Gijs Kooij

VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (42)195.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has received increasing attention as a potential antiepileptogenic target. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin after status epilepticus reduces the development of epilepsy in a rat model. To study whether rapamycin mediates this effect via restoration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) was used to determine BBB permeability throughout epileptogenesis. Methods: Imaging was repeatedly performed until 6 weeks after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in rapamycin (6 mg/kg for 6 weeks starting 4 h after SE) and vehicle-treated rats, using gadobutrol as contrast agent. Seizures were detected using video monitoring in the week following the last imaging session. Results: Gadobutrol leakage was widespread and extensive in both rapamycin and vehicle-treated epileptic rats during the acute phase, with the piriform cortex and amygdala as the most affected regions. Gadobutrol leakage was higher in rapamycin-treated rats 4 and 8 days after status epilepticus compared to vehicle-treated rats. However, during the chronic epileptic phase, gadobutrol leakage was lower in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats along with a decreased seizure frequency. This was confirmed by local fluorescein staining in the brains of the same rats. Total brain volume was reduced by this rapamycin treatment regimen. Significance: The initial slow recovery of BBB function in rapamycin-treated epileptic rats indicates that rapamycin does not reduce seizure activity by a gradual recovery of BBB integrity. The reduced BBB leakage during the chronic phase, however, could contribute to the decreased seizure frequency in post-status epilepticus rats treated with rapamycin. Furthermore, the data show that CE-MRI (using step-down infusion with gadobutrol) can be used as biomarker for monitoring the effect of drug therapy in rats.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Epilepsia
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage may play a pro-epileptogenic role after status epilepticus. In the accompanying contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) study we showed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin reduced BBB leakage and seizure activity during the chronic epileptic phase. Given rapamycin's role in growth and immune response, the potential therapeutic effects of rapamycin after status epilepticus with emphasis on brain inflammation and brain vasculature were investigated. Methods: Seven weeks after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus, rats were perfusion fixed and (immuno)histochemistry was performed using several glial and vascular markers. In addition, an in vitro model for the human BBB was used to determine the effects of rapamycin on transendothelial electrical resistance as a measure for BBB integrity. Results: (Immuno)histochemistry showed that local blood vessel density, activated microglia, and astrogliosis were reduced in rapamycin-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. In vitro studies showed that rapamycin could attenuate TNFα-induced endothelial barrier breakdown. Significance: These data suggest that rapamycin improves BBB function during the chronic epileptic phase by a reduction of local brain inflammation and blood vessel density that can contribute to a milder form of epilepsy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Epilepsia
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Reactive oxygen species play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis as they induce blood-brain barrier disruption and enhance transendothelial leukocyte migration. Thus, therapeutic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential could have clinical value in multiple sclerosis. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the therapeutic effects of monomethyl fumarate on inflammatory-mediated changes in blood-brain barrier function and gain insight into the underlying mechanism. Methods: The effects of monomethyl fumarate on monocyte transendothelial migration across and adhesion to inflamed human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) were quantified using standardized in vitro migration and adhesion assays. Flow cytometry analysis and qPCR were used to measure the concomitant effects of monomethyl fumarate treatment on protein expression of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, the effects of monomethyl fumarate on the expression and nuclear localization of proteins involved in the activation of antioxidant and inflammatory pathways in human brain endothelial cells were elucidated using nuclear fractionation and Western blotting. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Results: Our results show that monomethyl fumarate induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and concomitant production of the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 in brain endothelial cells. Importantly, monomethyl fumarate treatment markedly decreased monocyte transendothelial migration across and adhesion to inflamed human brain endothelial cells. Treatment of brain endothelial cells with monomethyl fumarate resulted in a striking reduction of vascular cell adhesion molecule expression. Surprisingly, monomethyl fumarate did not affect nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-кB suggesting that monomethyl fumarate potentially affects activity of nuclear factor-ĸB downstream of nuclear translocation. Conclusions: Taken together, we show that monomethyl fumarate, the primary metabolite of dimethyl fumarate, which is currently used in the clinics for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, demonstrates beneficial therapeutic effects at the inflamed blood-brain barrier.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Microvascular Research
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    ABSTRACT: Each year about 650,000 Europeans die from stroke and a similar number lives with the sequelae of multiple sclerosis (MS). Stroke and MS differ in their etiology. Although cause and likewise clinical presentation set the two diseases apart, they share common downstream mechanisms that lead to damage and recovery. Demyelination and axonal injury are characteristics of MS but are also observed in stroke. Conversely, hallmarks of stroke, such as vascular impairment and neurodegeneration, are found in MS. However, the most conspicuous common feature is the marked neuroinflammatory response, marked by glia cell activation and immune cell influx.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The inverse correlation between prevalence of auto-immune disorders like the chronic neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the occurrence of helminth (worm) infections, suggests that the helminth-trained immune system is protective against auto-immunity. As monocytes are regarded as crucial players in the pathogenesis of auto-immune diseases, we explored the hypothesis that these innate effector cells are prime targets for helminths to exert their immunomodulatory effects. Results: Here we show that soluble products of the porcine nematode Trichuris suis (TsSP) are potent in changing the phenotype and function of human monocytes by skewing classical monocytes into anti-inflammatory patrolling cells, which exhibit reduced trans-endothelial migration capacity in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Mechanistically, we identified the mannose receptor as the TsSP-interacting monocyte receptor and we revealed that specific downstream signalling occurs via protein kinase C (PKC), and in particular PKCδ. Conclusion: This study provides comprehensive mechanistic insight into helminth-induced immunomodulation, which can be therapeutically exploited to combat various auto-immune disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple Sclerosis is a serious neurological disorder, resulting in e.g. sensory, motor and cognitive deficits. A critical pathological aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the influx of immunomodulatory cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Identification of key players that regulate cellular trafficking into the CNS may lead to the development of more selective treatment to halt this process. The multifunctional enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) can participate in various inflammation-related processes, and is known to be expressed in the CNS. In the present study, we question whether TG2 activity contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental MS, and could be a novel therapeutic target. In human post-mortem material, we showed the appearance of TG2 immunoreactivity in leukocytes in MS lesions, and particular in macrophages in rat chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cr-EAE), an experimental MS model. Clinical deficits as observed in mouse EAE were reduced in TG2 knock-out mice compared to littermate wild-type mice, supporting a role of TG2 in EAE pathogenesis. To establish if the enzyme TG2 represents an attractive therapeutic target, cr-EAE rats were treated with TG2 activity inhibitors during ongoing disease. Reduction of TG2 activity in cr-EAE animals dramatically attenuated clinical deficits and demyelination. The mechanism underlying these beneficial effects pointed toward a reduction in macrophage migration into the CNS due to attenuated cytoskeletal flexibility and RhoA GTPase activity. Moreover, iNOS and TNFα levels were selectively reduced in the CNS of cr-EAE rats treated with a TG2 activity inhibitor, whereas other relevant inflammatory mediators were not affected in CNS or spleen by reducing TG2 activity. We conclude that modulating TG2 activity opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention in MS which does not affect peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Human brain microvascular endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) release soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, sVCAM-1 serum levels in untreated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) correlate with a breakdown of the BBB as measured by gadolinium-enhanced MRI. To date, it is unknown whether sVCAM-1 itself modulates BBB permeability. Here, we provide evidence that human brain endothelium expresses integrin α-4/β-1, the molecular binding partner of sVCAM-1, and that sVCAM-1 directly impairs BBB function by inducing intracellular signalling events through integrin α-4. Primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells showed low to moderate integrin α-4 and strong β-1 but no definite β-7 expression in vitro and in situ. Increased brain endothelial integrin α-4 expression was observed in active MS lesions in situ and after angiogenic stimulation in vitro. Exposure of cultured primary brain endothelial cells to recombinant sVCAM-1 significantly increased their permeability to the soluble tracer dextran, which was paralleled by formation of actin stress fibres and reduced staining of tight junction-associated molecules. Soluble VCAM-1 was also found to activate Rho GTPase and p38 MAP kinase. Chemical inhibition of these signalling pathways partially prevented sVCAM-1-induced changes of tight junction arrangement. Importantly, natalizumab, a neutralising recombinant monoclonal antibody against integrin α-4 approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting MS, partially antagonised the barrier-disturbing effect of sVCAM-1. In summary, we newly characterised sVCAM-1 as a compromising factor of brain endothelial barrier function that may be partially blocked by the MS therapeutic natalizumab.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Acta Neuropathologica
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Infiltration of monocytes into the CNS is crucial for disease onset and progression. Animal studies indicate that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may play an essential role in this process, possibly by acting on the migratory capacities of myeloid cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study describes the effect of GM-CSF on human monocytes, macrophages and microglia. Furthermore, the expression of GM-CSF and its receptor was investigated in the CNS under healthy and pathological conditions. We show that GM-CSF enhances monocyte migration across human BBB endothelial cells in vitro. Next, immunohistochemical analysis on human brain tissues revealed that GM-CSF is highly expressed by microglia and macrophages in MS lesions. The GM-CSF receptor is expressed by neurons in the rim of combined gray/white matter lesions and astrocytes. Finally, the effect of GM-CSF on human macrophages was determined, revealing an intermediate activation status, with a phenotype similar to that observed in active MS lesions. Together our data indicate that GM-CSF is a powerful stimulator of monocyte migration, and is abundantly present in the inflamed CNS where it may act as an activator of macrophages and microglia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · European Journal of Immunology
  • Gijs Kooij · Helga E de Vries

    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Multiple Sclerosis

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical trials in patients with inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have shown the beneficial effects of probiotic helminth administration, although the underlying mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Potential cellular targets may include innate immune cells that propagate inflammation in these diseases, like pro-inflammatory macrophages. We here investigated the effects of the helminth Trichuris suis soluble products (SPs) on the phenotype and function of human inflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-differentiated) macrophages. Interestingly, we here show that T. suis SPs potently skew inflammatory macrophages into a more anti-inflammatory state in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner, and less effects are seen when stimulating macrophages with TLR2 or -3 ligands. Gene microarray analysis of GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages further revealed that many TLR4-induced inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-12B, CCL1 and CXCL9, are downregulated by T. suis SPs. In particular, we observed a strong reduction in the expression and function of P2RX7, a purinergic receptor involved in macrophage inflammation, leading to reduced IL-1β secretion. In conclusion, we show that T. suis SPs suppress a broad range of inflammatory pathways in GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages in a TLR4-dependent manner, thereby providing enhanced mechanistic insight into the therapeutic potential of this helminth for patients with inflammatory diseases.Genes and Immunity advance online publication,
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Genes and Immunity
  • M.R. Mizee · G. Kooij · H.E. De Vries
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    ABSTRACT: Proper function of the neurovasculature is required for optimal brain function and preventing neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. During a large number of neurological disorders, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an apparent feature and may significantly contribute to disease progression. In particular, during the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), the function of the BBB is severely hampered and immune cells gain access into the brain, causing neurological deficits. Consequently, transport of compounds, including drugs, may be altered under disease condition. Within this chapter, we will discuss alterations of the function of the BBB and its consequences in the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an early event in lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Monitoring its expression may provide a biomarker for early disease activity and allow validation of anti-inflammatory interventions. Our objective was therefore to explore whether ICAM-1 expression can be visualized in vivo during EAE with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using micron-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO), and to compare accumulation profiles of targeted and untargeted MPIO, and a gadolinium-containing agent. Targeted αICAM-1-MPIO/untargeted IgG-MPIO were injected at two model-characteristic phases of EAE (in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35–55-immunized C57BL/6 J mice), that is, at the peak of the acute phase (14 ± 1 days post-immunization) and during the chronic phase (26 ± 1 days post-immunization), followed by T2*-weighted MRI. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability was measured using gadobutrol-enhanced MRI. Cerebellar microvessels were analyzed for ICAM-1 mRNA expression using quantitative PCR (qPCR). ICAM-1 and iron oxide presence was examined with immunohistochemistry (IHC). During EAE, ICAM-1 was expressed by brain endothelial cells, macrophages and T-cells as shown with qPCR and (fluorescent) IHC. EAE animals injected with αICAM-1-MPIO showed MRI hypointensities, particularly in the subarachnoid space. αICAM-1-MPIO presence did not differ between the phases of EAE and was not associated with BBB dysfunction. αICAM-1-MPIO were associated with endothelial cells or cells located at the luminal side of blood vessels. In conclusion, ICAM-1 expression can be visualized with in vivo molecular MRI during EAE, and provides an early tracer of disease activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: The trafficking of cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes across the lining of the cerebral vasculature is key to the onset of the chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis. However, the mechanisms controlling their final transmigration across the brain endothelium remain unknown. Here, we describe that CD8(+) T lymphocyte trafficking into the brain is dependent on the activity of the brain endothelial adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein. Silencing P-glycoprotein activity selectively reduced the trafficking of CD8(+) T cells across the brain endothelium in vitro as well as in vivo. In response to formation of the T cell-endothelial synapse, P-glycoprotein was found to regulate secretion of endothelial (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), a chemokine that mediates CD8(+) T cell migration in vitro. Notably, CCL2 levels were significantly enhanced in microvessels isolated from human multiple sclerosis lesions in comparison with non-neurological controls. Endothelial cell-specific elimination of CCL2 in mice subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis also significantly diminished the accumulation of CD8(+) T cells compared to wild-type animals. Collectively, these results highlight a novel (patho)physiological role for P-glycoprotein in CD8(+) T cell trafficking into the central nervous system during neuro-inflammation and illustrate CCL2 secretion as a potential link in this mechanism.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Acta Neuropathologica
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was the generation of central nervous system (CNS)-excluded cannabinoid receptor agonists to test the hypothesis that inhibition of spasticity, due to CNS autoimmunity, could be controlled by affecting neurotransmission within the periphery. Procedures included identification of chemicals and modeling to predict the mode of exclusion; induction and control of spasticity in the ABH mouse model of multiple sclerosis; conditional deletion of CB1 receptor in peripheral nerves; side-effect profiling to demonstrate the mechanism of CNS-exclusion via drug pumps; genome-wide association study in N2(129×ABH) backcross to map polymorphic cannabinoid drug pump; and sequencing and detection of cannabinoid drug-pump activity in human brain endothelial cell lines. Three drugs (CT3, SAB378 and SAD448) were identified that control spasticity via action on the peripheral nerve CB1 receptor. These were peripherally restricted via drug pumps that limit the CNS side effects (hypothermia) of cannabinoids to increase the therapeutic window. A cannabinoid drug pump is polymorphic and functionally lacking in many laboratory (C57BL/6, 129, CD-1) mice used for transgenesis, pharmacology, and toxicology studies. This phenotype was mapped and controlled by 1-3 genetic loci. ABCC1 within a cluster showing linkage is a cannabinoid CNS-drug pump. Global and conditional CB1 receptor-knockout mice were used as controls. In summary, CNS-excluded CB1 receptor agonists are a novel class of therapeutic agent for spasticity.-Pryce, G., Visintin, C., Ramagopalan, S. V., Al-Izki, S., De Faveri, L. E., Nuamah, R. A., Mein, C. A., Montpetit, A., Hardcastle, A. J., Kooij, G., de Vries, H. E., Amor, S., Thomas, S. A., Ledent, C., Marsicano, G., Lutz, B., Thompson, A. J., Selwood, D. L., Giovannoni, G., Baker, D. Control of spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model using central nervous system-excluded CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The FASEB Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder, which is marked by the invasion of the central nervous system by monocyte-derived macrophages and autoreactive T cells across the brain vasculature. Data from experimental animal models recently implied that the passage of leukocytes across the brain vasculature is preceded by their traversal across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) of the choroid plexus. The correlation between the presence of leukocytes in the CSF of patients suffering from MS and the number of inflammatory lesions as detected by magnetic resonance imaging suggests that inflammation at the choroid plexus contributes to the disease, although in a yet unknown fashion. We here provide first insights into the involvement of the choroid plexus in the onset and severity of the disease and in particular address the role of the tight junction protein claudin-3 (CLDN3) in this process. Detailed analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue revealed a selective loss of CLDN3 at the choroid plexus in MS patients compared to control tissues. Importantly, mice that lack CLDN3 have an impaired BCSFB and experience a more rapid onset and exacerbated clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which coincides with enhanced levels of infiltrated leukocytes in their CSF. Together, this study highlights a profound role for the choroid plexus in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and implies that CLDN3 may be regarded as a crucial and novel determinant of BCSFB integrity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Acta Neuropathologica
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and marked by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) within the brain. Alterations of Aβ transporters at the neurovasculature may play a role in the disease process. We investigated the expression of ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer related protein (BCRP) in non-neurologic controls, AD, and severe capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy (capCAA) cases, which are characterized by deposition of Aβ within cerebral capillaries. Our data show that microvascular expression of P-gp and BCRP is strikingly decreased in capCAA-affected vessels but not in AD and control samples. Messenger RNA levels of P-gp, but not of BCRP, were downregulated in brain endothelial cells on exposure to oligomeric Aβ42, but not fibrillar Aβ42 or Aβ40. Coincubating Aβ42 together with clusterin, an amyloid-associated protein highly expressed in capCAA-affected vessels, strongly reduced levels of P-gp. In conclusion, accumulation of Aβ, in combination with clusterin, within and around cerebral capillaries, may further aggravate the disease process in AD by affecting P-gp expression. Loss of P-gp expression or activity may serve as a selective biomarker for ongoing capCAA.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Neurobiology of aging
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    Dataset: Figure 2

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2013
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    Dataset: Figure 3

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2013

Publication Stats

756 Citations
195.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007-2015
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2014
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands