[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance:
Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae) is commonly called Tian ma in Chinese and mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of eastern Asia, such as China, Korea, Japan and India. It is an extensively used traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine, to treat headache, migraine, dizziness, epilepsy, infantile convulsion, tetany and so on. The present paper reviews the advancements in investigation of botany and ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and quality control of Gastrodia elata Blume. Finally, the possible tendency and perspective for future investigation of this plant are also put forward.
Materials and methods:
The information on Gastrodia elata Blume was collected via piles of resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases including Pubmed, Google Scholar, ACS, Web of science, ScienceDirect databases, CNKI and others. Plant taxonomy was validated by the databases "The Plant List", and "Mansfeld's Encyclopedia".
Over 81 compounds from this plant have been isolated and identified, phenolics and polysaccharides are generally considered as the characteristic and active constituents of Gastrodia elata Blume. Its active compounds possess wide-reaching biological activities, including sedative, hypnotic, antiepileptic, anticonvulsive, antianxietic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antipsychotic, anti-vertigo, circulatory system modulating, anti-inflammationary, analgesic, antioxidative, memory-improving and antiaging, antivirus and antitumor effects.
Despite the publication of various papers on Gastrodia elata Blume, there is still, however, the need for definitive research and clarification of other bioactive compounds using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies, and the possible mechanism of action as well as potential synergistic or antagonistic effects of multi-component mixtures derived from Gastrodia elata Blume need to be evaluated. It is also necessary and important to do more quality control and toxicological study on human subjects in order to maintain its efficacy stable in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. In addition, more investigations on other parts of this plant beyond the tubers are needed. Further studies on Gastrodia elata Blume will lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases, and how to utilize it better should be paid more attention to.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Siraitia grosvenorii is a perennial herb endemic to Guangxi province of China. Its fruit, commonly known as Luo hanguo, and has been used for hundreds of years as a natural sweetener and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pharyngitis, pharyngeal pain, as well as an anti-tussive remedy in China. Based on ninety-three literary sources, this review summarized the advances in chemistry, biological effects, and toxicity research of S. grosvenorii during the past 30 years. Several different classes of compounds have been isolated or detected from various parts of S. grosvenorii, mainly triterpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and essential oils. Various types of extracts or individual compounds derived from this species exhibited a wide array of biological effects e.g. anti-tussive, phlegm-relieving, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, liver-protecting, glucose-lowering, and anti-microbial. The existing research has shown that extracts and individual compounds from S. grosvenorii are basically non-toxic. Finally, some suggestions for further research on specific chemical and pharmacological properties of S. grosvenorii are proposed in this review.
Article · Feb 2014 · Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
To explore the pathological mechanisms of Guizhi Decoction () syndrome and the therapeutic molecular mechanisms of the Guizhi Decoction, Mahuang Decoction (), Sangju Decoction ( ) and Yinqiao Powder (), as well as the potentially biological basis that Guizhi Decoction is most effective only for the patients with Guizhi Decoction syndrome in clinical practice.
We first got serum samples from the patients suffering from both upper respiratory tract infection and Guizhi Decoction syndrome identified by the doctors of Chinese medicine (CM) in the clinic. Four formulas with therapeutic actions of pungent warmth or pungent coolness for superficial syndromes were chosen and four kinds of rat serum samples each containing one of the above-mentioned herbal formulas were collected, then the effects of Guizhi Decoction syndromes' patient serum as well as the effects of sera containing the formulas after being stimulated by the patient serum samples on both the mRNA expression of certain toll-like receptor (TLR) subtypes and the release of some inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells were tested and analyzed in vitro.
