[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation procedure (SDA), the afferent fibers of the vagus are surgically severed unilaterally where they enter the brain stem. The technique includes a subdiaphragmal truncal vagotomy performed on the contralateral side. This procedure has been used to study the control of food intake, but it has not been used previously to investigate the role of vagal afferent fibers in the control of gastric emptying (GE). The current experiment studied the effect of SDA on the inhibition of GE by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in awake, unrestrained rats with gastric cannulas. The experimental group underwent subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation; the control group had sham operations. All rats received 20-min intravenous infusions of IAPP (1, 3, 9, 27, and 81 pmol/kg/min), CCK (3, 30 and 90 pmol/kg/min), and normal saline in random order. Gastric emptying of saline was measured by the phenol red method during the last 5 min of each infusion period. CCK dose-dependently inhibited gastric emptying in both the control and SDA animals. The inhibition of GE by CCK was significantly attenuated by SDA (p<0.01). IAPP also inhibited gastric emptying dose-dependently, but the difference between the SDA and control groups was not significant. The current experiment, which used a different methodology than previous studies, provides support for the hypothesis that the inhibition of gastric emptying by CCK, but not by IAPP, is mediated partly by afferent vagal fibers.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Regulatory Peptides
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After Golgi-Cajal mapped neural circuits, the discovery and mapping of the central monoamine neurons opened up for a new understanding of interneuronal communication by indicating that another form of communication exists. For instance, it was found that dopamine may be released as a prolactin inhibitory factor from the median eminence, indicating an alternative mode of dopamine communication in the brain. Subsequently, the analysis of the locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons demonstrated a novel type of lower brainstem neuron that monosynaptically and globally innervated the entire CNS. Furthermore, the ascending raphe serotonin neuron systems were found to globally innervate the forebrain with few synapses, and where deficits in serotonergic function appeared to play a major role in depression. We propose that serotonin reuptake inhibitors may produce antidepressant effects through increasing serotonergic neurotrophism in serotonin nerve cells and their targets by transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), involving direct or indirect receptor/RTK interactions. Early chemical neuroanatomical work on the monoamine neurons, involving primitive nervous systems and analysis of peptide neurons, indicated the existence of alternative modes of communication apart from synaptic transmission. In 1986, Agnati and Fuxe introduced the theory of two main types of intercellular communication in the brain: wiring and volume transmission (WT and VT). Synchronization of phasic activity in the monoamine cell clusters through electrotonic coupling and synaptic transmission (WT) enables optimal VT of monoamines in the target regions. Experimental work suggests an integration of WT and VT signals via receptor-receptor interactions, and a new theory of receptor-connexin interactions in electrical and mixed synapses is introduced. Consequently, a new model of brain function must be built, in which communication includes both WT and VT and receptor-receptor interactions in the integration of signals. This will lead to the unified execution of information handling and trophism for optimal brain function and survival.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Brain Research Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of postoperative delirium (POD) in elderly patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and to identify factors associated with delirium in this population.
Data were collected prospectively from 51 patients aged 65 years or more. Delirium was diagnosed by the Confusion Assessment Method and from the medical records. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to identify cognitive impairment.
POD occurred in 26 of 51 patients. Delirium lasted for 1-2 days in 14 patients (short POD group) and 3 days or more in 12 patients (long POD group). The latter patients had significantly greater intraoperative blood loss and intravenous fluid infusion, a higher rate of postoperative complications, a lower MMSE score on postoperative day 4 and a longer hospital stay than patients without POD. Patients in the short POD group were significantly older than those in the long POD group and those who did not develop delirium.
Approximately half of the elderly patients in this study developed POD. Bleeding was found to be an important risk factor for delirium.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · British Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment investigated the influence of age on prefrontal acetylcholine (ACh) release and Fos response in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of rats following isoflurane anesthesia. It is known that isoflurane decreases acetylcholine release in most brain regions. In the present study, we found that the level of prefrontal acetylcholine was significantly lower in 28-month-old rats (14% of baseline) than in 3-month-old rats (38% of baseline) during 2 h of isoflurane anesthesia (P < 0.05). The old rat group showed significantly greater Fos induction in the paraventricular nucleus compared to the young adult rat group (P < 0.05), indicating that the old rats were subjected to stress. No difference in Fos response was noted in the nucleus tractus solitarius. The old rats displayed a significant increase in feeding behavior during the 3-h recovery period (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in overall acetylcholine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that isoflurane anesthesia influences old rats more profoundly than young adult rats with regard to reductions in acetylcholine release and stress responses. This may have implications for understanding the development of postoperative delirium in aged patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Experimental Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intercalated cell masses are GABAergic neurons interposed between the major input and output structures of the amygdala. Dopaminergic projections to the main and paracapsular intercalated islands were examined by determining the relationship of the dopamine nerve-terminal networks to the D1-receptor immunoreactive staining of cells within the intercalated islands, using double-fluorescence immunolabelling procedures in combination with confocal laser microscopy. The relationship of terminals positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (noradrenaline and/or adrenaline) to terminals positive for tyrosine hydroxylase but negative for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine terminals) was studied in relation to the D1-receptor immunoreactivity in adjacent sections at various rostrocaudal levels. The microscopy and image analysis revealed that there was only a minor dopaminergic innervation of the D1 receptor-immunoreactive cells in the rostromedial and caudal component of the main intercalated island, suggesting volume transmission as the main communication mode for dopamine in these regions. In contrast, the D1 receptor-immunoreactive areas in the rostrolateral part of the main island and also the paracapsular intercalated islands showed a high degree of dopaminergic innervation, indicating that synaptic and perisynaptic dopamine transmission plays a dominant role in these regions. It is known that amygdala neurons are involved in the elicitation and learning of fear-related behaviors. We suggest that slow dopaminergic volume transmission in the rostromedial and caudal parts of the main intercalated island may have a role in tonic excitatory modulation in these parts of the main island, allowing GABAergic activity to develop in the central amygdaloid nucleus and thereby contributing to inhibition of fear-related behavioral and autonomic responses. In contrast, a faster synaptic and perisynaptic dopaminergic transmission in the rostrolateral part of the main intercalated island and in the paracapsular intercalated islands may have a role in allowing a more rapid elicitation of fear-related behaviors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurochemical, molecular, immunohistochemical and behavioral methods were used to examine the in vivo effects of the neuropeptide galanin on central 5-HT neurotransmission and on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated responses. Intraventricularly infused galanin caused a long-lasting and dose-dependent reduction of basal extracellular 5-HT levels in the ventral hippocampus of awake rats as measured by microdialysis. Infusion of galanin into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), but not intra-hippocampally, reduced 5-HT release. The effect of i.c.v. galanin on 5-HT release was blocked by the galanin receptor antagonist M35, acting most likely via galanin receptors at the level of the DRN. Galanin also reduced the levels of tryptophanhydroxylase mRNA in the DRN. Therefore, the effects of galanin on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated responses were further investigated. Surprisingly, galanin significantly attenuated the reduction of hippocampal 5-HT release induced by systemic injection of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT. Galanin also attenuated 8-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia and locomotor activity in rats. These results indicate that galanin has important inhibitory actions on central 5-HT neurotransmission and on 5-HT(1A) receptor-mediated events.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2002 · Neuropsychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distributions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive (IR) varicosities and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A receptor (5-HT2A)-IR neuronal structures in the rat brain have previously been described individually. Using double labeling immunocytochemistry, the relationships between 5-HT2A-IR and 5-HT-IR elements in the forebrain of male rats has been studied at the light microscopic level. In neocortical regions (frontal, parietal and retrosplenial cortex), the strongest 5-HT2A-IR was found in the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layers III-V, while 5-HT-IR terminal-like varicosities were present in all layers but most prominently in the outer layers. In other forebrain regions, the olfactory bulb, the hippocampal formation, and the islands of Calleja and Calleja magna, localized discrepancies were present between the 5-HT2A-IR neuronal profiles and the 5-HT-IR terminal-like varicosities. Hardly any additional juxtapositions between the 5-HT2A-IR neuronal profiles and 5-HT-IR terminal-like varicosities were revealed when the intraneuronal level of 5-HT was increased by monoamine oxidase inhibitor pretreatment (nialamide, 250 mg/kg, 3 h). Thus, in most forebrain regions, there were overall few juxtapositions between 5-HT terminal-like varicosities and 5-HT2A-IR neuronal structures. This observation suggests that 5-HT2A receptor mediated 5-HT transmission in the rat forebrain is mainly a volume transmission process mediated via short distance diffusion in the extra-cellular space.
No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report characterizes an in vivo intracerebral long-distance diffusion model using dual-probe microdialysis. Two probes 1 mm apart were implanted into the striatum of control and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned halothane-anaesthetized male rats. Either tritiated dopamine (500 nM 3H-DA) or mannitol (1.5 microM 3H-mannitol) was infused continuously for 5 h, while samples were collected from the other probe. Samples (10 microl) were counted by liquid scintillation. For the DA-infused rats, another 10 microL was separated with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemical detection into individual fractions containing 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillinic acid (HVA), and counted for beta-decay. The total transfer of 3H-labelled compounds described the overall effect of cellular uptake, metabolism and clearance into the microcirculation, and was compared with that of an extracellular marker, 3H-mannitol. The migration reached steady-state levels, generating an equilibrium between delivery and removal from the extracellular space. The half-time of the steady-state values, t50%, was in all cases lower in 6-OHDA-treated rats compared with control. In addition, the t50% values of 3H-mannitol were lower than those following the 3H-dopamine infusion in both control or 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. However, it was not possible to detect any unmetabolized 3H-dopamine at the 1 mm distance. In conclusion, the dual-probe microdialysis approach proved to be a valid method to study in vivo diffusion and migration in the brain, and the intracerebral spread of compounds highly depends on the nature of the compound infused.
No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · European Journal of Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This report characterizes an in vivo intracerebral long-distance diffusion model using dual-probe microdialysis. Two probes 1 mm apart were implanted into the striatum of control and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned halothane-anaesthetized male rats. Either tritiated dopamine (500 nm3H-DA) or mannitol (1.5 m3H-mannitol) was infused continuously for 5 h, while samples were collected from the other probe. Samples (10 l) were counted by liquid scintillation. For the DA-infused rats, another 10 L was separated with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrochemical detection into individual fractions containing 3,4-dihydroxy phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillinic acid (HVA), and counted for -decay. The total transfer of 3H-labelled compounds described the overall effect of cellular uptake, metabolism and clearance into the microcirculation, and was compared with that of an extracellular marker, 3H-mannitol. The migration reached steady-state levels, generating an equilibrium between delivery and removal from the extracellular space. The half-time of the steady-state values, t50%, was in all cases lower in 6-OHDA-treated rats compared with control. In addition, the t50% values of 3H-mannitol were lower than those following the 3H-dopamine infusion in both control or 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. However, it was not possible to detect any unmetabolized 3H-dopamine at the 1 mm distance. In conclusion, the dual-probe microdialysis approach proved to be a valid method to study in vivo diffusion and migration in the brain, and the intracerebral spread of compounds highly depends on the nature of the compound infused.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · European Journal of Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular composition and functional properties of cell–cell junctions of choroid plexus epithelial cells and the ependyma of the lateral ventricular wall were investigated in the rat brain. Expression studies of cadherin and α- and β-catenins, as well as expression of occludin and ZO-1, indicated that cell adherens and tight junctions were present in both choroid plexus epithelial cells and in ependymal cells. We then tested the hypothesis that phorbolester in vivo can induce changes in the expression level of adherens and tight junction molecules at the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as in the ependyma. In addition, the functional properties of the ependymal junctions were tested by injection of dextran 3000 into the striatum after phorbolester application. Twenty-four hours after phorbolester-injection into the lateral ventricle of the rat brain, the expression patterns of tight and adherens junction molecules were markedly changed in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. The adherens junction proteins cadherin and β-catenin were reduced in both the ependymal cells of the lateral ventricle and choroid plexus epithelial cells. In addition, the occludin-immunoreactivity of the choroid plexus epithelial cells was strongly reduced. However, the ZO-1 immunoreactivity was not affected by the phorbol ester-treatment and the α-catenin immunoreactivity was not changed. Furthermore, phorbol ester injection induced a reduction of the volume of intrastriatal injected biotinylated dextran (m.w. 3000), which is consistent with a modulatory influence of protein kinase C activation on the clearance capacity of the brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of numerous studies utilizing intraventricular administration of porcine galanin (1-29), little is known about the spread and cellular distribution of exogenous galanin following intraventricular administration. In this study a discrete nerve cell body population with their dendrites became strongly galanin immunoreactive (IR) in the dorsal hippocampus following intraventricular porcine galanin (1.5 nmol/rat). Time course experiments showed that after time intervals of 10 and 20 min, but not at 60 min, scattered small- to medium-sized galanin-IR nerve cell bodies and their dendrites were present in all layers of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. In double-immunolabeling experiments most of these nerve cells were identified as putative GABA interneurons costoring NPY-IR or somatostatin-IR in some cases. Twenty minutes after intraventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), only endogenous punctate and coarse galanin-IR terminals were found, but no galanin-IR cell bodies. Intrahippocampal injection of fluorophore-labeled galanin resulted in the appearance of fluorescent nerve cell bodies with the same morphology and localization as in the above experiments. Coadministration of the putative galanin antagonist M35 (0.5 nmol) and galanin (1.5 nmol) resulted in a reduced number of galanin-IR nerve cell bodies in the hippocampus of half of the rats. These findings support the existence of a population of putative hippocampal GABA interneurons with the ability to internalize and concentrate galanin and/or its fragments present in the extracellular fluid, possibly mediated by galanin receptors.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Experimental Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of an acute administration of the vigilance-promoting drug modafinil ((+/-)(diphenyl-methyl)-sulfinyl-2 acetamide; Modiodal) on the nigrostriatal dopamine system was studied after damage induced by MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) by means of immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and a stereological method. MPTP (40 mg/kg) reduced from 24,380 +/- 902 to 13,501 +/- 522 and from 37,868 +/- 3300 to 20,568 +/- 1270, respectively, the number of TH immunoreactive (IR) and non-TH IR nigral neurons. Co-administration of Modafinil restored to normal the number of these neuronal populations. MPTP treatment induced also a reduction in the volume of TH IR neurons, which was counteracted by Modafinil administration. The data provide morphological evidence, based on unbiased stereological analysis, for a potential neuroprotective role of Modafinil, not only in dopaminergic neurons, but also with a similar magnitude in the non-DA nerve cell population of the substantia nigra after MPTP lesion. These results suggest that Modafinil has a neuroprotective role in the substantia nigra via a still undefined mechanism in which a crucial role of DA uptake blockade should be excluded. Modafinil may therefore have a therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative processes such as those occurring in Parkinson's disease.
No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The terms 'wiring' and 'volume' transmission (WT and VT) have been introduced to provide a systematic categorization of intercellular communication in the brain. WT is one-to-one transmission and includes classical synapses, gap junctions and membrane juxtapositions, whereas VT is a one-to-many transmission and includes paracrine and endocrine-like transmissions in the brain extracellular space and cerebrospinal fluids. Any brain cell can participate in WT and VT and any kind of substance (e.g. ions, classical transmitters, peptides, neurosteroids) can be a signal in WT and VT. These concepts are relevant for the pharmacokinetics and actions of neuropsychoactive drugs. These drugs can be regarded as exogenous VT signals in that they diffuse in the cerebral extracellular space and are constrained there by the same factors that influence migration of endogenous VT signals. In addition, neuropsychoactive drugs can better mimic and more effectively interact with the relatively unconstrained VT-type transmissions than with the rigidly constrained WT mechanisms, such as synaptic transmission.
Full-text · Article · May 1999 · Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle of adult and postnatal male rats were compared with the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter immunoreactivities. An overall co-distribution of D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. However, the major finding in this study was, following a more detailed analysis in coronal sections of the shell part of the nucleus accumbens, the existence of nerve cell patches of strong D1 receptor immunoreactivity associated with low D2 receptor, dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities. These patches were mainly surrounded by areas of strong D2 receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter immunoreactivities and could be found also in the olfactory tubercle. Similar observations were made in postnatal rats. Serial reconstructions of the patches of strong D1 receptor immunoreactivity in the rostrocaudal direction were made. The patches formed a continuous tubular nerve cell system in the shell part of the nucleus accumbens. Since this nerve cell system was found to be surrounded by a high density of dopamine terminals, it may represent a compartment where dopamine transmission mainly acts on D1 receptors via local diffusion (i.e. via volume transmission). However, it must be noted that the D1 receptor rich patches constitute only a small fraction of the nucleus accumbens and the overall density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive terminals correlates with the density of both D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. In conclusion, the present paper gives new aspects on the chemical microarchitecture of the nucleus accumbens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volume transmission in the brain is mediated by the diffusion of neurotransmitters, modulators and other neuroactive substances in the extracellular space. The effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on extracellular space diffusion properties were studied using two different approaches, the histological dextran method and the real-time iontophoretic tetramethylammonium method. The spread of biotinylated dextran (mol. wt 3000) in the extracellular space was measured morphometrically following microinjection into the neostriatum of male rats. Two parameters were used to describe the spread of biotinylated dextran in brain tissue, namely, total volume of spread and the mean grey value. The nonspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10-100 mg/kg) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (30-200 mg/kg) decreased the total volume of spread of dextran in a dose-dependent manner. 7-Nitroindazole monosodium salt (50-100 mg/kg), a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, did not change the total volume of spread of dextran. Using the tetramethylammonium method, the extracellular space diffusion properties can be described by the volume fraction (alpha = extracellular space volume/total tissue volume), tortuosity lambda (lambda2 = free diffusion coefficient/apparent diffusion coefficient in tissue), and non-specific uptake kappa' [Nicholson C. and Syková E. (1998) Trends Neurosci. 21, 207-215]. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 mg/kg) had relatively little effect on volume fraction and tortuosity, and no changes were observed after NG-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (20 mg/kg) or 7-nitroindazole monosodium salt (100 mg/kg) treatment. A substantial increase was found only in non-specific uptake, by 13% after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and by 16% after NG-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, which correlates with the decreased total volume of spread of dextran observed with the dextran method. NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester treatment (100 mg/kg) decreased striatal blood flow and increased mean arterial blood pressure. The changes in dextran spread and non-specific uptake can be explained by an increased capillary clearance following the inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, as neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no effect. The observed changes after non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibition may affect the extracellular space concentration of neurotransmitters and modulators, and influence volume transmission pathways in the central nervous system by increased capillary and/or cellular clearance rather than by changes in extracellular space diffusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reciprocal interactions between galanin and 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain are presented. Galanin and its NH2-terminal fragments antagonize 5-HT1A receptor-mediated transmission at the postjunctional level, whereas galanin receptor activation mimics the inhibitory action of 5-HT1A receptor activation at the soma-dendritic level, leading to reductions of 5-HT metabolism and release. These interactions have been shown in both receptor binding studies and functional studies. In view of the present findings, galanin antagonists may represent a new type of anti-depressant drug, based on the 5-HT hypothesis of depression, by enhancing 5-HT release and postjunctional 5-HT1A-mediated transmission. Moreover, following intracerebroventricular injection galanin was found to be internalized in a population of hippocampal nerve cells mainly representing GABA, somatostatin, and/or NPY-immunoreactive nerve cells. The relevance of these findings is discussed in relation to the concept of volume transmission.
No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences