Hiroshi Fujiwara

Keio University, Edo, Tokyo, Japan

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Publications (21)47.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Since Western blot occasionally causes cross-reactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2, it is difficult to distinguish a coinfection status from a false-positive result. Therefore, we developed a qualitative real-time PCR assay for detecting HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA that can be performed in parallel. Viral RNA extracted from 500 µl of plasma was examined using real-time PCR with minor groove binder probes. Bovine leukemia virus was used as an internal standard. The sensitivity was determined by probit regression analysis using the World Health Organization international standards for HIV-1 and HIV-2. The lower detection limits at a 95% hit rate were 54 IU/ml for HIV-1 and 5.0 IU/ml for HIV-2, which is lower than any HIV-2 assays reported so far. HIV-1 RNA was detected in 51 of 52 HIV-1 seropositive plasma samples. HIV-2 RNA was detected in 7 of 10 HIV-2 seropositive plasma samples. Non-specific signals and cross reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 were not observed in 100 HIV seronegative samples. The assay we developed is highly sensitive and specific for detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA. The test is expected to be useful for the differential diagnosis of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Japanese journal of infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Respirology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung diseases generally cause chronic disease in immunocompetent hosts. Although a few studies have examined health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with MAC lung disease, there have been no large studies. This study aimed to evaluate HRQL and its correlation with clinical outcomes in MAC lung disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Keio University Hospital to investigate the factors associated with HRQL in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. MAC lung diseases were diagnosed according to the 2007 ATS/IDSA guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. The 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) was administered to assess clinical outcomes. Clinical variables included treatment status, latest haematological data, and bacterial smear and culture results. Results The SF-36 scores for the 235 patients (median age, 69 years; 45 men and 190 women) with MAC lung disease, except for the bodily pain and mental health subscale scores, were significantly lower than the Japanese population norms. In the multivariable analyses, current treatment for MAC and a positive sputum smear or culture within the past year were significantly associated with lower SF-36 scores. C-reactive protein (CRP) and age showed stronger inverse correlations with SF-36 scores. Conclusions HRQL, especially the physical component, was impaired in patients with MAC lung diseases; this appears to be related with current treatment status, positive sputum smear or culture within the previous year, and particularly CRP and age. Further studies including qualitative assessments are needed to investigate the efficacy of CRP as a marker for progression or treatment response in MAC lung disease. Trial registration Clinical trial registered with UMIN (UMIN000007964).
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Respiratory research
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is the fourth-leading cause of death globally, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important causative pathogen. Because the incidence of pneumococcal diseases is likely to increase with the aging society, we should determine an optimal strategy for pneumococcal vaccination. While consensus indicates that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine prevents invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), its effects on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain controversial. Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was released. The latest clinical study (CAPiTA study) showed that PCV13 reduced vaccine-type CAP and IPD. Based on these results, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended initial vaccination with PCV13 for the elderly. Scientific evidence regarding immunosenescence is needed to determine a more ideal vaccination strategy for the elderly with impaired innate and adaptive immunity. Continuing research on the cost effectiveness of new vaccine strategies considering constantly changing epidemiology is also warranted.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is one of the most difficult types of IRIS to manage. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has been suggested as a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory status of HIV-infected patients. We present the first case of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS (MAC-IRIS) that was successfully followed up using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Case presentation: A 44-year-old homosexual Japanese man was referred to our hospital with fever and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and found to be HIV positive. After the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the patient's mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and bilateral infiltrates appeared in the upper lung fields. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed five months after the initiation of cART and showed intense accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) corresponding to the lesions of infiltration as well as the mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. A bronchial wash culture and pathology findings led to a diagnosis of MAC-IRIS. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy with rifampicin, ethambutol, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin was started. One year after the chemotherapy was initiated, there was a significant reduction in FDG uptake in the area of the lesions except in the mediastinal lymph node. This implied incomplete resolution of the MAC-IRIS-related inflammation. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was continued because of the residual lesion. To date, the patient has not experienced a recurrence of MAC-IRIS, a period of nine months. Conclusion: We present a case of MAC-IRIS in an HIV-infected patient whose disease activity was successfully followed up using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Our data suggest that 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful for evaluating the disease activity of NTM-IRIS and assessing the appropriate duration of anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy for NTM-IRIS in HIV-infected patients.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Medical Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently occurs in immunocompromised hosts and in some immunocompetent hosts with chronic lung disease; however, few reports have described pulmonary nocardiosis with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Here we report for the first time two cases of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica associated with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease caused by M. avium.Case presentationCase 1 is that of a 72-year-old Japanese man with untreated MAC lung disease, who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and initiated on methotrexate. After 3 years of methotrexate therapy, the patient remained smear-negative and culture-positive for MAC, but also became smear-positive for Nocardia species. He received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and his symptoms and lung infiltrates improved. Case 2 is that of an immunocompetent 53-year-old Japanese woman with MAC lung disease, who was treated with a combined therapy of clarithromycin, rifampicin, ethambutol, and levofloxacin. MAC sputum culture was negative after 1 year of combined treatment, which was maintained for 2 years. After four treatment-free years, Nocardia species were occasionally isolated from her sputum, although MAC was rarely isolated from sputum cultures over the same period. In both cases, the Nocardia species were identified as the recently defined N. cyriacigeorgica by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.Conclusion We report two cases of pulmonary nocardiosis caused by N. cyriacigeorgica associated with MAC lung disease caused by M. avium and suggest that N. cyriacigeorgica may be a major infective agent associated with MAC lung disease.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The clinical features of bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) have yet to be fully elucidated. Methods and results: The cases of C. jejuni bacteremia were retrospectively reviewed during a twelve-year period in a single institute. C. jejuni was identified in 7 patients through blood cultures, and disease onset occurred between June and October. Except for 2 previously healthy individuals, 5 patients had underlying diseases (chronic liver diseases, n=3; hematological malignancies, n=2). All patients were febrile, but 2 patients did not present with gastrointestinal symptoms. C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and macrolides, but about half of them were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Disease outcomes were favorable, and no deaths related to C. jejuni bacteremia were observed. Conclusion: These results suggest that C. jejuni bacteremia could occur primarily or secondarily to gastroenteritis with a seasonal peak and that prognosis would be favorable regardless of the underlying diseases.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Arbekacin is a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic with anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. The efficacy of aminoglycosides is related to their serum maximum concentration. Local concentration of antibiotics in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid, rather than its serum concentration, can help determine its clinical efficacy more precisely for treatment of respiratory infectious disease. The objective of this study was to sequentially measure arbekacin concentration in epithelial lining fluid after infusion of a single clinically available dose. Method: After the initial blood sampling, arbekacin was intravenously infused into 6 healthy volunteers over 1 h. Epithelial lining fluid and serum samples were collected by bronchoscopic microsampling 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the start of 200 mg arbekacin infusion. Results: Each probe sampled 10.1 ± 5.2 μl bronchial epithelial lining fluid. The sample dilution factor was 266.7 ± 157.1. Drug concentration was successfully measured in all but 2 of the epithelial lining fluid samples. The maximum concentration of arbekacin in epithelial lining fluid and serum was 10.4 ± 1.9 μg/ml and 26.0 ± 12.2 μg/ml, respectively. The ratio of the maximum drug concentration in the epithelial lining fluid to that in the serum was 0.47 ± 0.19. Conclusions: The maximum concentration of epithelial lining fluid reached levels that would effectively treat most clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE Mild cases of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease are often observed without treatment; further, a consensus regarding the appropriate time to start treatment has not been established. Here, we evaluated the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of patients with MAC lung disease from whom treatment was withheld to determine if potential associations between these data are prognostic of progression and/or the need for treatment. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the data for 56 patients with MAC lung disease from whom treatment was withheld for at least 6 months after diagnosis; patients who subsequently received treatment during the follow-up period were considered the treated group, while the remaining patients were considered the untreated group. We compared the baseline characteristics and longitudinal changes in the plain chest radiographs of the untreated and treated groups. To evaluate the radiological findings, a total lung score was calculated for each of 6 zones in the lung area using the scores for the following 4 elements: nodules, infiltration, cavity, and bronchiectasis. At diagnosis, we performed the following to examine the bacterial factors: differentiated between M. avium and M. intracellulare; identified IS1245, IS1311, and ISMav6; confirmed ISMav6 in the sequence of the cfp29 promoter; and executed a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis using M. avium tandem repeat (MATR-VNTR) and Higashi Nagoya tandem repeat (HNTR-VNTR) as the locus. RESULTS The mean follow-up period was 7.5 ± 5.8 years. Treatment was initiated in 15 cases (26.8%). M. intracellulare was observed in 7 cases (12.5%) including 3 cases of co-infection with M. avium. Although polyclonality was observed in 9 cases of M. avium (17.3%), none of these involved M. intracellulare. Of the baseline characteristics, there were significantly more women and cases of M. avium polyclonality in the treated group than in the untreated group. The lung score at diagnosis was also significantly higher in the treated group than in the untreated group. The lung scores for the elements of infiltration and bronchiectasis increased significantly from baseline in the treated group at treatment initiation; moreover, the scores were not improved after the treatment. In the untreated group, the average profile using a mixed-effects model showed that the lung score slowly but significantly increased during the observation period. CONCLUSION Radiological findings and the presence of polyclonality at diagnosis of MAC lung disease may be useful to monitor disease deterioration and predict the requirement for treatment.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Arbekacin is a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic with anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. The efficacy of aminoglycosides is related to their serum maximum concentration. Local concentration of antibiotics in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid, rather than its serum concentration, can help determine its clinical efficacy more precisely for treatment of respiratory infectious disease. The objective of this study was to sequentially measure arbekacin concentration in epithelial lining fluid after infusion of a single clinically available dose. Method After the initial blood sampling, arbekacin was intravenously infused into 6 healthy volunteers over 1 h. Epithelial lining fluid and serum samples were collected by bronchoscopic microsampling 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the start of 200 mg arbekacin infusion. Results Each probe sampled 10.1 ± 5.2 μl bronchial epithelial lining fluid. The sample dilution factor was 266.7 ± 157.1. Drug concentration was successfully measured in all but 2 of the epithelial lining fluid samples. The maximum concentration of arbekacin in epithelial lining fluid and serum was 10.4 ± 1.9 μg/ml and 26.0 ± 12.2 μg/ml, respectively. The ratio of the maximum drug concentration in the epithelial lining fluid to that in the serum was 0.47 ± 0.19. Conclusions The maximum concentration of epithelial lining fluid reached levels that would effectively treat most clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play anti-inflammatory roles during innate immune responses. However, little is known about the effect of MSCs or their secretions on the ligand response of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8, receptors that recognize viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Macrophages play a critical role in the innate immune response to ssRNA virus infection; therefore, we investigated the effect of MSC-conditioned medium on cytokine expression in macrophages following stimulation with TLR7/8 ligands. After stimulation with TLR7/8 ligand, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured with MSCs or in MSC-conditioned medium expressed lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin (IL) 6 and higher levels of IL-10 compared to macrophages cultured without MSCs or in control medium, respectively. The modulations of cytokine expression were associated with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secreted by the MSCs. PGE2 enhanced extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling and suppressed nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) signaling. Enhanced ERK signaling contributed to enhanced IL-10 production, and suppression of NF- κ B signaling contributed to the low production of TNF- α . Collectively, these results indicate that MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium modulate the cytokine expression profile in macrophages following TLR7/8-mediated stimulation, which suggests that MSCs play an immunomodulatory role during ssRNA virus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) is a Gram-positive rod that is widely distributed in the environment and can be a cause of food poisoning. We herein present a case of B. cereus necrotizing pneumonia in a patient with nephrotic syndrome under corticosteroid treatment after developing transient gastroenteritis symptoms. B. cereus was isolated from bronchial lavage fluid and transbronchial biopsy specimens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of the toxin genes revealed a strain possessing enterotoxicity. The patient recovered after one week of intravenous meropenem followed by a combination of oral moxifloxacin and clindamycin. B. cereus is a pathogen that causes necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Although arachidonic acid cascade has been shown to be involved in sepsis, little is known about the role of PGD(2) and its newly found receptor, chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), on the septic response. Severe sepsis is associated with the failure of neutrophil migration. To investigate whether CRTH2 influences neutrophil recruitment and the lethality during sepsis, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice. CRTH2 knockout (CRTH2(-/-)) mice were highly resistant to CLP-induced sepsis, which was associated with lower bacterial load and lower production of TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL3. IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was higher in CRTH2(-/-) mice, blunting CLP-induced lethality in CRTH2(-/-) mice. Neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneum was more pronounced after CLP in CRTH2(-/-) mice, which was associated with higher CXCR2 levels in circulating neutrophils. Furthermore, sepsis caused a decrease in the level of acetylation of histone H3, an activation mark, at the CXCR2 promoter in wild-type neutrophils, suggesting that CXCR2 expression levels are epigenetically regulated. Finally, both pharmacological depletion of neutrophils and inhibition of CXCR2 abrogated the survival benefit in CRTH2(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that genetic ablation of CRTH2 improved impaired neutrophil migration and survival during severe sepsis, which was mechanistically associated with epigenetic-mediated CXCR2 expression. Thus, CRTH2 is a potential therapeutic target for polymicrobial sepsis.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of Immunology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2011
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    ABSTRACT: With the recent increasing use of nanoparticles, there is concern that they may become an environmental risk factor as airborne particles. However, the impact of these particles on susceptible subjects with predisposing lung disease have not been sufficiently elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nanoparticles on pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic changes induced by intratracheal bleomycin (BLM) challenge in mice. Mice were intratracheally administered either vehicle, 14-nm carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs), BLM or BLM plus CBNP. First, we assessed lung collagen content, lung compliance and fibrotic changes in histopathology on day 21 after instillation. Then, to elucidate how CBNP contributes to the development of BLM-induced fibrosis, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid on days 2, 7, 14 and 21 and determined the total and differential cell counts and concentrations of two proinflammatory cytokines (keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC] and interleukin [IL]-6) and two fibrogenic mediators (CC chemokine ligand 2 [CCL2] and transforming growth factor-β(1) [TGF-β(1)]). Expression of nitrotyrosine, an indicator of oxidant injury, was also evaluated on days 7 and 21. CBNP, when combined with BLM, significantly enhanced BLM-induced increase in lung collagen content, decrease in lung compliance, and fibrotic changes in histopathology. CBNP significantly augmented BLM-induced increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells in BAL fluid on days 2 and 7 and levels of KC and IL-6 on day 2. In addition, CBNP administered in combination with BLM significantly elevated the levels of CCL2 on days 2, 7 and 14, and TGF-β(1) on day 14 in BAL fluid as compared with BLM alone. Nitrotyrosine expression was also increased by BLM plus CBNP compared with BLM alone. In contrast, CBNP did not exert any significant effect on these parameters by itself. These results indicate that CBNP can exaggerate BLM-induced inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lung, suggesting the potential impact of nanoparticles on lung inflammation and fibrosis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical features of PCP differ according to the factors responsible for the predisposing immunosuppression. Although the diagnosis of PCP often requires BAL, the profiles of the inflammatory mediators in the BAL fluid are not thoroughly documented. The aim of the current study was to characterize the profiles of inflammatory mediators in BAL fluid during PCP in patients with underlying autoimmune diseases, malignancies, or AIDS. The medical records of 14 patients with autoimmune diseases, 10 with malignancies, and 8 with AIDS, all of whom had been diagnosed with PCP by microscopic examination of BAL fluid, were reviewed. The concentrations of TNF-alpha, MCP-1, HMGB1, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-gamma in the BAL fluid that had been obtained for the diagnosis of PCP were measured. The concentrations of MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6 differed according to the underlying disease, tending to be higher in patients with autoimmune diseases and lower in those with AIDS. The concentrations of HMGB1, IL-8, and IL-6 were positively correlated with the proportion of neutrophils in BAL fluid and inversely with the oxygenation index. Although the serum concentrations of CRP and LDH were positively correlated with those of IL-8 and MCP-1, none of the mediators in BAL fluid was correlated with the serum beta-D-glucan concentration. The production of inflammatory mediators in the lung differed between the patient groups with different underlying disorders. The modest upregulation of IL-8 and IL-6 might be associated with the milder clinical manifestations of PCP in AIDS patients.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Microbiology and Immunology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · May 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia (IP-AE) can occasionally occur and has a poor prognosis. Direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on acute respiratory distress syndrome, which has similar pathological features to that of IP-AE. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of PMX-DHP on IP-AE and serum indicators for epithelial damage. Nine patients with a clinical diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia, who developed acute exacerbation, were included in this study. Five patients had been given a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 3 cases were diagnosed as collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP). On days 30 and 60, 6 and 4 patients were surviving, respectively. On day 60, all 3 patients with CVD-IP were alive, while 4 of 5 patients with IPF had died. In 4 patients who survived for 60 days or longer, serum levels of LDH, CRP, and SP-D were significantly decreased after PMX-DHP, whereas KL-6 level was unchanged. In 5 patients, who died by day 60, no significant changes in the serum markers were observed. These data suggest that serum levels of LDH, CRP, and SP-D might be predictive of successful PMX-DHP treatment in cases of IP-AE.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial genome is characterized by frequent unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) motifs. Deleterious effects can occur when synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) are administered in a systemic fashion. We aimed to evaluate the effect of intratracheal CpG-ODN on lung inflammation and systemic inflammatory response. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal administration of CpG-ODN (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 microM) or control ODN without CpG motif. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained 3 or 6 h or 1, 2, 7, or 14 days after the instillation and subjected to a differential cell count and cytokine measurement. Lung permeability was evaluated as the BAL fluid-to-plasma ratio of the concentration of human serum albumin that was injected 1 h before euthanasia. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB DNA binding activity was also evaluated in lung homogenates. Intratracheal administration of 10 microM or higher concentration of CpG-ODN induced significant inflammatory cell accumulation into the airspace. The peak accumulation of neutrophils and lymphocytes occurred 1 and 2 days after the CpG-ODN administration, respectively. Lung permeability was increased 1 day after the 10 microM CpG-ODN challenge. CpG-ODN also induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines in BAL fluid and plasma. Histopathology of the lungs and liver revealed acute lung injury and liver damage with necrosis, respectively. Control ODN without CpG motif did not induce any inflammatory change. Since intratracheal CpG-ODN induced acute lung injury as well as systemic inflammatory response, therapeutic strategies to neutralize bacterial DNA that is released after administration of bactericidal agents should be considered.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Respiratory research