The expression of TLR-3, TLR-4 and TLR-9 mRNA among the 9 tested TLR subforms were up-regulated in the macrophages stimulated by the sera from untreated upper respiratory infection patients with the Guizhi Decoction syndrome (symptomcomplex). The products such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-β from stimulated macrophages through TLR signaling pathways were also increased correspondingly. Interestingly, the changes induced by the Guizhi Decoction syndrome patients' sera were masked significantly after the macrophages were incubated with the sera from donors treated with Guizhi Decoction. Similarly, the three other exterior-releasing formulas were all effective in reversing the up-regulated changes of certain TLR subforms to different degrees, but both the number of targeted TLRs and efficacy of them seemed to be inferior to that of Guizhi Decoction.
Evidence from these experiments might contribute to the scientific explanation of both the pharmacological mechanisms of Guizhi Decoction and also the CM theory that Guizhi Decoction is specifically prescribed for the treatment of Guizhi Decoction syndrome (The gearing formula to the symptom-complex).
Article · Jun 2013 · Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae) is often included as an ingredient in traditional Chinese compound prescriptions for the treatment of fever-related or inflammatory conditions.
The present work was to further uncover the analgesic mechanisms of baicalin (a known principal constituent of Scutellaria baicalensis) by investigating its effects on the expression of TRPV1 mRNA as well as on its functions as mediators of calcium entrance into the cytoplasm of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro.
By using CPT as an agent to eliminate the non-neuronal cells and using serum-free neurobasal as culture medium, primary cultures of rat DRG neurons with high purity and viability were established. On this basis, effects of baicalin on both the expression of TRPV1 mRNA and on the function of TRPV1 in vitro under two various temperature conditions were studied. The TRPV1 mRNA expression levels were examined by using qRT-PCR and analyzed by the method of 2(-DeltaDeltaCT). The elevation amplitudes of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i evoked by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin in DRG neurons were examined by the calcium fluorescence imaging method under confocal microscopy.
Baicalin was shown to down-regulate the mRNA expression levels of TRPV1 at both 37 and 39 degrees C, and under the latter temperature, the intracellular fluorescent intensity evoked by capsaicin was significantly decreased following incubation with baicalin in vitro. We also demonstrated that the actions of baicalin to TRPV1 were not achieved through pathways of TRPA1 or TRPV subfamily members.
Collectively, these results provide compelling evidence that the down-regulated actions of baicalin to TRPV1 in DRG neurons might account for part of the anti-nociceptive mechanism of baicalin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cinnamaldehyde (1) is a pharmacologically active ingredient isolated from cassia twig (Ramulus Cinnamomi), which is commonly used in herbal remedies to treat fever-related diseases. Both TRPV1 and TRPM8 ion channel proteins are abundantly expressed in sensory neurons, and are assumed to act as a thermosensor, with the former mediating the feeling of warmth and the latter the feeling of cold in the body. Both of them have recently been reported to be involved in thermoregulation. The purpose of this paper is to further uncover the antipyretic mechanisms of 1 by investigating its effects on the mRNA expression levels and functions of both TRPV1 and TRPM8. The results showed that 1 could up-regulate the mRNA expression levels of TRPV1 at both 37 and 39 degrees C, and its calcium-mediating function was significantly increased at 39 degrees C, all of which could not be blocked by pretreatment of the neuronal cells with ruthenium red, a general transient receptor potential (TRP) blocker, indicating that the action of 1 was achieved through a non-TRPA1 channel pathway. In conclusion, the findings in our in vitro studies might account for part of the peripheral molecular mechanisms for the antipyretic action of 1.
Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Asian natural products research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Emodin is a principle ingredient isolated from rhubarb rhizome, which is commonly used for constipation or pain-related diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel proteins (TRPV1) are abundantly expressed in the peripheral sensory neurons and are assumed to act as a kind of nociceptor involved in the perception of pain and development of hyperalgesia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the analgesic mechanisms of rhubarb through investigating the effects of its main constitutive ingredient emodin on the expression of TRPV1 mRNA as well as on its calcium- mediating functions in vitro. The primary DRG neurons with a high purity and viability were obtained, and the TRPV1 mRNA expression levels were examined by using real-time RT-PCR and the elevated amplitudes of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i in the DRG neurons evoked by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin were examined by confocal microscopy. The results showed that emodin could significantly down-regulate both the mRNA expression of TRPV1 and the capsaicin-evoked intracellular fluorescent intensity in the DRG neurons under both 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C in vitro. Concomitantly, all of the changes induced by emodin could not be blocked by pretreatment of the primary neurons with capsazepine, an antagonist of TRPV1. In conclusion, we established that the mRNA expression level of TRPV1 and its calcium-mediating function in naive DRG neurons could be down-regulated by emodin through perhaps the non-TRPV1 channel pathways, and this might be the molecular mechanisms for rhubarb to inhibit hyperalgesia induced by inflammatory stimuli.
Article · Jan 2010 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sini Tang, a Chinese traditional prescription containing three herbs, has been widely used for Yang-deficiency. Recent clinical studies have shown that Sini Tang could treat and improve depression symptoms, but the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effect of Sini Tang remains unknown. In rats with chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), we examined the effects of Sini Tang on sucrose preference and open field exploratory behavior. The levels of corticosterone level in plasma and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamus were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. Rats subjected to CUS exhibited decreases in sucrose preference and ambulation in the open field test. These were all attenuated by Sini Tang in a dose-dependent manner. Biochemically, Sini Tang also reversed CUS-induced increases in corticosterone in plasma and CRH mRNA in the hypothalamus. The behavioral effects of the Sini Tang were correlated to the biochemical actions. These results suggest that Sini Tang produces an antidepressant-like effect, which appears to involve CRH in the brain.
Article · Feb 2009 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cinnamaldehyde is a principle compound isolated from Guizhi-Tang (GZT), which is a famous traditional Chinese medical formula used to treat influenza, common cold and other pyretic conditions. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) is expressed in the anterior hypothalamus and may act as thermosensor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of TRPV4 in mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cell strain (b.End3). In the research work, the b.End3 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in the presence or absence of ruthenium red (RR), a kind of known TRPV4 inhibitor, or different concentrations of cinnamaldehyde. The results suggested that IL-1beta significantly increase production of PGE2 and cinnamaldehyde evidently decrease IL-1beta-induced PGE2 production, while RR showed no inhibitory effect on PGE2 production. Moreover, it was identified that TRPV4 was expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in b.End3 cells. IL-1beta could up-regulate the expression of TRPV4, RR and cinnamaldehyde could down-regulate the high expression of mRNA and protein of TRPV4 by IL-1beta induced in b.End3 cells. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde decreased the production of PGE2 and the expression of TRPV4 in b.End3 cells induced by IL-1beta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: 3-phenyl-propenal is one of the principle compounds isolated from Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi), the principal drug in Guizhi-Tang (GZT), a famous traditional Chinese medical formula. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-phenyl-propenal on the expression of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR4 and the downstream signaling components on Raw264.7 murine microphages. Raw264.7 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or poly (I:C) in the presence or absence of 3-phenyl-propenal. After 24-hour incubation, the medium was collected and the amount of TNF-alpha and IFN-beta was measured by ELISA. mRNA expression of TLR3, TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), TRAF-6 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated), TRAM (toll-like receptor-associated molecule) and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta) were analyzed by real-time PCR with SYBR green dye. Protein expression of TLR3 and TLR4 was analyzed by Western blotting and that of MyD88 and TRAF-6 was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. The results indicate that LPS increased the expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, TRAM and TRIF, but had no influence on TLR3, while poly (I:C) up-regulated the expression of TLR3, MyD88, TRAM and TRIF. 3-phenyl-propenal significantly decreased the expression of LPS-induced TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, while possessing no effect on LPS-induced TRAM and TRIF expression in Raw264.7 cells. When cells were stimulated by poly (I:C), 3-phenyl-propenal significantly decreased TLR3 and MyD88 expression. In conclusion, 3-phenyl-propenal blocked the over-expression of TLR3, TLR4, their downstream signaling components MyD88 and TRAF-6, which indicate that it had an antagonistic effect on TLR3 and TLR4.
