Sandra Schwarz

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (14)91.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In most western industrialised countries, second generation (atypical) antipsychotics are recommended as first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. In this review we specifically examine how the efficacy and tolerability of one such agent - aripiprazole - differs from that of other comparable second generation antipsychotics. To evaluate the effects of aripiprazole compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (November 2011), inspected references of all identified studies for further trials, and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies, drug approval agencies and authors of trials for additional information. We included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing aripiprazole (oral) with oral and parenteral forms of amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. Where possible, we calculated illustrative comparative risks for primary outcomes. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias for each included study. We included 12 trials involving 6389 patients. Aripiprazole was compared to olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. All trials were sponsored by an interested drug manufacturer. The overall number of participants leaving studies early was 30% to 40%, limiting validity (no differences between groups).When compared with olanzapine no differences were apparent for global state (no clinically important change: n = 703, 1 RCT, RR short-term 1.00 95% CI 0.81 to 1.22; n = 317, 1 RCT, RR medium-term 1.08 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22) but mental state tended to favour olanzapine (n = 1360, 3 RCTs, MD total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) 4.68 95% CI 2.21 to 7.16). There was no significant difference in extrapyramidal symptoms (n = 529, 2 RCTs, RR 0.99 95% CI 0.62 to 1.59) but fewer in the aripiprazole group had increased cholesterol levels (n = 223, 1 RCT, RR 0.32 95% CI 0.19 to 0.54) or weight gain of 7% or more of total body weight (n = 1095, 3 RCTs, RR 0.39 95% CI 0.28 to 0.54).When compared with risperidone, aripiprazole showed no advantage in terms of global state (n = 384, 2 RCTs, RR no important improvement 1.14 95% CI 0.81 to 1.60) or mental state (n = 372, 2 RCTs, MD total PANSS 1.50 95% CI -2.96 to 5.96).One study compared aripiprazole with ziprasidone (n = 247) and both the groups reported similar change in the global state (n = 247, 1 RCT, MD average change in Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) score -0.03 95% CI -0.28 to 0.22) and mental state (n = 247, 1 RCT, MD change PANSS -3.00 95% CI -7.29 to 1.29).When compared with any one of several new generation antipsychotic drugs the aripiprazole group showed improvement in global state in energy (n = 523, 1 RCT, RR 0.69 95% CI 0.56 to 0.84), mood (n = 523, 1 RCT, RR 0.77 95% CI 0.65 to 0.92), negative symptoms (n = 523, 1 RCT, RR 0.82 95% CI 0.68 to 0.99), somnolence (n = 523, 1 RCT, RR 0.80 95% CI 0.69 to 0.93) and weight gain (n = 523, 1 RCT, RR 0.84 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94). Significantly more people given aripiprazole reported symptoms of nausea (n = 2881, 3 RCTs, RR 3.13 95% CI 2.12 to 4.61) but weight gain (7% or more of total body weight) was less common in people allocated aripiprazole (n = 330, 1 RCT, RR 0.35 95% CI 0.19 to 0.64). Aripiprazole may have value in aggression but data are limited. This will be the focus of another review. Information on all comparisons are of limited quality, are incomplete and problematic to apply clinically. Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic drug with a variant but not absent adverse effect profile. Long-term data are sparse and there is considerable scope for another update of this review as new data emerges from the many Chinese studies as well as from ongoing larger, independent pragmatic trials.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: While all second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are promoted for having a low risk of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), clinical observations suggest differences between the various agents. Nevertheless, this question has never been examined in a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons. We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE (last search July 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the following SGAs in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, and zotepine. At least 3 reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was "use of antiparkinson medication." The results were combined in a meta-analysis. We included 54 studies with 116 arms. Risperidone was associated with more use of antiparkinson medication than clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. Ziprasidone showed more use of antiparkinson medication than olanzapine and quetiapine and zotepine more than clozapine. There was no significant difference between amisulpride and its comparators (olanzapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone). Quetiapine showed significantly less use of antiparkinson medication than the 3 other SGAs it was compared with (olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone). Scale-derived data (Barnes Akathisia Scale and Simpson Angus Scale) were limited. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that there are differences between the SGAs in their ability to induce EPS that clinicians consider warrant treatment with antimuscarinic drugs. Even though the differences were relatively small, they might be important for individual patients and should be taken into account in drug choice.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    ABSTRACT: This review examines the effects of risperidone compared to other second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs for schizophrenia. We identified 45 relevant studies with 7760 participants comparing risperidone with amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertindole and ziprasidone. Comparisons of risperidone with zotepine are currently not available. Risperidone was somewhat more successful than quetiapine and ziprasidone, but somewhat less successful than clozapine and olanzapine. The main disadvantage of risperidone were more frequent movement disorders and more prolactin increase compared to most other SGA drugs.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: This review compared the clinical effects of clozapine with the other atypical antipsychotics. Twenty-seven studies fulfilled the review's criteria and provided data to compare clozapine with antipsychotics such as olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone and zotepine. Clozapine was somewhat more efficacious than zotepine. Also, inefficacy of treatment led more frequently to leaving the studies early in the risperidone group suggesting a certain higher efficacy of clozapine. The principal drawback of clozapine were its adverse effects which lead to significantly higher numbers of participants leaving the studies early compared to olanzapine and risperidone. Clozapine was associated with more sedation and hypersalivation than olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone and with more seizures than olanzapine and risperidone. There was a higher incidence of white blood cell decrease in clozapine groups than olanzapine and more weight gain than in risperidone groups. On the other hand clozapine produced fewer movement disorder than risperidone and less prolactin increase than olanzapine, quetiapine and zotepine.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are serious and have not been compared head to head in a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the metabolic side effects of the following SGAs head-to-head: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine. We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE and EMBASE (last search January 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the above mentioned SGA in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders. At least three reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was weight change. We also assessed changes of cholesterol and glucose. The results were combined in a meta-analysis. We included 48 studies with 105 relevant arms. Olanzapine produced more weight gain than all other second-generation antipsychotics except for clozapine where no difference was found. Clozapine produced more weight gain than risperidone, risperidone more than amisulpride, and sertindole more than risperidone. Olanzapine produced more cholesterol increase than aripiprazole, risperidone and ziprasidone. (No differences with amisulpride, clozapine and quetiapine were found). Quetiapine produced more cholesterol increase than risperidone and ziprasidone. Olanzapine produced more increase in glucose than amisulpride, aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone; no difference was found with clozapine. Some SGAs lead to substantially more metabolic side effects than other SGAs. When choosing an SGA for an individual patient these side effects with their potential cause of secondary diseases must be weighed against efficacy and characteristics of the individual patient.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Schizophrenia Research
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    ABSTRACT: This review compares the effects of zotepine to other second generation antipsychotic drugs. Three trials suggest that the efficacy of zotepine may be comparable to risperidone and remoxipride. The evidence base is insufficient to provide firm conclusions as to whether zotepine is as effective or less effective than clozapine. The movement disorders and the cognitive changes appear to be similar to clozapine, risperidone and remoxipride. The need for antiparkinson medication is similar to risperidone and remoxipride, but may be associated with increased need than necessary with clozapine.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: This review examined the effects of olanzapine compared to other second generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia. We identified 50 relevant studies with 9476 participants, comparing olanzapine with amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. Comparisons of olanzapine with the second generation antipsychotic drugs sertindole or zotepine are currently not available. Olanzapine was somewhat more efficacious than aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone, whereas there was no efficacy difference compared to amisulpride and clozapine. The main disadvantage of olanzapine was its higher weight gain and associated metabolic problems compared to all other second generation antipsychotic drugs, except for clozapine.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries of the industrialised world, second generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs have become first line treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether the effects of various second generation antipsychotic drugs differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examined how the efficacy and tolerability of zotepine differs from that of other second generation antipsychotic drugs. To evaluate the effects of zotepine compared with other second generation antipsychotic drugs for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We included all randomised trials comparing oral zotepine with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole or ziprasidone in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (MD) again based on a random effects model. The review currently includes data from two short term, ill reported trials (total n=109). Both studies compared zotepine with clozapine. 34% of people left early but there was no significant difference between groups. Zotepine was less effective than clozapine (no clinically significant response: n=59, 1 RCT, RR 8.23 CI 1.14 to 59.17, NNH 3 CI 2 to 8; average score (BPRS total) at endpoint (n=59, 1 RCT, MD 6.00 CI 2.17 to 9.83). Zotepine induced more movement disorders than clozapine (use of antiparkinson medication: n=59, 1 RCT, RR 18.75 CI 1.17 to 301.08, NNH 3 CI 2 to 5) and higher prolactin levels (n=59, 1 RCT, MD 33.40 CI 14.87 to 51.93). Data on important other outcomes such as other adverse events, service use or satisfaction with care were not available. Zotepine may be less effective than clozapine and associated with more movement disorders and higher prolactin levels, but the evidence base is too small and prone to bias, making any practical recommendations impossible. There is no randomised evidence on the effects of zotepine compared to second generation antipsychotic drugs other than clozapine. More studies are possible to justify.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries of the industrialised world second generation ('atypical') antipsychotic drugs have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. It is not clear how the effects of the various second generation antipsychotic drugs differ. To evaluate the effects of quetiapine compared with other second generation antipsychotic drugs for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007), inspected references of all identified studies, and contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies, drug approval agencies and authors of trials for additional information. We included all randomised control trials comparing oral quetiapine with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a random-effects model. The review currently includes 21 randomised control trials (RCTs) with 4101 participants. These trials provided data on four comparisons - quetiapine versus clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone or ziprasidone.A major limitation to all findings is the high number of participants leaving studies prematurely (57.6%) and the substantial risk of biases in studies. Efficacy data favoured olanzapine and risperidone compared with quetiapine (PANSS total score versus olanzapine:10 RCTs, n=1449, WMD 3.66 CI 1.93 to 5.39; versus risperidone: 9 RCTs, n=1953, WMD 3.09 CI 1.01 to 5.16), but clinical meaning is unclear. There were no clear mental state differences when quetiapine was compared with clozapine or ziprasidone.Compared with olanzapine, quetiapine produced slightly fewer movement disorders (6 RCTs, n=1090, RR use of antiparkinson medication 0.49 CI 0.3 to 0.79, NNH 25 CI 14 to 100) and less weight gain (7 RCTs, n=1173, WMD -2.81 CI -4.38 to -1.24) and glucose elevation, but more QTc prolongation (3 RCTs, n=643, WMD 4.81 CI 0.34 to 9.28). Compared with risperidone, quetiapine induced slightly fewer movement disorders (6 RCTs, n=1715, RR use of antiparkinson medication 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.86, NNH 20 CI 10 to 100), less prolactin increase (6 RCTs, n=1731, WMD -35.28 CI -44.36 to -26.19) and some related adverse effects, but more cholesterol increase (5 RCTs, n=1433, WMD 8.61 CI 4.66 to 12.56). Compared with ziprasidone, quetiapine induced slightly fewer extrapyramidal adverse effects (1 RCT, n=522, RR use of antiparkinson medication 0.43 CI 0.2 to 0.93, NNH not estimable) and prolactin increase. On the other hand quetiapine was more sedating and led to more weight gain (2 RCTs, n=754, RR 2.22 CI 1.35 to 3.63, NNH 13 CI 8 to 33) and cholesterol increase than ziprasidone. Best available evidence from trials suggests that most people who start quetiapine stop taking it within a few weeks. Comparisons with amisulpride, aripiprazole, sertindole and zotepine do not exist. Most data that has been reported within existing comparisons are of very limited value because of assumptions and biases within them. There is much scope for further research into the effects of this widely used drug.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have become first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether, and if so how much, the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examine how the efficacy and tolerability of amisulpride differs from that of other second generation antipsychotics. To evaluate the effects of amisulpride compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We included randomised, at least single-blind, trials comparing oral amisulpride with oral forms of aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We extracted data independently. For continuous data we calculated weighted mean differences (MD), for dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. The review currently includes ten short to medium term trials with 1549 participants on three comparisons: amisulpride versus olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. The overall attrition rate was considerable (34.7%) with no significant difference between groups. Amisulpride was similarly effective as olanzapine and risperidone and more effective than ziprasidone (leaving the study early due to inefficacy: n=123, 1 RCT, RR 0.21 CI 0.05 to 0.94, NNT 8 CI 5 to 50). Amisulpride induced less weight gain than risperidone (n=585, 3 RCTs, MD -0.99 CI -1.61 to -0.37) or olanzapine (n=671, 3 RCTs, MD -2.11 CI -2.94 to -1.29). Olanzapine was also associated with a higher increase of glucose (n=406, 2 RCTs, MD -7.30 CI -7.62 to -6.99). There was no difference in terms of cardiac effects and extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS) compared with olanzapine (akathisia: n= 587, 2 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.36 to 1.21), compared with risperidone (akathisia: n=586, 3 RCTs, RR 0.80 CI 0.58 to 1.11) and compared with ziprasidone (akathisia: n=123, 1 RCT, RR 0.63, CI 0.11 to 3.67). There is little randomised evidence comparing amisulpride with other second generation antipsychotic drugs. We could only find trials comparing amisulpride with olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. We found amisulpride may be somewhat more effective than ziprasidone, and more tolerable in terms of weight gain and other associated problems than olanzapine and risperidone. These data, however, are based on only ten short to medium term studies and therefore too limited to allow for firm conclusions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries of the industrialised world second generation ('atypical') antipsychotics have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether, and if so how much, the effects of the various new generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examined how the efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone differs from that of other second generation antipsychotics. To evaluate the effects of ziprasidone compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Specialised Register (April 2007) and references of all identified studies for further trial citations. We contacted pharmaceutical companies and authors of trials for additional information. We included all randomised, at least single-blind, controlled trials comparing oral ziprasidone with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses. We extracted data independently. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (MD) for dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. The review currently includes nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 3361 participants. The overall rate of premature study discontinuation was very high (59.1%). Data for the comparisons of ziprasidone with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone were available. Ziprasidone was a less acceptable treatment than olanzapine (leaving the studies early for any reason: 5 RCTs, n=1937, RR 1.26 CI 1.18 to 1.35, NNH 7 CI 5 to 10) and risperidone (3 RCTs, n=1029, RR 1.11 CI 1.02 to 1.20, NNH 14 CI 8 to 50), but not than the other second generation antipsychotic drugs. Ziprasidone was less efficacious than amisulpride (leaving the study early due to inefficacy: 1 RCT, n=123, RR 4.72 CI 1.06 to 20.98, NNH 8 CI 5 to 50) olanzapine (PANSS total score: 4 RCTs, n=1291, MD 8.32 CI 5.64 to 10.99) and risperidone (PANSS total score: 3 RCTs, n=1016, MD 3.91 CI 0.27 to 7.55). Based on limited data there were no significant differences in tolerability between ziprasidone and amisulpride or clozapine. Ziprasidone produced less weight gain than olanzapine (5 RCTs, n=1659, MD -3.82 CI -4.69 to -2.96), quetiapine (2 RCTs, n=754, RR 0.45 CI 0.28 to 0.74) or risperidone (3 RCTs, n=1063, RR 0.49 CI 0.33 to 0.74). It was associated with less cholesterol increase than olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. Conversely ziprasidone produced slightly more extrapyramidal side-effects than olanzapine (4 RCTs, n=1732, RR 1.43 CI 1.03 to 1.99, NNH not estimable) and more prolactin increase than quetiapine (2 RCTs, n=754, MD 4.77 CI 1.37 to 8.16), but less movement disorders (2 RCTs, n=822, RR 0.70 CI 0.51 to 0.97, NNT not estimable) and less prolactin increase (2 RCTs, n=767, MD -21.97 CI -27.34 to -16.60) than risperidone. Ziprasidone may be a slightly less efficacious antipsychotic drug than amisulpride, olanzapine and risperidone. Its main advantage is the low propensity to induce weight gain and associated adverse effects. However, the high overall rate of participants leaving the studies early limits the validity of any findings.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: This review compares aripiprazole with other second generation antipsychotic drugs. There were only four studies on two comparisons - aripiprazole compared to olanzapine and aripiprazole compared to risperidone. On the basis of very limited data aripiprazole was not as effective as olanzapine but as good as risperidone. Aripiprazole was associated with less weight gain, cholesterol increase, sedation and prolactin related effects than olanzapine. Compared to risperidone aripiprazole produced fewer dystonias, cardiac arrhythmias, prolactin and cholesterol increase.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether and, if so, how much the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. To evaluate the effects of sertindole compared with other second generation antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) and ClinicalTrials.gov (February 2009). We included all randomised trials comparing oral sertindole with oral forms of amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone or zotepine for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a random-effects model. The review currently includes two short-term low-quality randomised trials (total n=508) both comparing sertindole with risperidone. One third of participants left the studies early (2 RCTs, n=504, RR 1.23 CI 0.94 to 1.60). There was no difference in efficacy (2 RCTs, n=493, WMD PANSS total change from baseline 1.98 CI -8.24 to 12.20). Compared with relatively high doses of risperidone (between 4 and 12 mg/day), sertindole produced significantly less akathisia and parkinsonism (1 RCT, n=321, RR 0.24 CI 0.09 to 0.69, NNT 14, CI 8 to 100). Sertindole produced more cardiac effects (2 RCTs, n=508, RR QTc prolongation 4.86 CI 1.94 to 12.18), weight change (2 RCTs, n=328, WMD 0.99 CI 0.12 to 1.86) and male sexual dysfunction (2 RCTs, n=437, RR 2.90 CI 1.32 to 6.35, NNH 13 CI 8 to 33). Sertindole may induce fewer movement disorders, but more cardiac effects, weight change and male sexual dysfunction than risperidone. However these data are based on only two studies and are too limited to allow firm conclusions. Nothing can be said about the effects of sertindole compared with second generation antipsychotics other than risperidone. There are several relevant trials underway or completed and about to report.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    ABSTRACT: Whether there are differences in efficacy among second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia is a matter of heated debate. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of blinded studies comparing second-generation antipsychotics head-to-head. Searches of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register (May 2007) and MEDLINE (September 2007) were conducted for randomized, blinded studies comparing two or more of nine second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. All data were extracted by at least three reviewers independently. The primary outcome measure was change in total score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; secondary outcome measures were positive and negative symptom subscores and rate of dropout due to inefficacy. The results were combined in a meta-analysis. Various sensitivity analyses and metaregressions were used to examine bias. The analysis included 78 studies with 167 relevant arms and 13,558 participants. Olanzapine proved superior to aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Risperidone was more efficacious than quetiapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine proved superior to zotepine and, in doses >400 mg/day, to risperidone. These differences were due to improvement in positive symptoms rather than negative symptoms. The results were rather robust with regard to the effects of industry sponsorship, study quality, dosages, and trial duration. The findings suggest that some second-generation antipsychotics may be somewhat more efficacious than others, but the limitations of meta-analysis must be considered. In tailoring drug treatment to the individual patient, small efficacy superiorities must be weighed against large differences in side effects and cost.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · American Journal of Psychiatry

Publication Stats

987 Citations
91.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2013
    • Technische Universität München
      • Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of Concepción
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile