[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was investigated in single rat pituitary corticotrophs using indo-1 microfluorimetry, in part in combination with the monitoring of membrane electrical events with the perforated patch-clamp technique. In corticotrophs showing the series of short-lived [Ca2+]i rises (transient pattern) in response to corticotropin-releasing factor, 100 nM AVP evoked either the transient pattern or a [Ca2+]i spike followed by a sustained plateau (spike/plateau pattern). Not all corticotrophs responded to changes in AVP concentration in the same manner. Some cells exhibited a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i transient activity, whereas others showing the spike/plateau at high AVP concentrations responded to low agonist concentrations by two [Ca2+]i responses: a slow rising step or two to three sinusoidal-like oscillations. Combined [Ca2+]i and patch-clamp recordings as well as manipulation of extracellular Ca2+ showed that both transient pattern and the plateau of spike/plateau response depended on Ca2+ entry mainly through voltage-gated, dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels. By contrast, step, oscillations, and spike were due to Ca2+ release from internal stores. These Ca(2+)-mobilizing responses caused the activation of Ca(2+)-activated, apamin-sensitive K+ channels, which led to a membrane hyperpolarization. These results reveal cell-specific [Ca2+]i signals and associated electrical events in individual AVP-stimulated corticotrophs.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1993 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the pH indicator, seminaphtorhodafluor, we studied the effects of GnRH on intracellular pH (pHi) in single gonadotroph cells, obtained from 3-week ovariectomized rats, treated or not with estradiol (E2) (OVX + E2, OVX). In a majority of cells (77.7% for OVX cells and 93.7% for OVX + E2 cells), GnRH induced acidification. A biphasic change of pHi, acidification followed by alkalinization, was observed in about 44% of the cells tested. In E2-treated cells, amplitude of acidification and duration of alkalinization were increased. Acidification and Ca2+ mobilization were related in time with a short delay (4-5 sec.). Depolarization with KCl and ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, induced acidification. Taken together these observations suggest that acidification was caused by [Ca2+]i increase. When the Na+/H+ exchanger was blocked by amiloride or in Na(+)-free medium, GnRH-induced alkalinization was inhibited. Alkalinization disappeared completely when the cells were depleted in protein kinase C (PKC). Nevertheless, acute application of phorbol myristate acetate, known to activate PKC, was not sufficient to induce alkalinization. We conclude that PKC is necessary but not sufficient for alkalinization. In contrast, the GnRH response can be mimicked by a simultaneous application of phorbol myristate acetate and KCl. To further explore the putative role of pHi in the secretory process, LH release was studied. Using Na(+)-free medium or amiloride, we show that basal LH was not dependent upon the Na+/H+ exchanger activity. Conversely, GnRH-induced LH release was significantly decreased; this decrease was greater in E2-treated cells but prevented by bicarbonate. These data show that pHi and the Na+/H+ exchanger play an important role in the stimulus secretion coupling process of gonadotrophs. E2, which is an important factor in the regulation of gonadotropic hormone release, participates also in the pHi variations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of TRH on intracellular pH (pHi) in individual cells of the GH3 pituitary clonal cell line using the seminaphtorhodafluor pH indicator. We show that, in a majority of cells, TRH action on pHi occurs in two phases: first acidification then alkalinization. Acidification and Ca2+ mobilization are related in time. K+ depolarization (KCl, 50 mM), and Ca2+ ionophores, A23187 (10 microM) or ionomycin (5 microM) lead to acidification. We conclude that a marked increase in [Ca2+]i can induce acidification and that the TRH-induced acidification is due to Ca2+ mobilization. TRH-induced alkalinization is due to Na+/H+ exchanger activation, since it is inhibited by amiloride (200 microM) and Na(+)-free medium. We show that this alkalinization does not occur after a 20-h pretreatment with phorbol myristate acetate (1 microM) which depletes protein kinase C. We also show that blocking Ca2+ entry does not affect the TRH-induced alkalinization, but an increase in [Ca2+]i concomitant with the activation of protein kinase C mimics TRH-induced alkalinization. We conclude that both Ca2+ mobilization and protein kinase C activation are necessary for TRH-induced alkalinization. Studies of secretion in Na(+)-free medium or with amiloride (200 microM) show that pHi does not seem to be involved in PRL short-term release (30 min) but suggest that activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger leading to cytoplasmic alkalinization may have an important role in PRL synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of GH-RH in the intra-cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration was studied in GH3 cells. To this end, we have used microspectrofluorimetry performed on single cells. We show that 60% of cells respond to a brief application of 100 nM GH-RH by an increase of their [Ca2+]i (mean increase 100% over basal values). This response which is blocked by calcium channel inhibitors results from an increased influx of Ca2+ ions from the external medium.
No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Comptes rendus des séances de la Société de biologie et de ses filiales
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precursor molecule to the GnRH contains a peptide named GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) with PRL-inhibiting properties. In this work, we have studied the electrophysiological properties and responses to GAP of three different types of PRL-secreting cells: 1) the rat tumor cell line GH3, 2) normal rat pituitary cells in primary culture, and 3) human PRL-secreting adenoma cells. Using different but complementary techniques we show that GAP reduces intracellular Ca++ levels, [Ca++]i, and inhibits Ca++ transients in these cells. This reduction of [Ca++]i results from coordinate actions of GAP on K+ and Ca++ conductances and may explain the inhibitory effect of GAP on hormonal secretion by PRL-secreting cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular pH (pHi) can now be measured at the single cell level using dual emission wavelength microspectrofluorimetry with the fluorescent pH indicator SNARF 1 and its membrane permeant acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF 1/AM). We measured pHi of individual pituitary cells under both basal and stimulated conditions. The emitted fluorescence of SNARF 1 probe was calibrated following experimental manipulations of pHi in two types of rat pituitary cells. The calibration curves obtained in the two cell types were identical. We observed a Gaussian distribution of individual pHi with a wide dispersion (6.95 to 8) in the two cell populations. TRH (10(-7) M) and ionomycin (5 microM) induced a transient acidification followed by a sustained alkalinization, whereas K+ (50 mM) depolarization only exerted a transient acidification. These results show that the dual emission pH indicator SNARF 1 can be used to reliably investigate changes in pHi in individual endocrine cells.