[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The positional cloning of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF) was the important first step in understanding the basic defect and pathophysiology of the disease. This study aims to provide a historical account of key developments as well as factors that contributed to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene identification work. A redefined gene structure based on the full sequence of the gene derived from the Human Genome Project is presented, along with brief reviews of the transcription regulatory sequences for the CFTR gene, the role of mRNA splicing in gene regulation and CF disease, and, various related sequences in the human genome and other species. Because CF mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations are covered by our colleagues (Ferec C, Cutting GR. 2012. Assessing the disease-liability of mutations in CFTR. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a009480), we only attempt to provide an introduction of the CF mutation database here for reference purposes.
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease due to mutations in the CFTR gene. Yet, variability in CF disease presentation is presumed to be affected by modifier genes, such as those recently demonstrated for the pulmonary aspect. Here, we conduct a modifier gene study for meconium ileus (MI), an intestinal obstruction that occurs in 16-20% of CF newborns, providing linkage and association results from large family and case-control samples. Linkage analysis of modifier traits is different than linkage analysis of primary traits on which a sample was ascertained. Here, we articulate a source of confounding unique to modifier gene studies and provide an example of how one might overcome the confounding in the context of linkage studies. Our linkage analysis provided evidence of a MI locus on chromosome 12p13.3, which was segregating in up to 80% of MI families with at least one affected offspring (HLOD = 2.9). Fine mapping of the 12p13.3 region in a large case-control sample of pancreatic insufficient Canadian CF patients with and without MI pointed to the involvement of ADIPOR2 in MI (p = 0.002). This marker was substantially out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the cases only, and provided evidence of a cohort effect. The association with rs9300298 in the ADIPOR2 gene at the 12p13.3 locus was replicated in an independent sample of CF families. A protective locus, using the phenotype of no-MI, mapped to 4q13.3 (HLOD = 3.19), with substantial heterogeneity. A candidate gene in the region, SLC4A4, provided preliminary evidence of association (p = 0.002), warranting further follow-up studies. Our linkage approach was used to direct our fine-mapping studies, which uncovered two potential modifier genes worthy of follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify human intronic sequences associated with 5' splice site recognition, we performed a systematic search for motifs enriched in introns downstream of both constitutive and alternative cassette exons. Significant enrichment was observed for U-rich motifs within 100 nucleotides downstream of 5' splice sites of both classes of exons, with the highest enrichment between positions +6 and +30. Exons adjacent to U-rich intronic motifs contain lower frequencies of exonic splicing enhancers and higher frequencies of exonic splicing silencers, compared with exons not followed by U-rich intronic motifs. These findings motivated us to explore the possibility of a widespread role for U-rich motifs in promoting exon inclusion. Since cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1) and TIA1-like 1 (TIAL1; also known as TIAR) were previously shown in vitro to bind to U-rich motifs downstream of 5' splice sites, and to facilitate 5' splice site recognition in vitro and in vivo, we investigated whether these factors function more generally in the regulation of splicing of exons followed by U-rich intronic motifs. Simultaneous knockdown of TIA1 and TIAL1 resulted in increased skipping of 36/41 (88%) of alternatively spliced exons associated with U-rich motifs, but did not affect 32/33 (97%) alternatively spliced exons that are not associated with U-rich motifs. The increase in exon skipping correlated with the proximity of the first U-rich motif and the overall "U-richness" of the adjacent intronic region. The majority of the alternative splicing events regulated by TIA1/TIAL1 are conserved in mouse, and the corresponding genes are associated with diverse cellular functions. Based on our results, we estimate that approximately 15% of alternative cassette exons are regulated by TIA1/TIAL1 via U-rich intronic elements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial tortuosity syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe tortuosity of greater and systemic arteries in affected individuals. In addition, patients display connective tissue features which include hyperextensible skin, hypermobility of joints and characteristic facial features. This syndrome is caused by mutation in SLC2A10 gene which encodes for the facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT10. We describe seven patients of two unrelated Saudi Arabian families who display tortuosity, dilatation and stenosis of arteries, pulmonary hypertension and other cardiovascular manifestations. These patients exhibit characteristic connective tissue phenotypes and distinctive facial features. In the single patient of Family 1, sequencing of the candidate gene, SLC2A10, identified a novel missense c.313C>T mutation encoding a p.Arg105Cys substitution in the second extracellular domain of GLUT10. The Arg105 in GLUT10 is highly conserved across species and its replacement with cysteine is predicted to be pathogenic. In the second family, all of the six affected individuals carry recurrent c.243C>G missense mutation encoding a p.Ser81Arg change in the third transmembrane domain of GLUT10. The present study suggests that there exists an intra- and inter-familial phenotypic variability in arterial tortuosity patients carrying identical or different mutations in SLC2A10 gene. While skin hyperextensibility, small joint hypermobility, and facial features are similarly expressed in these patients, there is a range of other phenotypes which include arterial tortuosity and associated complications, and abnormalities of other organs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease, its clinical manifestations are influenced in a complex manner. Severity of lung disease, the main cause of mortality among CF patients, is likely modulated by several genes. The mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene encodes an innate immune response protein and has been implicated as a pulmonary modifier in CF. However, reports have been conflicting, and interactions with other modifiers have not been investigated. We therefore evaluated the association of MBL2 with CF pulmonary phenotype in a cohort of 1,019 Canadian pediatric CF patients. MBL2 genotypes were combined into low-, intermediate-, and high-expression groups based on MBL2 levels in plasma. Analysis of age at first infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrated that MBL2 deficiency was significantly associated with earlier onset of infection. This MBL2 effect was amplified in patients with high-producing genotypes of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1). Similarly, MBL2 deficiency was associated with more rapid decline of pulmonary function, most significantly in those carrying the high-producing TGFB1 genotype. These findings provide evidence of gene-gene interaction in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, whereby high TGF-beta1 production enhances the modulatory effect of MBL2 on the age of first bacterial infection and the rate of decline of pulmonary function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a population that have undergone recent selection, and we also developed new methods that are based on cross-population comparisons to discover alleles that have swept to near-fixation within a population. The analysis reveals more than 300 strong candidate regions. Focusing on the strongest 22 regions, we develop a heuristic for scrutinizing these regions to identify candidate targets of selection. In a complementary analysis, we identify 26 non-synonymous, coding, single nucleotide polymorphisms showing regional evidence of positive selection. Examination of these candidates highlights three cases in which two genes in a common biological process have apparently undergone positive selection in the same population:LARGE and DMD, both related to infection by the Lassa virus, in West Africa;SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, both involved in skin pigmentation, in Europe; and EDAR and EDA2R, both involved in development of hair follicles, in Asia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between 0.9 and 0.96 depending on population. We demonstrate that the current generation of commercial genome-wide genotyping products captures common Phase II SNPs with an average maximum r2 of up to 0.8 in African and up to 0.95 in non-African populations, and that potential gains in power in association studies can be obtained through imputation. These data also reveal novel aspects of the structure of linkage disequilibrium. We show that 10-30% of pairs of individuals within a population share at least one region of extended genetic identity arising from recent ancestry and that up to 1% of all common variants are untaggable, primarily because they lie within recombination hotspots. We show that recombination rates vary systematically around genes and between genes of different function. Finally, we demonstrate increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs, resulting from systematic differences in the strength or efficacy of natural selection between populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier that participates in urea, protein, and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways by supplying aspartate from mitochondria to the cytosol. Citrin also plays a role in transporting cytosolic NADH reducing equivalents into mitochondria as a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in the SLC25A13 gene encoding citrin cause both adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, collectively referred to as human citrin deficiency. Citrin knock-out mice fail to display features of human citrin deficiency. Based on the hypothesis that an enhanced glycerol phosphate shuttle activity may be compensating for the loss of citrin function in the mouse, we have generated mice with a combined disruption of the genes for citrin and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting double knock-out mice demonstrated citrullinemia, hyperammonemia that was further elevated by oral sucrose administration, hypoglycemia, and a fatty liver, all features of human citrin deficiency. An increased hepatic lactate/pyruvate ratio in the double knock-out mice compared with controls was also further elevated by the oral sucrose administration, suggesting that an altered cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio is closely associated with the hyperammonemia observed. Microarray analyses identified over 100 genes that were differentially expressed in the double knock-out mice compared with wild-type controls, revealing genes potentially involved in compensatory or downstream effects of the combined mutations. Together, our data indicate that the more severe phenotype present in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice represents a more accurate model of human citrin deficiency than citrin knock-out mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonsense mutations that occur more than 50 bases upstream of terminal spliced junctions are generally thought to lead to degradation of the corresponding transcripts by the process of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. It has also been proposed that some nonsense mutations may affect splicing by the process of nonsense-associated altered splicing (NAS), or by the disruption of a splicing regulatory element. In this study, the effect of the R553X mutation on the splicing of exon 11 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene was investigated. Evidence that R553X causes exon 11 to skip through the creation of a putative exonic splicing silencer (ESS) was provided. The putative ESS appears to be active when located immediately upstream of a 5' splice site. These findings argue against the possibility that R553X-associated exon 11 skipping is caused by NAS. The study further suggests that aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment would not be effective for patients with the R553X mutation, owing to the skipping of exon 11, and further emphasises the need for detailed mechanistic characterisation of the consequences of nonsense disease mutations.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r(2) of between 0.9 and 0.96 depending on population. We demonstrate that the current generation of commercial genome-wide genotyping products captures common Phase II SNPs with an average maximum r(2) of up to 0.8 in African and up to 0.95 in non-African populations, and that potential gains in power in association studies can be obtained through imputation. These data also reveal novel aspects of the structure of linkage disequilibrium. We show that 10-30% of pairs of individuals within a population share at least one region of extended genetic identity arising from recent ancestry and that up to 1% of all common variants are untaggable, primarily because they lie within recombination hotspots. We show that recombination rates vary systematically around genes and between genes of different function. Finally, we demonstrate increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs, resulting from systematic differences in the strength or efficacy of natural selection between populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations (CFTR) and in vivo transepithelial potentials.
We prospectively evaluated 162 men including 31 healthy subjects, 21 obligate heterozygotes, 60 with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) and 50 with CF by extensive CFTR genotyping, sweat chloride and nasal potential difference testing.
Six (10%) men with CBAVD carried no CFTR mutations, 18 (30%) carried one mutation, including the 5T variant, and 36 (60%) carried mutations on both alleles, for a significantly higher rate carrying one or more mutations than healthy controls (90% versus 19%, p < 0.001). There was an overlapping spectrum of ion channel measurements among the men with CBAVD, ranging from values in the control and obligate heterozygote range at one extreme, to values in the CF range at the other. All pancreatic-sufficient patients with CF and 34 of 36 patients with CBAVD with mutations on both alleles carried at least one mild mutation. However, the distribution of mild mutations in the two groups differed greatly. Genotyping, sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (alone or in combination) excluded CF in all CBAVD men with no mutations. CF was confirmed in 56% and 67% of CBAVD men carrying 1 and 2 CFTR mutations, respectively.
Abnormalities of CFTR transepithelial function correlate with the number and severity of CFTR gene mutations.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in SLC25A13, encoding the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier citrin, cause adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) in humans. We have previously reported that although citrin-knockout (Ctrn-/-) mice fail to display symptoms of CTLN2, liver perfusion revealed a deficit in ureogenesis from ammonia accompanied by an increase in the perfusate lactate-to-pyruvate (L/P) ratio. The present study explores the effects of pyruvate, aspartate and citrate on improving the abnormalities observed in the Ctrn-/- liver.
We measured the rate of ureogenesis from ammonium chloride using the liver-perfusion system.
Pyruvate infusion lowered the L/P ratio and corrected the deficit in ureogenesis in the Ctrn-/- liver. This effect was found to be dose-dependent in both instances. Phenazine methosulfate, a cytosolic oxidant, also improved the rate of ureogenesis in the Ctrn-/- liver and led to a fall in the L/P ratio. The addition of aspartate or citrate did not change either the rate of ureogenesis or the L/P ratio in the Ctrn-/- liver.
Citrin deficiency disturbs urea synthesis primarily as a result of an elevated cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio owing to limited reoxidation of reducing equivalents. Clinically, pyruvate may have a therapeutic benefit for CTLN2 patients.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations are associated with cystic fibrosis (CF)-related monosymptomatic conditions, including idiopathic pancreatitis. We evaluated prospectively enrolled patients who had idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis or idiopathic chronic pancreatitis, healthy controls, CF heterozygotes, and CF patients (pancreatic insufficient or sufficient) for evidence of CFTR gene mutations and abnormalities of ion transport by sweat chloride and nasal potential difference testing. DNA samples from anonymous blood donors were controls for genotyping. At least one CFTR mutation or variant was carried in 18 of 40 patients (45%) with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis and in 6 of 16 patients (38%) with idiopathic recurrent acute pancreatitis but in only 11 of the 50 controls (22%, P=0.005). Most identified mutations were rare and would not be identified in routine genetic screening. CFTR mutations were identified on both alleles in six patient (11%). Ion transport measurements in patients with pancreatitis showed a wide range of results, from the values in patients with classically diagnosed CF to those in the obligate heterozygotes and healthy controls. In general, ion channel measurements correlated with the number and severity of CFTR mutations. Twelve of 56 patients with pancreatitis (21%) fulfilled current clinical criteria for the diagnosis of CF, but CFTR genotyping alone confirmed the diagnosis in only two of these patients. We concluded that extensive genotyping and ion channel testing are useful to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of CF in the majority of patients with idiopathic pancreatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to increase our understanding of the molecular events underlying osteosarcoma progression, the expression of approximately 950 genes was examined in 24 primary and metastatic osteosarcoma tumor specimens. A gene, RMO1, was isolated with decreased expression in metastatic samples. Real-Time PCR corroborated this pattern, revealing lower expression in the primary sample in 6 of 7 cases for which both primary and metastatic osteosarcoma samples were available from the same patient (p = 0.034). RMO1 is located at 2q33, a region of frequent loss of heterozygosity in cancer, and exhibited loss of heterozygosity in 6 out of 9 primary osteosarcoma tumor samples (67%). Loss of heterozygosity is evident in primary tumors while the decrease in gene expression is seen in the metastatic samples, indicating that these 2 events are separately implicated in cancer progression. Cloning of RMO1 revealed an open reading frame with multiple splice forms with significant homology to GRB7, 10 and 14 and MIG10 in the region containing a Pleckstrin homology domain and a Ras association domain, suggestive of a role in cell signaling and migration. Northern blot analysis indicated that RMO1 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in tissues except for peripheral blood leukocytes. These data suggest that RMO1 may be a candidate for a protein involved in inhibiting tumor progression.
Preview · Article · May 2005 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Map order, orientation, and gap or overlap distance of closely linked DNA probes may be determined using fluorescent hybridization to decondensed DNA. The linear arrangement of released chromatin fibers not only simplifies the task of gene ordering, but also provides higher resolution with probes separated by greater distances than can be achieved in FISH with intact interphase nuclei. The Basic Protocol 1 of this unit describes an alkaline lysis procedure for generating free chromatin from cultured cells for FISH analysis. A support protocol describes an empirical approach to optimize conditions for preparation of free chromatin. An Alternate Protocol 1 provides a method for producing free chromatin from cultured lymphocytes with drug treatment. The Basic Protocol 2, high-resolution FISH mapping with free chromatin, is a modification of the method used for FISH mapping of interphase nuclei.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Current protocols in human genetics / editorial board, Jonathan L. Haines ... [et al.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) represents a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by the absence or deformity in two or more of the ectodermal appendages. We have studied an autosomal recessive form of ED in 13 individuals over six generations from an inbred Pakistani family. The clinical features of the affected individuals include highly dystrophic nails and thin hair on scalp, fine eyebrows and eyelashes, and thin body hair. Genome-wide linkage analysis of 390 microsatellite markers mapped the ED gene to the 3.92 cM interval flanked by markers D10S1710 and D10S1741 on chromosome 10q24.32-q25.1. Multipoint linkage analysis generated a maximum logarithm of odds ratio score of 4.79 in the interval D10S1239-D10S1264, which corresponds to 6.35 Mb.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiency of citrin, a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier (AGC), encoded by the SLC25A13 gene on chromosome 7q21.3, causes autosomal recessive disorders: adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) and neonatal hepatitis associated with intrahepatic cholestasis (NICCD). So far, we have described 12 SLC25A13 mutations: 11 were from Japan and one from Israel. Three mutations found in Chinese and Vietnamese patients were the same as those in Japanese patients. In the present study, we identified a novel mutation IVS6+1G>C in a Japanese CTLN2 patient and widely screened 12 SLC25A13 mutations found in Japanese patients in control individuals from East Asia to confirm our preliminary results that the carrier frequency was high in Asian populations. Mutations 851-854del and 1638-1660dup were found in all Asian countries tested, and 851-854del associated with 290-haplotype in microsatellite marker D7S1812 was especially frequent. Other mutations frequently detected were IVS11+1G>A in Japanese and Korean, S225X in Japanese, and IVS6+5G>A in Chinese populations. We found a remarkable difference in carrier rates in China (including Taiwan) between north (1/940) and south (1/48) of the Yangtze River. We detected many carriers in Chinese (64/4169 = 1/65), Japanese (20/1372 = 1/69) and Korean (22/2455 = 1/112) populations, suggesting that over 80,000 East Asians are homozygotes with two mutated SLC25A13 alleles.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility. Several genes have been implicated to result in EDS phenotypes. The progeroid type of EDS is characterized by wrinkled, loose skin on the face, curly fine hair, scanty eyebrows and eyelashes, in addition to the classical features of EDS. Here we describe two similarly affected individuals in two sibships of a large consanguineous family from Qatar. DNA samples from affected and unaffected members of the family were analyzed for homozygosity of polymorphic markers associated with genes that have been implicated in EDS. Among 28 markers analyzed, homozygosity was only observed for D5S469 and D5S2111, which were markers for galactosyltransferase-I (B4GALT7) located on chromosome 5q35.2, where the previously reported progeroid-like variant of EDS has been mapped. Exons harboring the coding regions and exon-intron junctions of B4GALT7 were amplified by PCR and examined for mutations. A homozygous misssense C to T substitution at nucleotide 808 in the coding region was discovered in both affected individuals. The carrier parents were heterozygous for this mutation, which was not found among 76 DNA samples from control individuals of the same ethnicity. Segregation of this novel mutation in the family further confirmed the allelic variant and its recessive mode of inheritance in this type of EDS. The C to T substitution results in an arginine to cysteine change at amino acid residue 270 that is located in the catalytically active extracellular C-terminal domain. This change could result in abnormal protein folding and/or aberrant interactions of mutated galactosyltransferase-I with other extracellular matrix proteins leading to the development of a progeroid-like phenotype in affected individuals.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A