J L Kennedy

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (255)1593.65 Total impact

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    G J LaHoste · J M Swanson · S B Wigal · C Glabe · T Wigal · N King · J L Kennedy

    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. Methods: We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and extremes of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) distribution among heavy smokers (mean 35 pack-years) and never smokers. We developed a custom array for UK Biobank to provide optimum genome-wide coverage of common and low-frequency variants, dense coverage of genomic regions already implicated in lung health and disease, and to assay rare coding variants relevant to the UK population. We investigated whether there were shared genetic causes between different phenotypes defined by extremes of FEV1. We also looked for novel variants associated with extremes of FEV1 and smoking behaviour and assessed regions of the genome that had already shown evidence for a role in lung health and disease. We set genome-wide significance at p<5 × 10-8. Findings: UK Biobank participants were recruited from March 15, 2006, to July 7, 2010. Sample selection for the UK BiLEVE study started on Nov 22, 2012, and was completed on Dec 20, 2012. We selected 50 008 unique samples: 10 002 individuals with low FEV1, 10 000 with average FEV1, and 5002 with high FEV1 from each of the heavy smoker and never smoker groups. We noted a substantial sharing of genetic causes of low FEV1 between heavy smokers and never smokers (p=2·29 × 10-16) and between individuals with and without doctor-diagnosed asthma (p=6·06 × 10-11). We discovered six novel genome-wide significant signals of association with extremes of FEV1, including signals at four novel loci (KANSL1, TSEN54, TET2, and RBM19/TBX5) and independent signals at two previously reported loci (NPNT and HLA-DQB1/HLA-DQA2). These variants also showed association with COPD, including in individuals with no history of smoking. The number of copies of a 150 kb region containing the 5' end of KANSL1, a gene that is important for epigenetic gene regulation, was associated with extremes of FEV1. We also discovered five new genome-wide significant signals for smoking behaviour, including a variant in NCAM1 (chromosome 11) and a variant on chromosome 2 (between TEX41 and PABPC1P2) that has a trans effect on expression of NCAM1 in brain tissue. Interpretation: By sampling from the extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, we identified novel genetic causes of lung function and smoking behaviour. These results provide new insight into the specific mechanisms underlying airflow obstruction, COPD, and tobacco addiction, and show substantial shared genetic architecture underlying airflow obstruction across individuals, irrespective of smoking behaviour and other airway disease. Funding: Medical Research Council. © 2015 Wain et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a common side effect with a high genetic contribution. We reanalyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) selecting a refined subset of patients most suitable for AIWG studies. The final GWAS was conducted in N=189 individuals. The top polymorphisms were analyzed in a second cohort of N=86 patients. None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms was significant at the genome-wide threshold of 5x10(-8). We observed interesting trends for rs9346455 (P=6.49x10(-6)) upstream of OGFRL1, the intergenic variants rs7336345 (P=1.31 × 10(-5)) and rs1012650 (P=1.47 × 10(-5)), and rs1059778 (P=1.49x10(-5)) in IBA57. In the second cohort, rs9346455 showed significant association with AIWG (P=0.005). The combined meta-analysis P-value for rs9346455 was 1.09 × 10(-7). Our reanalysis of the CATIE GWAS data revealed interesting new variants associated with AIWG. As the functional relevance of these polymorphisms is yet to be determined, further studies are needed.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 1 September 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.59.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal
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    M. Manchia · C.C. Zai · I.S. Piras · J.L. Kennedy · B. Carpiniello

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21 856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43 879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16 731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the Stop-Signal Reaction Time (SSRT), is associated with BMI z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children.Methods The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment-the MAVAN project). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test.ResultsAfter controlling for significant co-variates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake.Conclusions At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI-z scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 16 December 2014. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.207.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · International journal of obesity (2005)
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    ABSTRACT: Neurobiological research supports the characterization of disordered gambling (DG) as a behavioral addiction. Recently, an animal model of gambling behavior was developed (rat gambling task, rGT), expanding the available tools to investigate DG neurobiology. We investigated whether rGT performance and associated risk gene expression in the rat's brain could provide cross-translational understanding of the neuromolecular mechanisms of addiction in DG. We genotyped tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in 38 addiction-related genes in 400 DG and 345 non-DG subjects. Genes with P<0.1 in the human association analyses were selected to be investigated in the animal arm to determine whether their mRNA expression in rats was associated with the rat's performance on the rGT. In humans, DG was significantly associated with tagSNPs in DRD3 (rs167771) and CAMK2D (rs3815072). Our results suggest that age and gender might moderate the association between CAMK2D and DG. Moderation effects could not be investigated due to sample power. In the animal arm, only the association between rGT performance and Drd3 expression remained significant after Bonferroni correction for 59 brain regions. As male rats were used, gender effects could not be investigated. Our results corroborate previous findings reporting the involvement of DRD3 receptor in addictions. To our knowledge, the use of human genetics, pre-clinical models and gene expression as a cross-translation paradigm has not previously been attempted in the field of addictions. The cross-validation of human findings in animal models is crucial for improving the translation of basic research into clinical treatments, which could accelerate neurobiological and pharmacological investigations in addictions.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 30 September 2014; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.113.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD. Method: The authors conducted a GWAS in 2,723 cases (1,310 with OCD, 834 with Tourette's syndrome, 579 with OCD plus Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics), 5,667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. Polygenic score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture within and across the two disorders. Results: Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels (expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10(-4)), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, Tourette's syndrome had a smaller, nonsignificant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Conclusions: Previous work has shown that Tourette's syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of these two disorders. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared with OCD alone.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Weight gain and metabolic disturbances represent serious side-effects in antipsychotic (AP) treatment, particularly with clozapine and olanzapine. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a key determinant in the folate metabolism and previous studies reported a significant effect on AP-induced weight gain and related metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we investigated MTHFR gene variants and changes in several important metabolic parameters in AP-treated patients. In this study, two functional MTHFR polymorphisms, rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C), were investigated for changes in weight and metabolic parameters. Genotypic associations were evaluated in a large population (n = 347 including 66 first episode psychosis, FEP patients) treated mostly with clozapine and olanzapine. We did not detect any genotypic association with weight changes (p > 0.05) in our total sample and in the sample refined for ancestry and medication. In our allelic analyses, we observed a trend for the 677-C allele to be associated with weight gain in the total sample (p = 0.03). This effect appeared to be driven by the FEP patients where those carrying the C-allele gained, on average, twice as much weight. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphism with HDL cholesterol serum levels in patients (p = 0.031). Overall we did not detect a major effect of two functional MTHFR gene variants and AP-induced weight gain. However, our findings suggest an effect of the C677T polymorphism in FEP patients and changes in weight and cholesterol levels. Further investigations in a larger sample are required.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives: Melanocortins have a crucial role in appetite and weight regulation. Although the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene has been repeatedly linked to obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain, the mechanism behind how it leads to this effect in still undetermined. The goal of this study was to conduct an in-depth and sophisticated analysis of MC4R polymorphisms, body mass index (BMI), eating behavior and depressed mood. Subjects/methods: We genotyped 328 individuals of European ancestry on the following MC4R markers based on the relevant literature on obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain: rs571312, rs17782313, rs489693, rs11872992, and rs8087522. Height and weight were measured, and information on depressed mood and overeating behaviors was obtained during the in-person assessment. Results: BMI was associated with rs17782313 C allele; however, this finding did not survive correction for multiple testing (P = 0.018). Although rs17782313 was significantly associated with depressed mood and overeating behaviors, tests of indirect effects indicated that emotional eating and food cravings, rather than depressed mood, uniquely accounted for the effect of this marker and BMI (n = 152). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the link between MC4R rs17782313, mood and overeating behavior, as well as to demonstrate possible mechanisms behind MC4R's influence on body weight. If replicated in a larger sample, these results may have important clinical implications, including potential for the use of MC4R agonists in the treatment of obesity and disordered eating.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · International journal of obesity (2005)
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    ABSTRACT: Pathological gambling (PG) is a heterogeneous disorder. The identification and characterization of PG subtypes could lead to tailored treatment approaches, which may, in turn, improve treatment outcomes. To investigate PG subtypes based on personality traits across two different cultural and clinical settings. Consistent with the Pathways Model, we hypothesized the presence of three subtypes (behaviorally conditioned - BC, emotionally vulnerable - EV, and antisocial impulsivist - AI). 140 PG adults from São Paulo, Brazil (SP sample) and 352 adults with PG (n=214) or sub-clinical PG (n=138) from Toronto, Canada (TO sample) completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Latent-class analysis was used to investigate subtypes. A 2-class solution was the best model for the pooled SP and TO samples. Class 1 presented a normative personality profile and was composed exclusively of participants from Toronto (BC subtype). Class 2 was characterized by high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low self-directedness, and included participants from both SP and TO (EV subtype). When sub-clinical PGs were excluded from the analysis, a single-class solution better characterized the SP and TO samples. Our results suggest that PG severity, rather than community or clinical settings, may have an effect on PG subtypes. The generalizability of the results is limited by the demographic and clinical features of the selected samples. Future neurobiological studies may contribute to the categorization of subjects into PG subtypes based on different underlying biological pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Addictive behaviors
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    ABSTRACT: The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 anorexia nervosa genome-wide association scan includes 2907 cases from 15 different populations of European origin genotyped on the Illumina 670K chip. We compared methods for identifying population stratification, and suggest list of markers that may help to counter this problem. It is usual to identify population structure in such studies using only common variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%; we find that this may result in highly informative SNPs being discarded, and suggest that instead all SNPs with MAF >1% may be used. We established informative axes of variation identified via principal component analysis and highlight important features of the genetic structure of diverse European-descent populations, some studied for the first time at this scale. Finally, we investigated the substructure within each of these 15 populations and identified SNPs that help capture hidden stratification. This work can provide information regarding the designing and interpretation of association results in the International Consortia
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · European Journal of HumanGenetics
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
  • V. De Luca · L. Zawertailo · J.L. Kennedy · P. Selby

    No preview · Article · Dec 2013
  • V.F. Goncalves · J.L. Kennedy · M.A. Richter

    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · European Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular Psychiatry publishes work aimed at elucidating biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and their treatment
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Molecular Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: The neuronal glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 is a candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) based on linkage studies and convergent evidence implicating glutamate in OCD etiology. The 3' end of SLC1A1 is the only genomic region with consistently demonstrated OCD association, especially when analyzing male-only probands. However, specific allele associations have not been consistently replicated, and recent OCD genome-wide association and meta-analysis studies have not incorporated all previously associated SLC1A1 SNPs. To clarify the nature of association between SLC1A1 and OCD, pooled analysis was performed on all available relevant raw study data, comprising a final sample of 815 trios, 306 cases and 634 controls. This revealed weak association between OCD and one of nine tested SLC1A1 polymorphisms (rs301443; uncorrected P = 0.046; non-significant corrected P). Secondary analyses of male-affecteds only (N = 358 trios and 133 cases) demonstrated modest association between OCD and a different SNP (rs12682807; uncorrected P = 0.012; non-significant corrected P). Findings of this meta-analysis are consistent with the trend of previous candidate gene studies in psychiatry and do not clarify the putative role of SLC1A1 in OCD pathophysiology. Nonetheless, it may be important to further examine the potential associations demonstrated in this amalgamated sample, especially since the SNPs with modest associations were not included in the more highly powered recent GWAS or in a past meta-analysis including five SLC1A1 polymorphisms. This study underscores the need for much larger sample sizes in future genetic association studies and suggests that next-generation sequencing may be beneficial in examining the potential role of rare variants in OCD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have reported on pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in depression. In contrast, little is known of response predictors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder with among the lowest proportion of responders to medication (40-60%). Our study is the largest investigation to date (N=184) of treatment response and side effects to antidepressants in OCD based on metabolizer status for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. We observed significantly more failed medication trials in CYP2D6 non-extensive compared with extensive metabolizers (P=0.007). CYP2D6 metabolizer status was associated with side effects to venlafaxine (P=0.022). There were nonsignificant trends for association of CYP2D6 metabolizer status with response to fluoxetine (P=0.056) and of CYP2C19 metabolizer status with response to sertraline (P=0.064). Our study is the first to indicate that CYP genes may have a role in antidepressant response in OCD. More research is required for a future clinical application of genetic testing, which could lead to improved treatment outcomes.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 2 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.12.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,593.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000-2015
    • Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1992-2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Institute of Medical Sciences
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006-2008
    • State University of New York Press
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • Oxon Epidemiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Toronto Western Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1999
    • University of Bonn
      • Institute of Human Genetics
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1989-1992
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Genetics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1991
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States