[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of bisphosphonate therapy in multiple myeloma. Previous studies showed that the presence of one or two minor alleles of the cytochrome P450, subfamily 2C polypeptide 8 gene (CYP2C8) polymorphism rs1934951 was an independent prognostic marker associated with development of osteonecrosis of the jaw in multiple myeloma patients treated with bisphosphonates. The aim of this study was to validate the frequency of SNP rs193451 in 79 patients with multiple myeloma. In 9 (22%) patients developing osteonecrosis of the jaw, a heterozygous genotype was found, in contrast with those who did not develop osteonecrosis of the jaw (n=4, 11%) or healthy individuals (n=6, 13%). We found no differences in the cumulative risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw between patients homozygous and heterozygous for the major allele. We were unable to confirm a significant association between this polymorphism and the risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: For establishing the true effect of different response categories in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated with autologous stem cell transplantation, we evaluated, after a median follow-up of 153 months, 344 patients with MM who received a transplant between 1989 and 1998. Overall survival (OS) at 12 years was 35% in complete response (CR) patients, 22% in near complete response (nCR), 16% in very good partial response (VGPR), and 16% in partial response (PR) groups. Significant differences in OS and progression-free survival were found between CR and nCR groups (P = .01 and P = .002, respectively), between CR and VGPR groups (P = .0001 and P = .003), or between CR and PR groups (P = .003 and P = < 10(-5)); no differences were observed between the nCR and VGPR groups (P = .2 and P = .9) or between these groups and the PR group (P = .1 and P = .8). A landmark study found a plateau phase in OS after 11 years; 35% patients in the CR group and 11% in the nCR+VGPR+PR group are alive at 17 years; 2 cases had relapsed in the nCR+VGPR+PR group. In conclusion, MM achieving CR after autologous stem cell transplantation is a central prognostic factor. The relapse rate is low in patients with > 11 years of follow-up, possibly signifying a cure for patients in CR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Disappearance of normal bone marrow (BM) plasma cells (PC) predicts malignant transformation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) into symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). The homing, behavior and survival of normal PC, but also CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), B-cell precursors, and clonal PC largely depends on their interaction with stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expressing, potentially overlapping BM stromal cell niches. Here, we investigate the distribution, phenotypic characteristics and competitive migration capacity of these cell populations in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM vs healthy adults (HA) aged >60 years. Our results show that BM and peripheral blood (PB) clonal PC progressively increase from MGUS to MM, the latter showing a slightly more immature immunophenotype. Of note, such increased number of clonal PC is associated with progressive depletion of normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC in the BM, also with a parallel increase in PB. In an ex vivo model, normal PC, B-cell precursors and CD34(+) HSC from MGUS and SMM, but not MM patients, were able to abrogate the migration of clonal PC into serial concentrations of SDF-1. Overall, our results show that progressive competition and replacement of normal BM cells by clonal PC is associated with more advanced disease in patients with MGUS, SMM and MM.
Article · Jan 2011 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Clinical studies focused on outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in need of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and lacking an HLA-matched adult donor are limited. We analyzed the outcome of 26 adults with CML receiving single-unit UCBT from unrelated donors after myeloablative conditioning at a single institution. Conditioning regimens were based on combinations of thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophospamide or fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin. At the time of transplantation, 7 patients (27%) were in first chronic phase (CP), 11 (42%) were in second CP, 2 (8%) were in accelerated phase (AP), and 6 (23%) were in blast crisis (BC). The cumulative incidence (CI) of myeloid engraftment was 88% at a median time of 22 days and was significantly better for patients receiving higher doses of CD34(+) cells. The CI of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV was 61%, that of acute GVHD grade III-IV was 39%, and that of chronic extensive GVHD was 60%. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 41% for patients undergoing UCBT while in first or second CP and 100% for patients in AP or BC (P < .01). After a median follow-up of 8 years, none of the patients relapsed, giving an overall disease-free survival (DFS) at 8 years of 41%. The DFS for patients undergoing UCBT while in any CP was 59%. These results demonstrate that UCBT from unrelated donors can be a curative treatment for a substantial number of patients with CML. Advances in supportive care and better selection of cord blood units and patients are needed to improve TRM.
Full-text Article · Nov 2010 · Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Until recently, combination chemotherapy with melphalan and prednisone (MP) has remained the most widely accepted treatment option for elderly patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, since the availability of new and more active drugs, several groups have compared in several phase III trials the efficacy and safety of MP versus MP-based therapies including new agents such as thalidomide (MPT) or bortezomib (MPV). In all these studies response rate and progression-free survival were superior in patients receiving MPT or MPV. However, these new combinations are not without side effects, and the incidence of grade 3 and 4 toxicities is higher than that reported with MP. Besides, the median duration of the complete remissions obtained with these new combinations is still insufficient, ranging from 15 to 27 months, and new therapeutic alternatives are still needed in this subset of patients. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the currently available data in the front-line treatment of elderly patients with MM and to discuss which questions are still unsolved in the management of this subset of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of oral busulfan 12 mg/kg plus melphalan 140 mg/m(2) and melphalan 200 mg/m(2) as conditioning regimens for autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma in the GEM2000 study.
The first 225 patients received oral busulfan 12 mg/kg plus melphalan 140 mg/m(2); because of a high frequency of veno-occlusive disease, the protocol was amended and a further 542 patients received melphalan 200 mg/m(2).
Engraftment and hospitalization times were similar in both groups. Oral busulfan 12 mg/kg plus melphalan 140 mg/m(2) resulted in higher transplant-related mortality (8.4% versus 3.5%; P=0.002) due to the increased frequency of veno-occlusive disease in this group. Response rates were similar in both arms. With respective median follow-ups of 72 and 47 months, the median progression-free survival was significantly longer with busulfan plus melphalan (41 versus 31 months; P=0.009), although survival was similar to that in the melphalan 200 mg/m(2) group. However, access to novel agents as salvage therapy after relapse/progression was significantly lower for patients receiving busulfan plus melphalan (43%) than for those receiving melphalan 200 mg/m(2) (58%; P=0.01).
Conditioning with oral busulfan 12 mg/kg plus melphalan 140 mg/m(2) was associated with longer progression-free survival but equivalent survival to that achieved with melphalan 200 mg/m(2) but this should be counterbalanced against the higher frequency of veno-occlusive disease-related deaths. This latter fact together with the limited access to novel salvage therapies in patients conditioned with oral busulfan 12 mg/kg plus melphalan 140 mg/m(2) may explain the absence of a survival difference. Oral busulfan was used in the present study; use of the intravenous formulation may reduce toxicity and result in greater efficacy, and warrants further investigation in myeloma patients. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00560053).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Between 30% and 60% of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) relapse and mortality remains at 15-20%. Limited clinical data suggest that the administration of anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) may be useful in preventing acute refractory and chronic relapsing TTP.
We studied the clinical response to rituximab in 24 adult patients (median age 42 years, range 24-72 years) from 15 Spanish centers with an acute refractory (14 patients) or acute relapsing (10 patients) episode of idiopathic TTP. On admission, every patient received daily plasma exchange (PE). Rituximab was administered at a dose of 375 mg/m(2) weekly for a median of 13 days (range 0-57 days) after starting PE for a median of 4 doses (range 1-8 doses).
No severe acute or delayed toxicity was observed in the patients treated with rituximab. Three (12.5%) patients died because of TTP-related causes. The remaining 21 (87.5%) patients achieved complete remission in a median of 21 days (range 2-35 days) after initiating rituximab. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 7.5-74 months), 18 patients are in remission and 3 patients have relapsed at 7, 29, and 29 months.
Rituximab appears to be a safe, effective therapy and has a high response rate for the treatment of acute refractory or relapsing idiopathic TTP in adult patients.
Full-text Article · Oct 2010 · Transfusion and Apheresis Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This trial evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of the marine-derived cyclodepsipeptide plitidepsin in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase II trial with plitidepsin at 5 mg/m(2) as a 3-hour i.v. infusion every two weeks. The protocol was amended to allow patients with suboptimal response to single-agent plitidepsin to add 20 mg/day on days 1 to 4 of oral dexamethasone every two weeks.
Fifty-one patients started treatment with plitidepsin and 47 were evaluable for efficacy. The overall response rate (complete response plus partial response plus minimal response) was 13% with plitidepsin alone and 22% in the cohort of patients with the addition of dexamethasone (n = 19, 18 evaluable). Both plitidepsin alone and with dexamethasone were feasible and well tolerated. Anemia (29%) and thrombocytopenia (18%) were the most frequent grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities. Fatigue (16%), muscular toxicity (6%), and transient alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (27%) and creatine phosphokinase (23%) increases were the most relevant nonhematologic side effects. A prolonged plasma half-life was observed in responding patients as compared with nonresponding patients (P = 0.009).
Single-agent plitidepsin has limited but reproducible activity in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients. Activity observed after dexamethasone addition merits further study. Both regimens were well tolerated in this heavily pretreated population.
Full-text Article · Jun 2010 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Plerixafor was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) to enhance stem cell mobilization for autologous transplant in patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma. In this study, we present the first European compassionate use experience in mobilization failures, patients who are hardest to remobilize but were not included in registration trials. A total of 56 consecutive patients from 15 centers in Spain and the United Kingdom were included: age 60 (33-69) years; 29 men (32 with myeloma and 24 with lymphoma); 2 lines of previous chemotherapy (1-10); 73 previously failed mobilization attempts with G-CSF (28), chemotherapy plus G-CSF (43) or G-CSF plus SCF(2). Overall, 71% of patients reached ≥ 10 CD34+ cells per μL with plerixafor on day 5 after a 7.6-fold expansion from day 4. A total of 42 patients (75%) collected ≥ 2 × 10⁶, average 3.0 ± 1.7 (0.4-10.6) CD34+ cells per kg with plerixafor plus G-CSF. There were no severe drug-related adverse events. In all, 35 patients (63%) underwent transplant, receiving an average of 3.1±1.2 (1.9-7.7) × 10⁶ CD34+ cells per kg. All patients engrafted neutrophils (day 12; 13.4 ± 0.8; 8-30) and platelets (day 15; 18.5 ± 2.4; 8-33). In our experience, plerixafor offers an effective alternative to collect sufficient CD34+ cells for autologous SCT from patients who fail conventional mobilization methods, with good tolerance and a high success rate.
Full-text Article · Mar 2010 · Bone marrow transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We have investigated if rituximab-based salvage regimens improve response rates and survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) relapsing after an autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT).
We have retrospectively analyzed 82 patients with DLBCL who received salvage therapy for relapse or progression after ASCT. Patients were divided into two groups, according to whether rituximab-based salvage regimens were given (n = 42, 'R-' group) or not (n = 40, 'R+' group) after ASCT.
Patients in the R+ group had better complete remission (CR) (55% versus 21.4%, P = 0.006) and overall response (OR) (75% versus 40.4%, P = 0.001) rates, and better 3-year event-free survival (EFS) (37% versus 9%, P = 0.002) and overall survival (OS) (50% versus 20%, P = 0.005) than patients in the R- group. Patients retreated with rituximab had better CR (42.9% versus 21.4%, P = 0.032) and OR (66.7% versus 40.4%, P = 0.019) rates, and better OS (36.2% versus 20% at 3 years, P = 0.05) and EFS (36.2% versus 9% at 3 years, P = 0.05) than patients who received chemotherapy alone at relapse after ASCT.
The addition of rituximab to salvage chemotherapy improves response rates and EFS in patients with relapsed DLBCL after ASCT. These patients may benefit from rituximab retreatment, although larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.