Article · Feb 2008 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To observe the effects of phenylallyl compounds on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd. 3) stimulated by IL-1beta, and to analyze their structure-activity relationship. Different concentrations of phenylallyl compounds were added separately, and the content of PGE2 induced by IL-1beta in the culture media was measured by ELISA assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PGE2 was calculated. Studies showed that phenylallyl compounds could affect the PGE2 release differently in bEnd. 3 cells induced by IL-1beta. Close relationships were shown between the inhibitory activities and the location and number of the substituent groups. In conclusion, phenylallyl compounds exhibited inhibitory activities at different extent on PGE2 release in bEnd. 3 cells stimulated by IL-1beta and presented certain structure-activity relationship.
Article · Aug 2007 · Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To investigate the influences of Shensu Yin to RAW 264.7 on the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and the factors of the downstream in RAW 264. 7 cells.
RAW 264.7 cell line was stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide and POLY I: C, respectively, and treated with the drug serum of Shensuyin simultaneously. 24 hours later, collected the supernatant and measured the inflammatory factors TNF-alpha and IFN-beta, extracted mRNA and measured the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and other correlated indexes of the downstream, analyzed and evaluated Shensu Yin's substance basis of pharmacodynamic actions.
Shensu Yin drug serum depressed the expression of TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, TRAM and TRIF mRNA, as a result, it decreased the amount of TNF-alpha and IFN-beta.
Depressing the expression of TLR3, MyD88, TRAM and TRIF mRNA may be the elementary basis of Shensu Yin to play heat-clearing and detoxicating effect.
Article · Mar 2007 · Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) works as a common final mediator of the febrile. Guizhi-Tang, one of the most famous traditional Chinese medical formula used to treat influenza, common cold and other pyretic conditions, was previously reported to reduce the production of PGE 2 in rats. 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde is a principle compound isolated from Guizhi-Tang. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde on PGE2 production of rat cerebral endothelial cells (CECs). 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde dose-dependently inhibited interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced PGE2 production in CECs with IC50 values of 174 microM. IL-1beta stimulation increased the protein, activity and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but not COX-1. 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde reduced IL-1beta-induced protein and activity of COX-2, but did not influence the COX-2 mRNA expression. Our results show that prostaglandin production in CECs during stimulated conditions is sensitive to inhibition by 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and suggest that 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde may reduce COX-2 protein level and activity but not COX-2 mRNA.
Article · Dec 2006 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) works as a common final mediator of the febrile. Guizhi-Tang, one of the most famous traditional Chinese medical formula used to treat influenza, common cold and other pyretic conditions, was previously reported to reduce the production of PGE(2) in rats. 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde is a principle compound isolated from Guizhi-Tang. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde on PGE(2) production of rat cerebral endothelial cells (CECs). 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde dose-dependently inhibited interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced PGE(2) production in CECs with IC50 values of 174 mu m. IL-1 beta stimulation increased the protein, activity and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but not COX-1. 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde reduced IL-1 beta-induced protein and activity of COX-2, but did not influence the COX-2 mRNA expression. Our results show that prostaglandin production in CECs during stimulated conditions is sensitive to inhibition by 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and suggest that 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde may reduce COX-2 protein level and activity but not COX-2 mRNA.
Article · Nov 2006 · Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To observe the effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (isolated from fraction A of Guizhi Tang) on activity of COX and PGE2 release in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMEC) stimulated by IL-1.
rCMEC were cultured, and identified by immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor (VIII factor, a marker for all endothelial cells) in cytoplasm of the cells. Different concentrations of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde were added respectively and incubated for 3 hours, then stimulated for another 12 hours by IL-1. Activities of COX-1 and COX-2 in rCMEC, and production of PGE2 in the conditioned media were measured by ELISA.
Positive immunostaining for VIII factor was present diffusely in the cytoplasm of > 90% rCMEC. After being exposed to 30 ng x mL(-1) IL, the activity of COX-2 in rCMEC and the production of PGE2 in conditioned media were higher than those of control group, while there was no difference on activity of COX-1 in the two groups. 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde could down-regulate them in concentration-dependently, and significant differences on the activity of COX-2 and amount of PGE2 were showed in 200 microg x mL(-1) concentration.
2-methoxycinnamaldehyde can affect the PGE2 release in rCMEC induced by IL-1, which might be related with its inhibition on the activity of COX-2.
Article · Aug 2006 · Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cinnamaldehyde is a principle compound isolated from Guizhi-Tang, which is a famous traditional Chinese medical formula used to treat influenza, common cold and other pyretic conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on expression and activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (RCMEC). RCMEC were cultured, and identified by immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor in cytoplasm of the cells. Then cells were incubated in M199 medium containing interleukin (IL)-1beta in the presence or absence of cinnamaldehyde. After incubation, the medium was collected and the amount of PGE(2) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cells were harvested, mRNA expression and activity of COX were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye and ELISA respectively. Positive immunostaining for von Willebrand factor was present diffusely in the cytoplasm of >95% RCMEC. IL-1beta increased the mRNA expression and activity of COX-2, and production of PGE(2) in a dose- and time-dependent manner in RCMEC, while mRNA and activity of COX-1 were not significantly altered. Cinnamaldehyde significantly decreased IL-1beta-induced COX-2 activity and PGE(2) production in a dose-dependent manner, while it showed no inhibitory effect on IL-1beta-induced COX-2 mRNA expression in cultured RCMEC. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde reduces IL-1beta-induced COX-2 activity, but not IL-1beta-induced COX-2 mRNA expression, and consequently inhibits production of PGE(2) in cultured RCMEC.
Article · Jun 2006 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Fever, an elevation in body temperature, is thought to be terminally mediated by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Both Guizhi Tang (GZT) and its active fraction A (Fr.A) showed an antipyretic effect in rats. 3-Phenyl-2-propene-1-ol was one of the active compounds isolated from Fr.A. In the present study, we examined the influence of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release, and the effect of 3-phenyl-2-propene-1-ol on IL-1beta-induced PGE(2) release from rat cerebral endothelial cells (rCMEC). Cultured rCMEC were used in the study. In vitro, cells express typical phenotypic markers of brain endothelium. Using a monoclonal antibody against von Willebrand factor, immunocytochemical analysis revealed positive immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of cultured cells. rCMEC were incubated in M199 medium containing IL-1beta in the presence or absence of 3-phenyl-2-propene-1-ol. After incubation, the conditioned media were collected and the amount of PGE(2) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IL-1beta increased the production of PGE(2) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3-Phenyl-2-propene-1-ol significantly decreased IL-1beta-induced PGE(2) release in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that 3-phenyl-2-propene-1-ol inhibits the PGE(2) release from rCMEC stimulated by IL-1beta, and may have an antipyretic effect.
Article · Feb 2006 · The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of Guizhi Tang and its active components on the fever induced by EP3 receptor agonist sulprostone in rats.
The rise in body temperature evoked by a LCV(lateral cerebroventricle)-injection of sulprostone was compared with that of sulprostone induced-fever rats pretreated with Guizgi Tang and its active compounds, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid and total glucosides of paeony.
Pretreatments with Guizhi Tang and cinnamaldehyde inhibited the rise in body temperature induced by sulprostone, while cinnamic acid tended to augment the fever. The sulprostone-induced fever was blocked by an ip pretreatment of total glucosides of paeony even below the basement.
Present data suggest that interruption with the down-stream events of EP3 receptor may contribute to the antipyretic action of Guizhi Tang, cinnamaldehyde and the total glucosides of paeony, while cinnamic acid may have no such effect.
Article · Dec 2003 · Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica