically, and economically controversial, especially in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome, morbidity, mortality, safety and prognostic factors to improve the outcome of pediatric living donor liver retransplantation (re-LDLT). Six of 172 children that underwent LDLT between January 2001 and March 2010 received a re-LDLT and one received a second re-LDLT. The overall re-LDLT rate was 3.5%. All candidates had re-LDLT after the initial LDLT. The overall actuarial survival of these patients was 83.3% and 83.3% at one and five yr, respectively. These rates are significantly worse than the rates of pediatric first LDLT. Vascular complications occurred in four patients and were successfully treated by interventional radiologic therapy. There were no post-operative biliary complications. One case expired because of hemophagocytic syndrome after re-LDLT. Although pediatric re-LDLT is medically, ethically, and economically controversial, it is a feasible option and should be offered to children with irreversible graft failure. Further investigations, including multicenter studies, are therefore essential to identify any prognostic factors that may improve the present poor outcome after re-LDLT.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Pediatric Transplantation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wakiya T, Sanada Y, Mizuta K, Umehara M, Urahasi T, Egami S, Hishikawa S, Fujiwara T, Sakuma Y, Hyodo M, Murayama K, Hakamada K, Yasuda Y, Kawarasaki H. Living donor liver transplantation for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15: 390–395. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, the most common urea cycle disorder, causes hyperammonemic encephalopathy and has a poor prognosis. Recently, LT was introduced as a radical OTCD treatment, yielding favorable outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed LT results for OTCD at our facility. Twelve children with OTCD (six boys and six girls) accounted for 7.1% of the 170 children who underwent LDLT at our department between May 2001 and April 2010. Ages at LT ranged from nine months to 11 yr seven months. Post-operative follow-up period was 3–97 months. The post-operative survival rate was 91.7%. One patient died. Two patients who had neurological impairment preoperatively showed no alleviation after LT. All patients other than those who died or failed to show recovery from impairment achieved satisfactory quality-of-life improvement after LT. The outcomes of LDLT as a radical OTCD treatment have been satisfactory. However, neurological impairment associated with hyperammonemia is unlikely to subside even after LT. It is desirable henceforth that more objective and concrete guidelines for OTCD management be established to facilitate LDLT with optimal timing while avoiding the risk of hyperammonemic episodes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Pediatric Transplantation
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although liver transplantation using liver allograft with hemangiomas has been previously reported, little is known about the fate of hemangiomas in the transplanted liver. We herein describe a case of pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using living donor liver allograft with a hemangioma which is considered to the first reported case performing in vivo hemangioma resection. A 27-year-old female was evaluated as a donor for her 2-year-old son with cholestatic cirrhosis due to biliary atresia. Preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a 20-mm hemangioma located at lateral side of segment 3. During LDLT, an in vivo partial hepatic resection of the hemangioma of segment 3 was performed without the Pringle maneuver using intraoperative ultrasonography to keep the main portal triad of segment 3 before the donor liver resection, and the left lateral segment graft without the hemangioma, which underwent an intraoperative pathologic diagnosis, was transplanted into the recipient. The donor's postoperative course was uneventful and the recipient course was not observed subsequent liver necrosis, bleeding or bile leakage from the resection site. Liver allografts with hemangiomas can be accepted as potential liver allografts, and such hemangiomas should undergo be performed in vivo resection during LDLT irrespective of tumor size.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Annals of transplantation: quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society

Publication Stats

455 Citations
116.40 Total Impact Points


  • 2003-2016
    • Jichi Medical University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Transplant Surgery
      Totigi, Tochigi, Japan
  • 2004
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark