Pierfrancesco Tassone

Universita' degli Studi "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy

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Publications (195)998.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: A systematic review and meta-analysis from literature has been performed to assess the impact of targeted therapy in advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: By searching different literature databases and major cancer meetings proceedings, data from all randomized clinical trials designed to investigate molecular targeted agents in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer were collected. The time-frame between January 2007 and March 2015 was selected. Data on predefined end-points, including overall survival, progression-free survival in terms of Hazard Ratio and response-rate were extracted and analyzed by a random effects model. Pooled data analysis was performed according to the DerSimonian and Laird test. The occurrence of publication bias was investigated through Begg's test by visual inspection of funnel plots. Results: Twenty-seven randomized clinical trials for a total of 8205 patients were selected and included in the final analysis. A significant benefit was demonstrated for anti-EGFR agents on overall survival (HR = 0.880; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.797-0.972; p = 0.011). In the pooled analysis no benefit on overall survival (OS: pooled HR = 0.957; 95%CI 0.900-1.017; p = 0.153), or progression-free survival (PFS: pooled HR = 0.908; 95%CI 0.817-1.010; p = 0.075) for targeted-based therapies as compared to conventional treatments could be demonstrated. No advantage was reported in response-rate (OR for RR = 1.210; 95%CI 0.990-1.478; p = 0.063). Begg's funnel plot showed no evidence of publication bias. Conclusion: The use of molecular targeted agents does not translate into clinical benefit. Therefore, our work highlights the need to identify predictive factors for patient selection and rationally designed clinical trials.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Pancreatology
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    ABSTRACT: Deregulated microRNA (miR)/transcription factor (TF)-based networks represent a hallmark of cancer. We report here a novel c-Myc/miR-23b/Sp1 feed-forward loop with a critical role in multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) cell growth and survival. We have found miR-23b to be downregulated in MM and WM cells especially in the presence of components of the tumor bone marrow milieu. Promoter methylation is one mechanism of miR-23b suppression in myeloma. In gain-of-function studies using miR-23b mimics-transfected or in miR-23b-stably expressing MM and WM cell lines, we observed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and survival, along with induction of caspase-3/7 activity over time, thus supporting a tumor suppressor role for miR-23b. At the molecular level, miR-23b targeted Sp1 3'UTR and significantly reduced Sp1-driven nuclear factor-κB activity. Finally, c-Myc, an important oncogenic transcription factor known to stimulate MM cell proliferation, transcriptionally repressed miR-23b. Thus MYC-dependent miR-23b repression in myeloma cells may promote activation of oncogenic Sp1-mediated signaling, representing the first feed-forward loop with critical growth and survival role in myeloma.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Blood Cancer Journal
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    ABSTRACT: doi: 10.1080/23808993.2016.1142356
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
  • Marco Rossi · Pierosandro Tagliaferri · Pierfrancesco Tassone
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non coding RNAs aberrantly expressed in solid and hematopoietic malignancies where they play a pivotal function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Recent reports have unveiled a central role of miRNAs in multiple myeloma onset and progression and preclinical findings are progressively disclosing their potential therapeutic value as drugs or targets. In this review, we provide the basic insights of miRNA biology and function, showing how these molecules are extensively dysregulated in malignant plasma cells (PC) and related microenvironment, thus favoring clone survival and proliferation. We here describe how these critical activities have recently been evaluated to design miRNA-based therapies against multiple myeloma cells and its surrounding microenvironment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of differentiated plasma cells that accumulate in the bone marrow, where a complex microenvironment made by different cell types supports proliferation, survival, and drug resistance of tumor cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed or functionally deregulated in MM cells as the result of multiple genetic or epigenetic mechanisms and that also the tumor microenvironment regulates MM cell functions by miRNAs. Consistently, modulation of miRNA levels in MM cells has been demonstrated to impair their functional interaction with the bone marrow microenvironment and to produce significant antitumor activity even able to overcome the protective bone marrow milieu . This review will describe the most recent findings on miRNA function in the context of MM bone marrow microenvironment, focusing on the therapeutic potential of miRNA-based approaches.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a tumor-associated enzyme critical for DNA replication and main 5′-fluorouracil (5′-FU) target. TSPP/VAC1 is a multi-arm trial phase-Ib trial program aimed to investigate the toxicity and biomodulatory activity of a poly-epitope-peptide vaccine to TS (TSPP) in cancer patients (pts). Here, we present the results of the TSPP/VAC1/arm C trial aimed to evaluate TSPP in combination with chemo-immunotherapy in pretreated metastatic colo-rectal cancer (mCRC) pts. Twenty-nine pts, 14 males and 15 females, received poly-chemotherapy with gemcitabine [1,000 mg/sqm, day-1]; oxaliplatin [80mg/sqm, day-2]; levofolinate [100mg/sqm, days 1–2], bolus/infusional 5′-FU [400mg/800 mg/sqm, days 1–2], sargramostim [50μg, days 3–7/q30] and interleukin-2 [sc. 0.5 MIU twice a day, days 8–14/18–30] [GOLFIG-regimen]. Seventeen pts received sc. TSPP injections at escalating dosage [3 pts, 100µg (DL-1); 3 pts, 200 µg (DL-2) and 11pts, 300 µg (DL-3)] one week after each chemotherapy cycle (concomitant module), while 10 out 12 pts received TSPP (300 µg) after 12 GOLFIG courses [dose level (DL)-0] (sequential module). TSPP MTD was not achieved. Adverse events consisted in swelling/erythema at injection sites (17 cases), G1-2 haematological (16 cases) and gastro-enteric events (12), fever, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and poly-arthralgia and rise in auto-antibodies [ANA, ENA, c-ANCA, p-ANCA in the DL1-3 pts]. Both treatment-modules showed immunomodulating and antitumor activity (disease-control-rate, DL1-3 and DL0 were 70.6% and 83.3%, respectively) with a better survival recorded in the second group [median OS DL1-3 vs DL0= 8 vs 16 months, P=0.049]. The promising long term survival produced by the sequential treatment module deserves further phase II evaluation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · OncoImmunology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent findings have elucidated that the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels is due to the synergistic and antagonist actions of transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Mutual interactions among these molecules are easily modeled and analyzed using graphs whose nodes are molecules, and directed edges represent the associations among them. In particular, small subgraphs having three nodes also referred to as feed-forward loops (FFLs) or regulatory loops play a crucial role in many different diseases, such as cancer. Available technological platforms enable the investigation of only a single aspect of these mechanisms, e.g., the quantification of levels of mRNA or miRNA. Consequently, there exist different data sources for investigating some aspects of this problem, e.g., miRNA-mRNA or TF-mRNA associations. The comprehensive analysis is made possible only by the integration and the analysis of these data sources. Currently, the interest of researchers in this area is growing, the number of projects is increasing, and the number of challenges and issues for computer scientists is considerable. The need for an introductive survey from a computer science point of view consequently arises. This survey starts by discussing general concepts related to production of data. Then, main existing approaches of analysis are presented and discussed. Future improvements and challenges are also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · EURASIP Journal on Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
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    ABSTRACT: The encapsulation of miR-34a into chitosan/PLGA nanoparticles in order to obtain nanoplexes useful for the modulation of the biopharmaceutical features of the active compound was studied. The nanoplexes were obtained through nanoprecipitation and were characterized by a mean diameter of ~160 nm, a good size distribution and a positive surface charge. The structure of the nanoparticles allowed a high level of entrapment efficiency of the miR-34a and provided protection of the genetic material from the effects of RNase. A high degree of transfection efficiency of the nanoplexes and a significant in vitro antitumor effect against multiple myeloma cells was demonstrated. The therapeutic properties of the nanoplexes were evaluated in vivo against human multiple myeloma xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. The systemic injection of miR-34a mimic-loaded nanoparticles significantly inhibited tumor growth and translated into improved survival of the laboratory mice. RT-PCR analysis carried out on retrieved tumors demonstrated the presence of a high concentration of miR-34a mimics. The integrity of the nanoplexes remained intact and no organ toxicity was observed in treated animals.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Erlotinib is a targeted agent commonly used in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). However, drug-related skin toxicity often may affect the quality of life of cancer patients and lead to treatment discontinuation. Genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes play a major role in the interindividual variability in terms of efficacy and toxicity of erlotinib treatment. The aim of our study was to identify genetic determinants in adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion genes influencing skin rash (SR) by the novel drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) microarray Affymetrix platform in aNSCLC patients. Methods: In a retrospective study, 34 erlotinib-treated aNSCLC patients were genotyped by DMET Plus chip: 23 patients experienced SR (cases), while 11 patients did not (controls). Peripheral blood DNA was genotyped. Genotype association was analyzed by Fisher's exact test, and the toxicity-associated gene sets underwent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)(®). Results: Seven SNPs in six genes (CYP27B1, MAT1A1, CHST1, CYP4B1, ADH6, and SLC22A1) were associated with the occurrence of SR or with a protective effect. Specifically, the rs8176345 in CYP27B1 gene was significantly correlated with SR (p = 0.0003, OR 55.55, 95 % CI 2.7036-1141.1707). The IPA on SR-related genes highlighted the role of a variety of canonical pathways including 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 biosynthesis, S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesis, and methionine degradation I (to homocysteine) in SR development. Conclusion: Although exploratory, this study indicates rs8176345 in CYP27B1 gene as significantly correlated with erlotinib-induced SR in aNSCLC patients probably through a mechanism mediated by vitamin D3 and inflammation at skin level.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of overexpressed miRNAs in multiple myeloma (MM) has progressively added a further level of complexity to MM biology. miRNA and gene expression profiles of two large representative MM datasets, available from retrospective and prospective series and encompassing a total of 249 patients at diagnosis, were analyzed by means of in silico integrative genomics methods, based on MAGIA2 and Micrographite computational procedures. We first identified relevant miRNA/transcription factors/target gene regulation circuits in the disease and linked them to biological processes. Members of the miR-99b/let-7e/miR-125a cluster, or of its paralog, upregulated in t(4;14), were connected with the specific transcription factors PBX1 and CEBPA and several target genes. These results were validated in two additional independent plasma cell tumor datasets. Then, we reconstructed a non-redundant miRNA-gene regulatory network in MM, linking miRNAs, such as let-7g, miR-19a, mirR-20a, mir-21, miR-29 family, miR-34 family, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-221 to pathways associated with MM subtypes, in particular the ErbB, the Hippo, and the Acute myeloid leukemia associated pathways.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The onset of drug-resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in multiple myeloma (MM). While increasing evidence is defining the role of microRNAs in mediating drug-resistance, their potential activity as drug-sensitizing agents has not yet been investigated in MM. Experimental design: Here we studied the potential utility of miR-221/222 inhibition in sensitizing refractory MM cells to melphalan. Results: MiR-221/222 expression inversely correlated with melphalan-sensitivity of MM cells. Inhibition of miR-221/222 overcame melphalan-resistance and triggered apoptosis of MM cells in vitro, in the presence or absence of human bone marrow stromal cells. Decreased MM cell growth induced by inhibition of miR-221/222 plus melphalan was associated with a marked upregulation of pro-apoptotic BBC3/PUMA protein, a miR-221/222 target, as well as with modulation of drug influx-efflux transporters SLC7A5/LAT1 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCC1/MRP1. Finally, in vivo treatment of SCID/NOD mice bearing human melphalan-refractory MM xenografts with systemic LNA-i-miR-221 plus melphalan overcame drug-resistance, evidenced by growth inhibition with significant antitumor effects together with modulation of PUMA and ABCC1 in tumors retrieved from treated mice. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings provide the proof of concept that LNA-i-miR-221 can reverse melphalan-resistance in preclinical models of MM, providing the framework for clinical trials to overcome drug resistance and improve patient outcome in MM.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: DIS3 is a catalytic subunit of the human exosome complex, containing exonucleolytic (RNB) and endonucleolytic (PIN) domains, recently found mutated in multiple myeloma (MM), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous form of plasma cell (PC) dyscrasia. We analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) the DIS3 PIN and RNB domains in purified bone marrow PCs from 164 representative patients, including 130 cases with MM, 24 with primary PC leukemia and 10 with secondary PC leukemia. DIS3 mutations were found respectively in 18.5%, 25% and 30% of cases. Identified variants were predominantly missense mutations localized in the RNB domain, and were often detected at low allele frequency. DIS3 mutations were preferentially carried by IGH-translocated/nonhyperdiploid patients. Sequential analysis at diagnosis and relapse in a subset of cases highlighted some instances of increasing DIS3 mutation burden during disease progression. NGS also revealed that the majority of DIS3 variants in mutated cases were comparably detectable at transcriptional level. Furthermore, gene expression profiling analysis in DIS3-mutated patients identified a transcriptional signature suggestive for impaired RNA exosome function. In conclusion, these data further support the pathological relevance of DIS3 mutations in plasma cell dyscrasias and suggest that DIS3 may represent a potential tumor suppressor gene in such disorders.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: miR-21 is an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) with an emerging role as therapeutic target in human malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Here we investigated whether miR-21 is involved in MM-related bone disease (BD). We found that miR-21 expression is dramatically enhanced, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is strongly reduced, in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) adherent to MM cells. On this basis, we validated the 3'UTR of OPG mRNA as miR-21 target. Constitutive miR-21 inhibition in lentiviral-transduced BMSCs adherent to MM cells restored OPG expression and secretion. Interestingly, miR-21 inhibition reduced RANKL production by BMSCs. Overexpression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), which is a direct and validated target of miR-21, antagonized STAT3-mediated RANKL gene activation. Finally, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of miR-21 inhibitors in BMSCs restores RANKL/OPG balance and dramatically impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-concept that miR-21 overexpression within MM-microenviroment plays a crucial role in bone resorption/apposition balance, supporting the design of innovative miR-21 inhibition-based strategies for MM-related BD.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: It is still uncertain if targeted therapy-based regimens in advanced gastric cancer actually produce survival benefit. To shed light on this important question, we performed a systematic review and meta-analyses on each relevant targeted-pathway. By searching literature databases and proceedings of major cancer meetings in the time-frame 2005-2014, 22 randomized clinical trials exploring targeted therapy for a total of 7022 advanced gastric cancer patients were selected and included in the final analysis. Benefit was demonstrated for antiangiogenic agents in terms of overall survival (HR 0.759; 95%CI 0.655-0.880; p<0.001). Conversely no benefit was found for EGFR pathway (HR 1.077; 95%CI 0.847-1.370; p= 0.543). Meta-analysis of HER-2 pathway confirmed improvement in terms of survival outcome, already known for this class of drugs (HR 0.823; 95%CI 0.722-0.939; p= 0.004). Pooled analysis demonstrated a significant survival benefit (OS: HR 0.823; PFS: HR 0.762) with acceptable tolerability profile for targeted-based therapies as compared to conventional treatments. This finding conflicts with the outcome of most individual studies, probably due to poor trial design or patients selection. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a significant survival benefit for targeted therapy in its whole, which can be ascribed to anti-angiogenic and anti-HER2 agents.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cancer biology & therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS) poly-epitope peptide (TSPP) is a 27-mer peptide vaccine containing the amino acidic sequences of three epitopes with HLA-A2.1-binding motifs of TS, an enzyme overexpressed in cancer cells, which plays a crucial role in DNA repair and replication. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we designed a phase Ib trial (TSPP/VAC1) to investigate, in a dose escalation setting, the safety and the biological activity of TSPP vaccination alone (arm A) or in combination with GM-CSF and IL-2 (arm B) in cancer patients. Twenty-one pretreated metastatic cancer patients, with a good performance status (ECOG ≤ 1) and no severe organ failure or immunological disease, were enrolled in the study (12 in arm A, nine in arm B) between April 2011 and January 2012, with a median follow-up of 28 months. TSPP resulted safe, and its maximal tolerated dose was not achieved. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. The most common adverse events were grade 2 dermatological reactions to the vaccine injection, cough, rhinitis, fever, poly-arthralgia, gastro-enteric symptoms and, to a lesser extent, moderate hypertension and hypothyroidism. We detected a significant rise in auto-antibodies and TS-epitope-specific CTL precursors. Furthermore, TSPP showed antitumor activity in this group of pretreated patients; indeed, we recorded one partial response and seven disease stabilizations (SD) in arm A, and three SD in arm B. Taken together, our findings provide the framework for the evaluation of the TSPP anti-tumor activity in further disease-oriented clinical trials.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a malignancy characterized by the hyperdiploid (HD-MM) and the non-hyperdiploid (nHD-MM) subtypes. To shed light within the molecular architecture of these subtypes, we used a novel integromics approach. By annotated MM patient mRNA/microRNA (miRNA) datasets, we investigated mRNAs and miRNAs profiles with relation to changes in transcriptional regulators expression. We found that HD-MM displays specific gene and miRNA expression profiles, involving the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)3 pathway as well as the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFβ) and the transcription regulator Nuclear Protein-1 (NUPR1). Our data define specific molecular features of HD-MM that may translate in the identification of novel relevant druggable targets.