[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The normal functions of the cells are based on a strict and regulated expression of various genes. If this precise hierarchy of gene actions becomes unregulated or disturbed due to different genetic or environmental effects, the result will be abnormal cellular function that eventually could lead pathological alterations, including carcinogenic transformation or apoptosis. To understand the complex mechanisms and networks involved in biological processes and diseases, it is not enough to analyze isolated pathways, single gene functions or a single genetic event. A living organism has to be studied as a complex system and all genes involved in different biological processes need to be analyzed simultaneously: a systems biology approach should be applied. In the beginning of the 1990's years, a new, high throughput technology - called microarray technology - was developed to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Microarrays have dramatically accelerated many types of investigation since a microarray experiment can accomplish many genetic tests in parallel. This review summarizes some of aspects of the microarray technology, including sample preparations, application possibilities and data analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on previous observations a potential resort in the therapy of the particularly radioresistant glioma would be its treatment with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) combined with irradiation.
We evaluated the effect of different UFAs (arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and oleic acid (OA)) on human U87 MG glioma cell line by classical biochemical end-point assays, impedance-based, real-time cellular and holographic microscopic analysis. We further analyzed AA, DHA, and GLA at morphological, gene and miRNA expression level.
Corresponding to LDH-, MTS assays and real-time cytoxicity profiles AA, DHA, and GLA enhanced the radio sensitivity of glioma cells. The collective application of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and irradiation significantly changed the expression of EGR1, TNF-α, NOTCH1, c-MYC, TP53, HMOX1, AKR1C1, NQO1, while up-regulation of GADD45A, EGR1, GRP78, DDIT3, c-MYC, FOSL1 were recorded both in response to PUFA treatment or irradiation alone. Among the analyzed miRNAs miR-146 and miR-181a were induced by DHA treatment. Overexpression of miR-146 was also detected by combined treatment of GLA and irradiation.
Because PUFAs increased the radio responsiveness of glioma cells as assessed by biochemical and cellular assays, they might increase the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in treatment of gliomas. We demonstrated that treatment with DHA, AA and GLA as adjunct to irradiation up-regulated the expression of oxidative-stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress related genes, and affected NOTCH1 expression, which could explain their additive effects.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the liver and it has limited treatment options.
In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of two novel amino-trifluoro-phtalimide analogs, Ac-915 and Ac-2010. Both compounds bind lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interact with several proteins with chaperone functions (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and protein disulfide isomerase) as determined by affinity chromatography and resonant waveguide optical biosensor technology. Both compounds inhibited protein disulfide isomerase activity and induced cell death of different HCC cells at sub or low micromolar ranges detected by classical biochemical end-point assay as well as with real-time label-free measurements. Besides cell proliferation inhibiton, analogs also inhibited cell migration even at 250 nM. Relative biodistribution of the analogs was analysed in native tissue sections of different organs after administration of drugs, and by using fluorescent confocal microscopy based on the inherent blue fluorescence of the compounds. The analogs mainly accumulated in the liver. The effects of Ac-915 and Ac-2010 were also demonstrated on the advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced HCC. Significantly less tumor development was found in the livers of the Ac-915- or Ac-2010-treated groups compared with control mice, characterized by less liver tumor incidence, fewer tumors and smaller tumor size.
These results imply that these amino-trifluoro-phthalimide analogs could serve potent clinical candidates against HCC alone or in combination with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the liver and it has limited treatment options. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of two novel amino-trifluoro-phtalimide analogs, Ac-915 and Ac-2010. Both compounds bind lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interact with several proteins with chaperone functions (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and protein disulfide isomerase) as determined by affinity chromatography and resonant waveguide optical biosensor technology. Both compounds inhibited protein disulfide isomerase activity and induced cell death of different HCC cells at sub or low micromolar ranges detected by classical biochemical end-point assay as well as with real-time label-free measurements. Besides cell proliferation inhibiton, analogs also inhibited cell migration even at 250 nM. Relative biodistribution of the analogs was analysed in native tissue sections of different organs after administration of drugs, and by using fluorescent confocal microscopy based on the inherent blue fluorescence of the compounds. The analogs mainly accumulated in the liver. The effects of Ac-915 and Ac-2010 were also demonstrated on the advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis were also demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced HCC. Significantly less tumor development was found in the livers of the Ac-915- or Ac-2010-treated groups compared with control mice, characterized by less liver tumor incidence, fewer tumors and smaller tumor size. These results imply that these amino-trifluoro-phthalimide analogs could serve potent clinical candidates against HCC alone or in combination with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study our objective was to extend in vivo toxicogenomic screening from analyzing one or a few tissues to multiple organs, including heart, kidney, brain, liver and spleen. Nanocapillary quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used in the study, due to its higher throughput, sensitivity and reproducibility, and larger dynamic range compared to DNA microarray technologies. Based on previous data, 56 gene markers were selected coding for proteins with different functions, such as proteins for acute phase response, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, heat-shock response, cell cycle/apoptosis regulation and enzymes which are involved in detoxification. Some of the marker genes are specific to certain organs, and some of them are general indicators of toxicity in multiple organs. Utility of the nanocapillary QRT-PCR platform was demonstrated by screening different references, as well as discovery of drug-like compounds for their gene expression profiles in different organs of treated mice in an acute experiment. For each compound, 896 QRT-PCR were done: four organs were used from each of the treated four animals to monitor the relative expression of 56 genes. Based on expression data of the discovery gene set of toxicology biomarkers the cardio- and nephrotoxicity of doxorubicin and sulfasalazin, the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of rotenone, dihydrocoumarin and aniline, and the liver toxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene could be confirmed. The acute heart and kidney toxicity of the active metabolite SN-38 from its less toxic prodrug, irinotecan could be differentiated, and two novel gene markers for hormone replacement therapy were identified, namely fabp4 and pparg, which were down-regulated by estradiol treatment.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary deficiency of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 DEF) produces hypertension in later life. This study examined the effect of ω-3 DEF on blood pressure and hypothalamic gene expression in young rats, before the development of hypertension, and in older rats following the onset of hypertension. Animals were fed experimental diets that were deficient in ω-3 fatty acids, sufficient in short-chain ω-3 fatty acids or sufficient in short- and long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, from the prenatal period until 10 or 36 weeks-of-age. There was no difference in blood pressure between groups at 10 weeks-of-age; however, at 36 weeks-of-age ω-3 DEF animals were hypertensive in relation to sufficient groups. At 10 weeks, expression of angiotensin-II(1A) receptors and dopamine D(3) receptors were significantly increased in the hypothalamic tissue of ω-3 DEF animals. In contrast, at 36 weeks, α(2a) and β(1) adrenergic receptor expression was significantly reduced in the ω-3 DEF group. Brain docosahexaenoic acid was significantly lower in ω-3 DEF group compared with sufficient groups. This study demonstrates that dietary ω-3 DEF causes changes both in the expression of key genes involved in central blood pressure regulation and in blood pressure. The data may indicate that hypertension resulting from ω-3 DEF is mediated by the central adrenergic system.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Hypertension Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as γ-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have cytotoxic action on glioma cells.
We evaluated the cytotoxic action of GLA, AA and DHA on glioma cells with specific reference to the expression of miRNAs. Relative expression of miRNAs were assessed by using high throughput nanocapillary real-time PCR. Most of the miRNA target genes that showed altered expression could be classified as apoptotic genes and were up-regulated by PUFA or temozolomide treatment, while similar treatments resulted in repression of the corresponding mRNAs, such as cox2, irs1, irs2, ccnd1, itgb3, bcl2, sirt1, tp53inp1 and k-ras.
Our results highlight involvement of miRNAs in the induction of apoptosis in glioma cells by fatty acids and temozolomide.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic lipid-droplets are common inclusions of eukaryotic cells. Lipid-droplet binding thalidomide analogs (2,6-dialkylphenyl-4/5-amino-substituted-5,6,7-trifluorophthalimides) with potent anticancer activities were synthesized.
Cytotoxicity was detected in different cell lines including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma at micromolar concentrations. The synthesized analogs are non-toxic to adult animals up to 1 g/kg but are teratogenic to zebrafish embryos at micromolar concentrations with defects in the developing muscle. Treatment of tumor cells resulted in calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ER stress and cell death. Antioxidants could partially, while an intracellular calcium chelator almost completely diminish ROS production. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid induced calcium release and ROS generation, and synergized with the analogs in vitro, while oleic acid had no such an effect. Gene expression analysis confirmed the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway components, such as GADD153, ATF3, Luman/CREB3 and the ER-associated degradation-related HERPUD1 genes. Tumor suppressors, P53, LATS2 and ING3 were also up-regulated in various cell lines after drug treatment. Amino-phthalimides down-regulated the expression of CCL2, which is implicated in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis.
Because of the anticancer, anti-angiogenic action and the wide range of applicability of the immunomodulatory drugs, including thalidomide analogs, lipid droplet-binding members of this family could represent a new class of agents by affecting ER-membrane integrity and perturbations of ER homeostasis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential structural components of all cell membranes and, more so, of the central nervous system. Several studies revealed that n-3 PUFAs possess anti-inflammatory actions and are useful in the treatment of dyslipidemia. These actions explain the beneficial actions of n-3 PUFAs in the management of cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory conditions, neuronal dysfunction, and cancer. But, the exact molecular targets of these beneficial actions of n-3 PUFAs are not known. Mice engineered to carry a fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans add a double bond into an unsaturated fatty acid hydrocarbon chain and convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. This results in an abundance of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid specifically in the brain and a reduction in n-6 fatty acids of these mice that can be used to evaluate the actions of n-3 PUFAs. Gene expression profile, RT-PCR and protein microarray studies in the hippocampus and whole brain of wild-type and fat-1 transgenic mice revealed that genes and proteins concerned with inflammation, apoptosis, neurotransmission, and neuronal growth and synapse formation are specifically modulated in fat-1 mice. These results may explain as to why n-3 PUFAs are of benefit in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and other diseases associated with neuronal dysfunction, low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, and bronchial asthma. Based on these data, it is evident that n-3 PUFAs act to modulate specific genes and formation of their protein products and thus, bring about their various beneficial actions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adriamycin (ADR) provokes lipid peroxidation process, while melatonin (MEL) is a free radical scavenger that has been found to protect against lipid peroxidation in vitro and in many experimental models. In the present study, the effects of ADR and the combination of ADR and MEL were analyzed on the modulation of fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation and gene expression in rat liver. Sixty genes were selected for the study of relative gene expression changes in the liver. ADR treatment decreased the polyunsaturated fatty acids C22:6 n-3 and C20:4 n-6 in rat liver mitochondria. When the treatment of ADR was followed by MEL, decrease in these fatty acids could not be detected. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation was observed after administration of ADR, which was restored to control values by post-treatment with MEL. Gene expression profiles of ADR- versus ADR+MEL-treated rat livers indicated that both treatments induced significant changes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 60 genes involved in oxidative stress revealed that cyp1b1, which is involved in electron transport, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a that possesses cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity, was induced at a more pronounced level in the ADR+MEL-treated samples than in the ADR-treated ones. Several genes having roles in heat-shock response were downregulated in MEL-treated animals, such as hsp40, hsp70 and hsp90 proteins reflecting the reduced oxidative stress in these animals. Global gene expression analysis will highlight the gene expression changes accompanying oxidative damage and its prevention in more details.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Pineal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potassium (K(+)) channels of human peripheral lymphocytes play a considerable role in the signalling processes required for immune responses. Modification of the fatty acid composition of the membrane influences the functions of various membrane enzymes and ion channels. We set out to establish how the incorporation of fatty acids with different carbon chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation into the cell membrane influences the function of K(V)1.3 channels of lymphocytes, thereby potentially modifying the immune responses of the cells. The incorporation of the fatty acids into the cell membrane was monitored by gas chromatography. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that the polyunsaturated linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid all decreased the activation and inactivation time constants of the K(V)1.3 channels, but did not affect the voltage-dependence of steady-state activation and steady-state inactivation of the channels. Treatment with the saturated palmitic acid, stearic acid and the monounsaturated oleic acid did not result in significant changes in the biophysical parameters of K(V)1.3 gating studied. We conclude that the incorporation of fatty acids unsaturated to different degrees into the cell membrane of lymphocytes influenced the rate of gating transitions but not the equilibrium distribution of the channels between different states. This effect depended on the degree of unsaturation and the chain length of the fatty acids: no effects of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1) were observed whereas treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2, 20:4 and 22:6) resulted in significant changes in the channel kinetics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The applications of 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) technologies in nutritional studies have opened new possibilities to understand the effects and the action of different diets both in healthy and diseased states and help to define personalized diets and to develop new drugs that revert or prevent the negative dietary effects. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have already been investigated for potential gene-diet interactions in the response to different lipid diets. It is also well-known that besides the known cellular effects of lipid nutrition, dietary lipids influence gene expression in a tissue, concentration and age-dependent manner. Protein expression and post-translational changes due to different diets have been reported as well. To understand the molecular basis of the effects and roles of dietary lipids high-throughput functional genomic methods such as DNA- or protein microarrays, high-throughput NMR and mass spectrometry are needed to assess the changes in a global way at the genome, at the transcriptome, at the proteome and at the metabolome level. The present review will focus on different high-throughput technologies from the aspects of assessing the effects of dietary fatty acids including cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Several genes were identified that exhibited altered expression in response to fish-oil treatment of human lung cancer cells, including protein kinase C, natriuretic peptide receptor-A, PKNbeta, interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) and diacylglycerol kinase genes by using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Other results will also be mentioned obtained from cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acid fed animals by using DNA- and protein microarrays.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Current pharmaceutical biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiencies in essential, mainly omega-3 and omega-6 (n-3, n-6) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) result in visual and cognitive impairment and disturbances in mental functions in animals and could be the main reason for the increasing incidence of different mental disorders in humans. Traditional approaches cannot give us a detailed picture on how dietary lipids exert their effects, because they focus on only a few genes or biomarkers. Dietary lipids not only influence the biophysical state of the cell membranes but, via direct and indirect routes, they also act on multiple pathways including signalling and gene and protein activities. Therefore, to understand the molecular basis of the effects and roles of n-3 PUFA in the central nervous system global screening techniques such as DNA- or protein microarrays were used to assess the changes, in a global way, at the transcriptome and at the proteome level. With DNA microarrays we found that cholesterol and fish oil (high in PUFA) diets altered the expression of several genes involved in raft formation and membrane protrusions. By using protein microarrays we detected a decreased concentration of protein kinase C beta, gamma, phospholipase C gamma and other changes in the expression level of proteins involved in the signal transduction pathway in the brain in response to high cholesterol diet. Besides the known cellular effects of lipid nutritions (changing eicosanoid make up, effects on membrane fluidity and raft stability) it is now evident that dietary lipids influence gene and protein activity levels, protein modifications and probably play important role in modulating protein aggregation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Nutrition and health (Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the clinical efficacy of the most thoroughly studied conventional neuroleptic agent haloperidol, and the atypical antipsychotic risperidone is well established, little information is available on their molecular effects. Recent advances in high-density DNA microarray techniques allow the possibility to analyze thousands of genes simultaneously for their differential gene expression patterns in various biological processes, and to determine mechanisms of drug action. The aim of this series of experiments was to gain experience in antipsychotic gene-expression profiling and characterize (in the parlance of genomics) the "antipsychotic transcriptome." In this prospective animal study, broad-scale gene expression profiles were characterized for brains of rats treated with antipsychotics and compared with those of sham controls. We used DNA microarrays containing 8000 sequences to measure the expression patterns of multiple genes in rat fronto-temporo-parietal cortex after intraperitoneal treatment with haloperidol or risperidone. A number of transcripts were differentially expressed between control and treated samples, of which only 36 and 89 were found to significantly differ in expression as a result of exposure to haloperidol or risperidone, respectively (P<0.05). Acutely, 13 genes were more highly expressed and 15 transcripts were found to be significantly less abundant, whereas chronically nine genes were up-regulated and none of them was repressed in haloperidol-treated cortices. Risperidone acutely induced 43 and repressed 46 genes, and chronically over-expressed 6 and down-regulated 11 transcripts. Selected genes were assayed by real-time PCR, then normalized to beta-actin. These assays confirmed the significance of the array results for all transcripts tested. Despite their differing receptor affinity and selectivity, our findings indicate that haloperidol and risperidone interfere with cell survival, neural plasticity, signal transduction, ionic homeostasis and metabolism in a similar manner.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Neurochemistry International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently reported that lipid structure regulates the interaction with membranes, recruitment to membranes, and distribution to membrane domains of heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma proteins, Galpha subunits, and Gbetagamma dimers (J Biol Chem 279:36540-36545, 2004). Here, we demonstrate that modulation of the membrane structure not only determines G protein localization but also regulates the function of G proteins and related signaling proteins. In this context, the antitumor drug daunorubicin (daunomycin) and oleic acid changed the membrane structure and inhibited G protein activity in biological membranes. They also induced marked changes in the activity of the alpha(2A/D)-adrenergic receptor and adenylyl cyclase. In contrast, elaidic and stearic acid did not change the activity of the above-mentioned proteins. These fatty acids are chemical but not structural analogs of oleic acid, supporting the structural basis of the modulation of membrane lipid organization and subsequent regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. In addition, oleic acid (and also daunorubicin) did not alter G protein activity in a membrane-free system, further demonstrating the involvement of membrane structure in this signal modulation. The present work also unravels in part the molecular bases involved in the antihypertensive (Hypertension 43:249-254, 2004) and anticancer (Mol Pharmacol 67:531-540, 2005) activities of synthetic oleic acid derivatives (e.g., 2-hydroxyoleic acid) as well as the molecular bases of the effects of diet fats on human health.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Molecular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) influences the expression of a number of genes in the brain. Zinc transporter (ZnT) 3 has been identified as a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles of neurons and is found in brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Neuronal zinc is involved in the formation of amyloid plaques, a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The present study evaluated the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on the expression of the ZnT3 gene in the brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were raised and/or maintained on a control (CON) diet that contained omega-3 PUFA or a diet deficient (DEF) in omega-3 PUFA. ZnT3 gene expression was analyzed by using real-time PCR, free zinc in brain tissue was determined by zinquin staining, and total zinc concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had increased expression of ZnT3 in the brain that was associated with an increased level of free zinc in the hippocampus. In addition, compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had decreased plasma zinc level. No difference in cerebrospinal fluid zinc level was observed. The results suggest that overexpression of ZnT3 due to a perinatal omega-3 PUFA deficiency caused abnormal zinc metabolism in the brain. Conceivably, the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism could explain the observation made in population studies that the consumption of fish is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the function and metabolism of peripheral lymphocytes is known to be altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pilot study was carried out to examine differences in gene expression profiles of these cells in 16 AD patients and aged control probands. Using a cDNA microarray representing 3200 distinct human genes, we identified 20 candidate genes whose expression is altered in AD lymphocytes compared with the control probands. Among these were the alpha2C-adrenoreceptor gene, known to regulate blood pressure and learning, the defensin, histocompability complex enhancer-binding protein, carboxypeptidase M, and the Fc fragment of IgE known to be involved in cellular and humoral immune responses. Others, like human cell death protein, TRAIL, and galectin-4 participate in the regulation of apoptosis. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed in order to confirm the expression changes in AD lymphocytes, and it could detect down-regulation of defensin and alpha2c-adrenoceptor genes, while other genes seemed unaltered in their expression, including heat-shock protein (hsp90), cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB). The altered expression profile of these genes might be connected with the previously reported AD-specific lymphocyte abnormalities. It remains to be elucidated, however, how these genes are related to the pathomechanism of dementia and whether the gene expression differences of AD lymphocytes reflect disease traits or stage processes.