[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting mostly in children and young adults. The natural progression of this disease is largely unknown as is the identity of its true cell of origin. Here we present a model of peripheral ALCL pathogenesis where the malignancy is initiated in early thymocytes, before T-cell receptor (TCR) β-rearrangement, which is bypassed in CD4/NPM-ALK transgenic mice following Notch1 expression. However, we find that a TCR is required for thymic egress and development of peripheral murine tumours, yet this TCR must be downregulated for T-cell lymphomagenesis. In keeping with this, clonal TCR rearrangements in human ALCL are predominantly in-frame, but often aberrant, with clonal TCRα but no comparable clonal TCRβ rearrangement, yielding events that would not normally be permissive for survival during thymic development. Children affected by ALCL may thus harbour thymic lymphoma-initiating cells capable of seeding relapse after chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this EU-MCL network pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cutoff level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In ten relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) virtually always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. Trial identifier: NCT00209209 and NCT00209222.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
This study evaluated the efficacy of pediatric-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy in adults with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL).
Patients and methods:
This was a prospective phase II study in adults 18 to 59 years old with previously untreated LL. Patients were treated with an adapted pediatric-like ALL protocol, which included a corticosteroid prephase, a five-drug induction reinforced by sequential cyclophosphamide administration, dose-dense consolidation, late intensification, CNS prophylaxis, and a 2-year maintenance phase. Treatment response was assessed by computed tomography and optional positron emission tomography. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant was offered to selected patients in first complete remission (CR) or unconfirmed CR.
The study enrolled 148 patients (131 with T-lineage LL [T-LL] and 17 with B-lineage LL [B-LL]). A total of 119 patients with T-LL (90.8%) and 13 with B-LL (76.5%) reached CR/unconfirmed CR, including 26 with T-LL and two with B-LL who needed a second induction salvage course. Relapse occurred in 34 patients with T-LL and four with B-LL. In patients with T-LL, 3-year event-free survival was 63.3% (95% CI, 54.2% to 71.0%), disease-free survival was 72.4% (95% CI, 63.0% to 79.7%), and overall survival was 69.2% (95% CI, 60.0% to 76.7%). Multivariate analysis identified serum lactate dehydrogenase level and the NOTCH1/FBXW7/RAS/PTEN oncogene (a four-gene oncogenetic classifier) status but not positron emission tomography or hematopoietic stem cell transplant as independent prognostic factors for outcome in T-LL.
In adults with LL, an intensive pediatric-like ALL treatment protocol was associated with a good response rate and outcome. In patients with T-LL, the four-gene oncogenetic classifier and lactate dehydrogenase level were independent prognostic indicators.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-hypertensive treatment with the angiotensin II receptor antagonist olmesartan is a rare cause of severe Sprue-like enteropathy. To substantiate the hypothesis that olmesartan interferes with gut immune homeostasis, clinical, histopathological and immune features were compared in olmesartan-induced-enteropathy (OIE) and in autoimmune enteropathy (AIE).
Medical files of seven patients with OIE and 4 patients with AIE enrolled during the same period were retrospectively reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were collected for central histopathological review, T cell Receptor clonality and flow cytometric analysis of isolated intestinal lymphocytes.
Among seven olmesartan-treated patients who developed villous atrophy refractory to a gluten free diet, three had extra-intestinal autoimmune diseases, two had antibodies reacting with the 75 kilodalton antigen characteristic of AIE and one had serum anti-goblet cell antibodies. Small intestinal lesions and signs of intestinal lymphocyte activation were thus reminiscent of the four cases of AIE diagnosed during the same period. Before olmesartan discontinuation, remission was induced in all patients (7/7) by immunosuppressive drugs. After interruption of both olmesartan and immunosuppressive drugs in six patients, remission was maintained in 4 but anti-TNF-α therapy was needed in two.
This case-series shows that olmesartan can induce intestinal damage mimicking AIE. OIE usually resolved after olmesartan interruption but immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary to achieve remission. Our data sustain the hypothesis that olmesartan interferes with intestinal immuno regulation in predisposed individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) represents expansion of cells arrested at specific stages of thymic development with the underlying genetic abnormality often determining the stage of maturation arrest. Although their outcome has been improved with current therapy, survival rates remain only around 50% at 5 years and patients may therefore benefit from specific targeted therapy. Interleukin receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that mediates signaling downstream to Toll-like (TLR) and Interleukin-1 Receptors (IL1R). Our data demonstrated that IRAK1 is overexpressed in all subtypes of T-ALL, compared to normal human thymic subpopulations, and is functional in T-ALL cell lines. Genetic knock-down of IRAK1 led to apoptosis, cell cycle disruption, diminished proliferation and reversal of corticosteroid resistance in T-ALL cell lines. However, pharmacological inhibition of IRAK1 using a small molecule inhibitor (IRAK1/4-Inh) only partially reproduced the results of the genetic knock-down. Altogether, our data suggest that IRAK1 is a candidate therapeutic target in T-ALL and highlight the requirement of next generation IRAK1 inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (TALL) are aggressive malignant proliferations characterized by high relapse rates and great genetic heterogeneity. TAL1 is amongst the most frequently deregulated oncogenes. Yet, over half of the TAL1 þ cases lack TAL1 lesions, suggesting unrecognized (epi)genetic deregulation mechanisms. Here we show that TAL1 is normally silenced in the T-cell lineage, and that the polycomb H3K27me3-repressive mark is focally diminished in TAL1 þ T-ALLs. Sequencing reveals that 420% of monoallelic TAL1 þ patients without previously known alterations display microinsertions or RAG1/2-mediated episomal reintegration in a single site 5 0 to TAL1. Using 'allelic-ChIP' and CrispR assays, we demonstrate that such insertions induce a selective switch from H3K27me3 to H3K27ac at the inserted but not the germline allele. We also show that, despite a considerable mechanistic diversity, the mode of oncogenic TAL1 activation, rather than expression levels, impact on clinical outcome. Altogether, these studies establish site-specific epigenetic desilencing as a mechanism of oncogenic activation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: V(D)J recombination of TCR loci is regulated by chromatin accessibility to RAG1/2 proteins, rendering RAG1/2 targeting a potentially important regulator of lymphoid differentiation. We show that within the human TCR-α/δ locus, Dδ2-Dδ3 rearrangements occur at a very immature thymic, CD34(+)/CD1a(-)/CD7(+dim) stage, before Dδ2(Dδ3)-Jδ1 rearrangements. These strictly ordered rearrangements are regulated by mechanisms acting beyond chromatin accessibility. Importantly, direct Dδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements are prohibited by a B12/23 restriction and ordered human TCR-δ gene assembly requires RUNX1 protein, which binds to the Dδ2-23RSS, interacts with RAG1, and enhances RAG1 deposition at this site. This RUNX1-mediated V(D)J recombinase targeting imposes the use of two Dδ gene segments in human TCR-δ chains. Absence of this RUNX1 binding site in the homologous mouse Dδ1-23RSS provides a molecular explanation for the lack of ordered TCR-δ gene assembly in mice and may underlie differences in early lymphoid differentiation between these species.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropilins and semaphorins are known as modulators of axon guidance, angiogenesis, and organogenesis in the developing nervous system, but have been recently evidenced as also playing a role in the immune system. Here we describe the expression and role of semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) and its receptor neuropilin-2 (NRP2) in human T cell precursors. NRP2 and SEMA3F are expressed in the human thymus, in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments. SEMA3F have a repulsive effect on thymocyte migration and inhibited CXCL12- and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced thymocyte migration by inhibiting cytoskeleton reorganization prior to stimuli. Moreover, NRP2 and SEMA3F are expressed in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma primary cells. In these tumor cells, SEMA3F also blocks their migration induced by CXCL12 and S1P. Our data show that SEMA3F and NRP2 are further regulators of human thymocyte migration in physiological and pathological conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has undergone dramatic changes with the introduction of the WHO classification in 2001. This classification attempts to categorize AML into 4 major categories on the basis of morphologic, immunophenotypic, genetic and clinical features. All categories present a good intra-group homogeneity except for the subgroup with 11q23/MLL abnormalities11q23 abnormalities are generally associated with unfavorable prognosis. More than 50 partners have been described for MLL, and 35 of these partners have been cloned and analysed at the molecular level. The specific functional role of each specific fusion transcript on the progression and outcome of disease remains to be elucidated to be effective at the clinical level. Such heterogeneity is a technical challenge at the diagnostic level. Current standard diagnostic testing for patients with acute leukemia includes cytogenetics backed up by FISH and/or RT-PCR. This screening strategy can be cumbersome in the clinical setting, since identification of the fusion gene partner may involve multiple and time-consuming analysis. We present here the results of an international multi-center study aimed at assessing the clinical performance of the MLL FusionChip™ kit, a molecular device designed to confirm the 11q23 abnormality and identify the MLL fusion gene partner. A previous study showed that the analytical performance of this oncodiagnostic device is compatible with its claimed use. In the current study, sample inclusion criteria were made on the basis of the current standard diagnosis procedures. Overall agreement between routine diagnostic analysis and the MLL FusionChip™ kit was > 90%. These results collectively suggest that the MLL FusionChip™ may be a clinically feasible oncodiagnostic device to improve acute leukemia stratification and enrich minimal residual disease (MRD) follow-up. Further consequences of enhanced patient stratification could lead to personalized therapy expansion, and to optimized use of molecular target-based therapeutics.