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: B cell malignancies frequently colonize the bone marrow. The mechanisms responsible for this preferential homing are incompletely understood. Here we studied multiple myeloma (MM) as a model of a terminally differentiated B cell malignancy that selectively colonizes the bone marrow. We found that extracellular CyPA (eCyPA), secreted by bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs), promoted the colonization and proliferation of MM cells in an in vivo scaffold system via binding to its receptor, CD147, on MM cells. The expression and secretion of eCyPA by BMECs was enhanced by BCL9, a Wnt-β-catenin transcriptional coactivator that is selectively expressed by these cells. eCyPA levels were higher in bone marrow serum than in peripheral blood in individuals with MM, and eCyPA-CD147 blockade suppressed MM colonization and tumor growth in the in vivo scaffold system. eCyPA also promoted the migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma cells, two other B cell malignancies that colonize the bone marrow and express CD147. These findings suggest that eCyPA-CD147 signaling promotes the bone marrow homing of B cell malignancies and offer a compelling rationale for exploring this axis as a therapeutic target for these malignancies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Nature medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is an attractive therapeutic target in multiple myeloma (MM). We here report that expression of IRF4 mRNA inversely correlates with microRNA (miR)-125b in MM patients. Moreover, we provide evidence that miR-125b is downregulated in TC2/3 molecular MM subgroups and in established cell lines. Importantly, constitutive expression of miR-125b-5p by lentiviral vectors or transfection with synthetic mimics impaired growth and survival of MM cells and overcame the protective role of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Apoptotic and autophagy-associated cell death were triggered in MM cells upon miR-125b-5p ectopic expression. Importantly, we found that the anti-MM activity of miR-125b-5p was mediated via direct downregulation of IRF4 and its downstream effector BLIMP-1. Moreover, inhibition of IRF4 translated into downregulation of c-Myc, caspase-10 and cFlip, relevant IRF4-downstream effectors. Finally, in vivo intra-tumor or systemic delivery of formulated miR-125b-5p mimics against human MM xenografts in SCID/NOD mice induced significant anti-tumor activity and prolonged survival. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that miR-125b, differently from other hematologic malignancies, has tumor suppressor activity in MM. Furthermore, our data provide proof-of-concept that synthetic miR-125b-5p mimics are promising anti-MM agents to be validated in early clinical trials.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 19 May 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.124.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non coding RNAs that regulate the gene expression and play a relevant role in physiopathological mechanisms such as development, proliferation, death, and differentiation of normal and cancer cells. Recently, abnormal expression of miRNAs has been reported in most of solid or hematopoietic malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM), where miRNAs have been found deeply dysregulated and act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Presently, the most recognized approach for definition of miRNA portraits is based on microarray profiling analysis. We here describe a workflow based on the identification of dysregulated miRNAs in plasma cells from MM patients based on Affymetrix technology. We describe how it is possible to search miRNA putative targets performing whole gene expression profile on MM cell lines transfected with miRNA mimics or inhibitors followed by luciferase reporter assay to analyze the specific targeting of the 3'untranslated region (UTR) sequence of a mRNA by selected miRNAs. These technological approaches are suitable strategies for the identification of relevant druggable targets in MM.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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    ABSTRACT: A wealth of studies has highlighted the biological complexity of hematologic malignancies and the role of dysregulated signal transduction pathways. Along with the crucial role of genetic abnormalities, epigenetic aberrations are nowadays emerging as relevant players in cancer development, and significant research efforts are currently focusing on mechanisms by which histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation and noncoding RNAs contribute to the pathobiology of cancer. As a consequence, these studies have provided the rationale for the development of epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating compounds, some of which are currently in advanced phase of pre-clinical investigation or in clinical trials. In addition, a more recent body of evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) might target effectors of the epigenetic machinery, which are aberrantly expressed or active in cancers, thus reverting those epigenetic abnormalities driving tumor initiation and progression. This review will focus on the broad epigenetic activity triggered by members of the miR-29 family, which underlines the potential of miR-29s as candidate epi-therapeutics for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Oncotarget

Publication Stats

5k Citations
998.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2016
    • Universita' degli Studi "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro
      • Department of Health Sciences
      Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy
  • 2009
    • Università degli Studi di Palermo
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • 2008-2009
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006-2009
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2008
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Medical Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1994-1998
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1994-1995
    • Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori
      Meldola, Emilia-Romagna, Italy