[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for animals including humans and is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of anticancer action of Se is not fully understood yet, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection by selenoenzymes, specific inhibition of tumor cell growth by Se metabolites, modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, and effect on DNA repair have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last SELECT trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se was demonstrated in majority of the epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation, it can increase efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as pro-oxidant rather than antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, the inorganic Se compound, sodium selenite (SeL), due to its prooxidant character, represents a promising alternative for cancer therapy. However, this Se compound is highly toxic compared to organic Se forms. Thus, the unregulated intake of dietary or pharmacological Se supplements mainly in the form of SeL has a potential to expose the body tissues to the toxic levels of Se with subsequent negative consequences on DNA integrity. Hence, due to a broad interest to exploit the positive effects of Se on human health and cancer therapy, studies investigating the negative effects such as toxicity and DNA damage induction resulting from high Se intake are also highly required. Here, we review a role of Se in cancer prevention and cancer therapy, as well as mechanisms underlying Se-induced toxicity and DNA injury. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a powerful tool for addressing some important questions regarding Se biology, a part of this review is devoted to this model system.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Archives of Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of non-photoactivated hypericin was investigated in five experimental models. Hypericin was non-mutagenic in the Ames assay, with and without metabolic activation. It did not exert a protective effect against mutagenicity induced by 9-aminoacridine. In a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) assay, hypericin did not increase the frequency of mitotic crossovers or total aberrants at the ade(2) locus, the number of convertants at the trp5 locus, or the number of revertants at the ilv1 locus. In combined application with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, it significantly enhanced the number of revertants at the ilv1 locus at the highest concentration used. Hypericin was not mutagenic in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, in combined application with methyl methane sulfonate, toxicity and mutagenicity were slightly reduced. In a chromosome aberration assay using three mammalian cell lines, hypericin did not alter the frequency of structural chromosome aberrations, and in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, it did not exert any antioxidant effects.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Phytotherapy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) belongs to nutrients that are essential for human health. Biological activity of this compound, however, mainly depends on its dose, with a potential of Se to induce detrimental effects at high doses. Although mechanisms lying behind detrimental effects of Se are poorly understood yet, they involve DNA damage induction. Consequently, DNA damage response and repair pathways may play a crucial role in cellular response to Se. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae we showed that sodium selenite (SeL), an inorganic form of Se, can be toxic and mutagenic in this organism due to its ability to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, we reported that a spectrum of mutations induced by this compound in the stationary phase of growth is mainly represented by 1-4 bp deletions. Consequently, we proposed that SeL acts as an oxidizing agent in yeast producing oxidative damage to DNA. As short deletions could be anticipated to arise as a result of action of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and oxidative damage to DNA is primarily coped with base excision repair (BER), a contribution of these two pathways towards survival, DSB induction, mutation frequency and types of mutations following SeL exposure was examined in present study. First, we show that while NHEJ plays no role in repairing toxic DNA lesions induced by SeL, cells with impairment in BER are sensitized towards this compound. Of BER activities examined, those responsible for processing of 3'-blocking DNA termini seem to be the most crucial for manifestation of the toxic effects of SeL in yeast. Second, an impact of NHEJ and BER on DSB induction after SeL exposure turned to be inappreciable, as no increase in DNA double-strand breakage in NHEJ and BER single or NHEJ BER double mutant upon SeL exposure was observed. Finally, we demonstrate that impairment in both these pathways does not importantly change mutation frequency after SeL exposure and that NHEJ is not responsible for generation of short deletions after SeL treatment, as these were comparably induced in the wild-type and NHEJ-defective cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is a chemo-preventive agent that has been shown to have a protective role against cancer. The inorganic form of Se, sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), has frequently been included in various chemo-prevention studies, and this commercially available form of Se is used as dietary supplement by the public. Because high doses of this Se compound can be toxic, the underlying molecular mechanisms of sodium selenite toxicity need to be elucidated. Recently, we have reported that sodium selenite is acting as an oxidizing agent in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, producing oxidative damage to DNA. This pro-oxidative activity of sodium selenite likely accounted for the observed DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and yeast cell death. In this study we determine the genetic factors that are responsible for repair of sodium selenite-induced DSB. We report that the Rad52 protein is indispensable for repairing sodium selenite-induced DSB, suggesting a fundamental role of homologous recombination (HR) in this repair process. These results provide the first evidence that HR may have a fundamental role in the repair of sodium selenite-induced toxic DNA lesions.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extract of artichoke Cynara cardunculus L. (CCE) was investigated for its potential antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects using four experimental model systems. In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutagenicity/antimutagenicity assay, CCE significantly reduced the frequency of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide-induced revertants at the ilv1 locus and mitotic gene convertants at the trp5 locus in the diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae tester strain D7. In the simultaneous toxicity and clastogenicity/anticlastogenicity assay, it exerted an anticlastogenic effect against N-nitroso-N'-methylurea-induced clastogenicity in the plant species Vicia sativa L. On the contrary, despite CCE not being mutagenic itself, in the preincubation Ames assay with metabolic activation, it significantly increased the mutagenic effect of 2-aminofluorene in the bacterial strain Salmonella typhimurium TA98. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, CCE exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. The SC50 value representing 0.0054% CCE corresponds to an antioxidant activity of 216.8 microm ascorbic acid which was used as a reference compound. Although the mechanism of CCE action still remains to be elucidated, different possible mechanisms are probably involved in the CCE antigenotoxic effects. It could be concluded that CCE is of particular interest as a suitable candidate for an effective chemopreventive agent.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Phytotherapy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is a dietary essential trace element with important biological roles. Accumulating evidence indicates that Se compounds possess anticancer properties. Se is specifically incorporated into proteins in the form of selenocysteine and non-specifically incorporated as selenomethionine in place of methionine. The effects of Se compounds on cells are strictly compositional and concentration-dependent. At supranutritional dietary levels, Se can prevent the development of many types of cancer. At higher concentrations, Se compounds can be either cytotoxic or possibly carcinogenic. The cytotoxicity of Se is suggested to be associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, sodium selenite, an inorganic Se compound, was reported to induce DNA damage, particularly DNA strand breaks and base damage. In this review we summarize the various activities of Se compounds and focus on their relation to DNA damage and repair. We discuss the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for identification of the genes involved in Se toxicity and resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using four experimental model systems, it was demonstrated that glucomannan (GM) isolated from the cell wall of the industrial yeast Candida utilis revealed a broad range of protective activities. This effect depended on the nature and mode of action of the counteracting genotoxic compound as well as on the experimental model system used. In the Saccharomyces bioprotectivity assay, GM increased resistance towards ofloxacin-induced toxicity in the wild type and recombination repair-deficient yeast strains significantly enhancing survival of the cells. In the chromosomal aberration assay, GM exerted anticlastogenic effect against maleic hydrazide induced clastogenicity in Vicia faba L. In the DNA-topology assay, GM protected plasmid DNA from the breaks induced by Fe(2+) ions, but enhanced damage induced by bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide. In the cell-revitalization assay, it enhanced cytotoxic/cytostatic effect of teniposide applied to mouse leukemia cells. Thus, depending on the experimental model, GM acted as antimutagen, anticlastogen, DNA breaks inhibitor or inducer, and as cytotoxic/cytostatic effect enhancer. Several possible mechanisms of bioprotective action underlying the observed activities are suggested including iron chelation and free radical scavenging. The results imply that GM is a polysaccharide with marked biological activities and suggest its potential biomedical application, especially in combination with other bioactive compounds.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Toxicology in Vitro
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage to DNA seems to be an important factor in developing many human diseases including cancer. It involves base and sugar damage, base-free sites, DNA-protein cross-links and DNA single-strand (SSB) and double-strand (DSB) breaks. Oxidative DSB can be formed in various ways such as their direct induction by the drug or their generation either through attempted and aborted repair of primary DNA lesions or through DNA replication-dependent conversion of SSB. In general, two main pathways are responsible for repairing DSB, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), with both of them being potential candidates for the repair of oxidative DSB. We have examined relative contribution of HR and NHEJ to cellular response after oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, cell survival, mutagenesis and DSB induction and repair in the rad52, yku70 and rad52 yku70 mutants after hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), menadione (MD) or bleomycin (BLM) exposure were compared to those obtained for the corresponding wild type. We show that MD exposure does not lead to observable DSB induction in yeast, suggesting that the toxic effects of this agent are mediated by other types of DNA damage. Although H(2)O(2) treatment generates some DSB, their yield is relatively low and hence DSB may only partially be responsible for toxicity of H(2)O(2), particularly at high doses of the agent. On the other hand, the basis of the BLM toxicity resides primarily in DSB induction. Both HR and NHEJ act on BLM-induced DSB, although their relative participation in the process is not equal. Based on our results we suggest that the complexity and/or the quality of the BLM-induced DSB might represent an obstacle for the NHEJ pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring polysaccharides isolated from the yeasts are the substances with versatile intriguing biomodulatory activities. One of the novel derivatives prepared from the (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan isolated from the cell walls of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sulfoethyl glucan (SEG). Its DNA-protective, antimutagenic, anticlastogenic and cytotoxic/cytostatic enhancing effect was evaluated using five eukaryotic systems. SEG showed bioprotective effect in recombination- repair-deficient strain of alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii against methyl methanesulfonate-induced genotoxicity, antimutagenic effect against ofloxacin-induced genetic changes in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay and anticlastogenic activity in plants Vicia sativa and Vicia faba assays against maleic hydrazide-induced clastogenicity. In the combined application with cytostatic drug vumon, SEG exerted enhancement of the drug's cytotoxic/cytostatic effect in the cell revitalization assay using mouse leukemia cells. The study sheds light on the possible mechanisms of actions and utilization of this microbial polysaccharide derivative in the cancer prevention and therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nowadays naturally occurring compounds with the potential antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects are of great importance for their prospective use in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. The new water soluble derivative of microbial polysaccharide beta-D-glucan-carboxymethyl glucan (CMG) belongs to such a category of natural substances. CMG isolated from the cell wall of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is included into the class of biopolymers known as biological response modifiers (BRMs) with a broad range of activities, above all ones interfering with cancer therapy. It was demonstrated on four experimental model systems that biological and consequential medicinal importance of CMG is based on the combined application with another active compound. In the Saccharomyces cerevisiae antimutagenicity assay CMG significantly reduced ofloxacin-induced mutagenicity in the yeast strain D7. CMG exerted bioprotective (anti-toxic and antimutagenic) effect after its simultaneos application with methyl methanesulphonate on the repair-deficient strain uvs10 of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the Vicia sativa simultaneous phytotoxicity and anticlastogenicity assay CMG exerted statistically significant anticlastogenic efect against maleic hydrazide-induced clastogenicity in Vicia sativa L. Only in the Salmonella/microsome assay CMG did not exert statistically significant antigenotoxic effect, despite of the fact that it reduced 9-aminoacridine-induced mutagenicity in S. typhimurium TA97, but his(+) revertants decreasing was statistically significant only at the highest CMG concentration used. The data presented unambiguously documented that even biopolysaccharides (e.g., derivatives of beta-glucan) belonging to the most abundant class of natural biopolymers may contribute to cancer prevention and therapy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA-damaging agents constantly challenge cellular DNA; and efficient DNA repair is therefore essential to maintain genome stability and cell viability. Several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved and these have been shown to be highly conserved from bacteria to man. DNA repair studies were originally initiated in very simple organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacteria being the best understood organism to date. As a consequence, bacterial DNA repair genes encoding proteins with well characterized functions have been transferred into higher organisms in order to increase repair capacity, or to complement repair defects, in heterologous cells. While indicating the contribution of these repair functions to protection against the genotoxic effects of DNA-damaging agents, heterologous expression studies also highlighted the role of the DNA lesions that are substrates for such processes. In addition, bacterial DNA repair-like functions could be identified in higher organisms using this approach. We heterologously expressed three well characterized E. coli repair genes in S. cerevisiae cells of different genetic backgrounds: (1) the ada gene encoding O(6)-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase, a protein involved in the repair of alkylation damage to DNA, (2) the recA gene encoding the main recombinase in E. coli and (3) the nth gene, the product of which (endonuclease III) is responsible for the repair of oxidative base damage. Here, we summarize our results and indicate the possible implications they have for a better understanding of particular DNA repair processes in S. cerevisiae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimutagenic, anticlastogenic, and bioprotective effect of polysaccharide glucomannan (GM) isolated from Candida utilis was evaluated in four model test systems. The antimutagenic effect of GM against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA)- and sodium azide (NaN3)-induced mutagenicity was revealed in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97 and TA100, respectively. GM showed anticlastogenic effect against N-nitroso-N'-methylurea (NMU) induced chromosome aberrations in the Vicia sativa assay. The bioprotective effect of GM co-treated with methyl-methane-sulphonate (MMS) was also established in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii repair deficient strains uvs10 and uvs14. The statistically significant antimutagenic potential of GM was not proved against 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced mutagenicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 assay. It may be due to bioprotectivity of alpha-mannan and beta-glucan, which are integral part of S. cerevisiae cell walls. Due to the good water solubility, low molecular weight (30 kDa), antimutagenic/anticlastogenic, and bioprotective activity against chemical compounds differing in mode of action, GM appears to be a promising natural protective (antimutagenic) agent.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Cell Biology and Toxicology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RAD51 gene was disrupted in three different parental wild-type strains to yield three rad51 null strains with different genetic background. The rad51 mutation sensitizes yeast cells to the toxic and mutagenic effects of H2O2, suggesting that Rad51-mediated repair, similarly to that of RecA-mediated, is relevant to the repair of oxidative damage in S. cerevisiae. Moreover, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that increased sensitivity of the rad51 mutant to H2O2 is accompanied by its decreased ability to repair double-strand breaks induced by this agent. Our results show that ScRad51 protects yeast cells from H2O2-induced DNA double-strand breakage.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Folia Microbiologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential antimutagenic effect of the plant extract of Muscari racemosum bulbs, rich on 3-benzylidene-4-chromanones, was evaluated on three genetic model organisms. The mixture of three homoisoflavonoids was applied together with diagnostic mutagens in the Ames assay on four bacterial strains Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, in the toxicity and mutagenicity/antimutagenicity assay on the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, and in the simultaneous phytotoxicity and clastogenicity/anticlastogenicity assay on Vicia sativa (L.). The extract exerted antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects due to the presence of homoisoflavonoids, which may be included in the group of natural antimutagens. This genotoxicological study suggests that homoisoflavonoids from M. racemosum (L.) owing to antimutagenic and anticlastogenic properties are of great pharmacological importance, and might be beneficial for prevention of cancer.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Journal of Ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural substance with an evident antioxidant activity. Its antimutagenic potential (AP) was investigated using the Salmonella typhimurium assay, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay, and the Vicia faba chromosomal aberration assay. LA was studied in relation to mutagenicity/carcinogenicity of some agents. The antimutagenic capacity of LA was evaluated as its ability to facilitate the mutagenicity reduction of direct-acting and indirect-acting mutagens/carcinogens. Of four bacterial Salmonella typhimurium strains used (TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102), the significant dose-dependent antimutagenic effect of LA was proved in the strain TA97 and TA98. LA probably acted as the competitive inhibitor of the frameshift mutagen 9-aminoacridine = 9-AA and the radiomimetic agent 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide = 4-NQO. The significant dose-dependent antimutagenic effect of LA against 4-NQO-induced mutagenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was demonstrated. At the highest concentration used LA decreased the frequency of gene convertants and revertants 4-fold (AP = 75.9%) and 7-fold (AP = 84.8%) respectively. After a combined application with the acid-mine drainage water (AMDW), containing a high amount of toxic metals, LA significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations as compared with that induced in V. faba by AMDW itself. The anticlastogenic effect of LA might be caused by its metal chelating ability. Our data indicate that LA possesses antimutagenic and anticlastogenic properties and can be included in the group of natural antimutagens acting in a desmutagenic manner.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Biologia - Section Cellular and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential genotoxic effect of Repelan, a new environment-friendly biorepellent preparation, was evaluated in five model test systems.Repelan provides a double protection with dual deterrent system that produces a powerful odour and taste barrier. Of four bacterial Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102) it was genotoxic only in the strain TA97 and TA98 (enabling frameshift mutagen detection). Of the four concentrations used only at the highest one increased both the frequency of gene conversions at the tryptophan locus and reverse mutations at the isoleucine locus in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its potential clastogenic effect evaluated in two plant species Vicia sativa and Vicia faba was species-dependent. Whereas, it exerted clastogenic effect in V. faba, it was not clastogenic in V. sativa. No increase of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations was detected in insect Drosophila melanogaster.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli endonuclease III (endo III) is the key repair enzyme essential for removal of oxidized pyrimidines and abasic sites. Although two homologues of endo III, Ntgl and Ntg2, were found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, they do not significantly contribute to repair of oxidative DNA damage in vivo. This suggests that an additional activity(ies) or a regulatory pathway(s) involved in cellular response to oxidative DNA damage may exist in yeast. The pso3-1 mutant of S. cerevisiae was previously shown to be specifically sensitive to toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat. Here, we show that increased DNA double strand breakage is very likely the basis of sensitivity of the pso3-1 mutant cells to H2O2. Our results, thus, indicate an involvement of the Pso3 protein in protection of yeast cells from oxidative stress presumably through its ability to prevent DNA double strand breakage. Furthermore, complementation of the repair defects of the pso3-1 mutant cells by E. coli endo III has been examined. It has been found that expression of the nth gene in the pso3-1 mutant cells recovers survival, decreases mutability and protects yeast genomic DNA from breakage following H2O2 treatment. This might suggest some degree of functional similarity between Pso3 and Nth.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mutagenic potential of the waste acid-mine water from the Slovak mining area of Smolník, which contains high concentrations of heavy metals, was evaluated after its application to prokaryotic and eukaryotic test organisms (the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The results obtained from a modified preincubation Ames assay showed that 1000-fold diluted mine water exhibited the mutagenic effect after rat liver S9 mix activation and the comutagenic effect after its combined application with a positive 9-aminoacridine mutagen. In the test on S. cerevisiae the toxicity and mutagenicity increased as a function of concentration. At the highest concentration used (0.2%) the frequency of revertants was 7.3-fold increased and that of convertants 3-fold increased compared with control. Heavy metals might thus be responsible for the genotoxic potential of this acid-mine water. However, it cannot be excluded that water acidity plays a part in the induction of the mutagenic and comutagenic effects.
No preview · Article · May 2000 · Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques