Livije Kalogjera

University Clinical Hospital Center "Sestre Milosrdnice", Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia

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Publications (67)99.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Different nasal challenges induce neural and immune response leading to nasal and ocular symptoms in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The release of neural mediators from nasal mucosa and conjunctiva after no-specific challenges in patients with SAR remains unknown. Objectives: To compare the release of mediators from the nose and conjunctiva with symptoms after different nasal challenges in patients with SAR. Methods: Three types of consecutive nasal challenges were performed outside the pollen season in 25 patients with SAR. Challenges consisted of 500 biological units (BU) of allergen, 80 μg of histamine, and 1 mL of 2% hypertonic saline per nostril, within 24-hour and 72-hour intervals, respectively. Before and 15 minutes after challenges, evaluation of symptoms was performed with a visual analog scale. Concentrations of tryptase, eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavages after 15 minutes, and substance P in tears after 5 minutes were measured with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Concentrations of substance P in tears were significantly higher after nonspecific challenges. Substance P concentration in tears significantly correlated with eye itchiness after histamine and hypertonic saline and with tearing after allergen. Ocular symptoms correlated significantly with tryptase concentration in nasal lavage collected 15 minutes after allergen challenge. There is a significant correlation in tear volume comparing different nasal challenges. Conclusions: Nasal challenges with allergen, histamine, or irritants outside the pollen season induce a significant increase in nasal and ocular symptoms in patients with SAR. Interaction of the early-phase response and neurogenic inflammation define the pattern and severity of eye symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The term SCUAD (severe chronic upper airway disease) has been previously introduced to describe cases with upper airway disorders and symptoms not adequately controlled despite correct diagnosis and management. It has been so far applied mainly in adults and no specific focus has been given on the pediatric population. When the term SCUAD is considered for children specifically, a series of issues may arise. These issues involve accurate definition, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and socioeconomic implications. These issues seem to clearly differentiate adult from pediatric SCUAD. We attempt to shed light on these issues in an effort to provide directions for future guideline development and research. In this context, P-SCUAD (pediatric severe chronic upper airway disease) is hereby introduced.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nasal septal deformity (NSD), including the contribution of septal spurs, with the severity of subjective symptoms, impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and sinus mucosal hyperplasia in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). One hundred seventeen patients with CRS were assigned to three groups with mild, moderate or severe NSD, according to the measured nasal septal angle, including the presence of contact septal spurs. All CRS patients completed the visual analog scale (VAS) symptom severity score and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) questionnaire. Symptoms scores, SNOT-22 and Lund-Mackay (LM) scores among the three NSD groups were compared. Related anatomy from the study group was compared with 100 control patients. VAS score for postnasal discharge in CRS patients was significantly higher in patients with mild NSD. There was a significantly higher LM score in CRS patients with severe NSD, compared to those with mild (P = 0.001) or moderate NSD (P = 0.005). CRS patients with a contact spur demonstrated a significantly higher LM score (P = 0.006) compared to those without a contact spur, and no differences in VAS symptom scores or HRQoL scores. There was a similar prevalence of septal deformities in CRS patients and in the non-ENT population. Our results support the conclusion that in patients with CRS, associated NSD or contact septal spur do not contribute significantly to CRS symptom severity or HRQoL impairment, but may have an impact on sinus mucosal hyperplasia.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Upper airway diseases are extremely common, and a significant proportion of patients are not adequately controlled by contemporary treatment algorithms. The term SCUAD (Severe Chronic Upper Airway Disease) has been previously introduced to describe such cases. However, this term has not been adequately focused on children. This study aims to address the necessity of the term, as well as further details specifically for children. For this purpose, a review was performed of the current literature, with specific focus on issues regarding SCUAD in children. Paediatric SCUAD represents a heterogeneous group of patients and has significant clinical and socioeconomic implications. Relevant literature is generally lacking and questions regarding definition and pathogenesis remain unanswered. Accurate definition and acknowledgement of paediatric SCUAD cases may lead to better design of future clinical and molecular research protocols. This may provide improved understanding of the underlying disease processes, more accurate data regarding socioeconomic burden, and, above all, more successful treatment and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: Nasal polyps recur in approximately one-third of patients after surgical treatment. It would be beneficial to be able to predict the patients in whom we might expect recurrence and to predict the clinical outcome after surgery. The study included 30 patients operated for nasal polyps. Removed polyps were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis for IL-5, IgE, vascular endothelial growth factor and eosinophilic infiltration. These parameters together with preoperative CT score were used as independent variables, and subjective score improvement after 2 years was used as a dependent variable in multiple linear regression analysis. Furthermore, the patients were divided into two groups: low and high polyp tissue immunoreactivity. The Chi-squared test was used to determine whether polyp immunoreactivity influences polyp recurrence and subjective score. Preoperative CT score had a slightly positive correlation with subjective score after 2 years. High eosinophil infiltration significantly predicted a higher risk for polyp recurrence. High IL-5 positivity was related to greater risk for polyp recurrence than low IL-5 reactivity but not significantly. IgE and VEGF reactivity in polyp specimens did not have any effect on polyp recurrence. High eosinophilic infiltration in polyps can predict worse outcome after surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. IgE and VEGF do not have prognostic significance to polyp recurrence after surgery. The preoperative extent of disease measured by CT score had a slightly positive correlation with worse outcome after surgery.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde
  • Dejan Tomljenovic · Darko Pinter · Livije Kalogjera
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic stress exposure carries greater risk of onset of atopic respiratory disorders such as rhinitis and asthma. The interaction between depression, anxiety, and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been suggested. We aimed to access the relationship between psychological stress, severity of CRS, and atopy. Sixty-three consecutive patients referred with CRS were asked to score the severity of rhinosinusitis symptoms on a visual analog scale and to fill in questionnaires on the disease-specific quality of life and perceived stress—22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and measure of perceived stress (MPS) scale, respectively. Inclusion criteria for the study were a reliable allergy evaluation and a recent computerized tomography (CT) scan of the sinuses. Patients with nasal polyps (NPs), asthma, and previous surgery were excluded. The study group consisted of 14 allergic and 18 nonallergic patients with CRS without NPs (CRSsNPs). Correlation between MPS and SNOT-22 scores in the study group was highly significant (Pearson r = 0.61; p = 0.001). Patients with higher stress scores had significantly stronger postnasal discharge, thick discharge, cough, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and sadness. Postnasal drip was significantly stronger in patients with allergy. The correlation between SNOT-22 and CT scores was insignificant. The correlation between MPS and SNOT-22 scores suggests an interaction between severity of CRS and chronic stress, but not with the extent of the disease on CT in CRSsNPs. Chronic psychological stress might be one of the factors that modifies the disease severity and may lead to uncontrolled disease in CRS patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Rhinology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2013
  • Livije Kalogjera
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    ABSTRACT: Rhinosinusitis is a prevalent disorder in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, during the past two decades, guidelines related to definitions, diagnostic procedures and management have been much more focused on adult than on pediatric rhinosinusitis. First consensus document on management of pediatric rhinosinusitis was published in 1998, followed by several documents related only to acute rhinosinusitis. The most extensive consensus document on rhinosinuistis, including pediatric rhinosinusitis, is European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, EPOS, updated in 2012.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
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    Preview · Article · Jul 2013
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a considerable increase in the diagnosis of allergic diseases over the last decades. Prevalence of allergies in high-income countries and urban areas appears higher than in rural environments. While environmental factors like pollution or nutrition can be important, it is more likely that in the end they have a small association with allergies. Childhood infections and exposure to certain microbial antigens on the other hand seem to present a strong negative correlation with allergies, and therefore the increase of the allergic burden in the Western world has been frequently related to a decline of childhood infections giving birth to the "Hygiene Hypothesis". We address the issue with emphasis on the associated pathophysiology tightrope walking between the skepticism of the critics, which cast doubt on it, and the pilgrims' belief of having discovered allergy's Holy Grail.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
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    ABSTRACT: This Executive Summary of the EAACI Task Force document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology provides the readers with an over- view of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease, published in full version in the first issue of Clini- cal and Translational Allergy. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology have contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology. Important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of nasal and sinonasal disease are briefly highlighted in this executive summary.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Rhinology
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    ABSTRACT: Severity of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), measured by disease-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaires, is expected to increase in patients who also suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Altered pain perception, sleep disorders, and fatigue may be associated with this comorbidity. Severity of CRS was compared between a group of 28 patients with CRS and a group of 28 patients with CRS and concomitant PTSD using different disease-specific and generic instruments, such as visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form-36 test (SF-36), and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT 22). SNOT-22 test showed significantly higher CRS severity in patients with CRS and PTSD, compared to patients with CRS without PTSD. Patients with less severe CRS, measured by objective outcome measures, due to the impact of comorbid PTSP, are classified as having severe rhinosinusitis, and are exposed to the risk of unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In patients with difficult-to-treat rhinosinusitis, diagnosis should be revised, and one item that should be evaluated is whether they suffer from PTSD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Patient Preference and Adherence
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    Davor Dzepina · Livije Kalogjera · Tomislav Baudoin
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to present five surgical cases of recurrent sinonasal melanoma. We report the clinical course of this highly malignant disease and give a brief overview of the relevant literature. For the purpose of our presentation, inclusion criteria for all patients were initally negative surgical margins, surgery with curative intent without implementation of radiotherapy, and absence of distant metastatic spread at presentation (MO). They were diagnosed and treated at the same ENT/Head and Neck Surgery department and had clear surgical margins following first resection. The majority of five cases had local recurrences (average two) which were all amenable to at least one salvage operation. In conclusion, despite extensive disease at presentation, we recommend repeated attempts at local surgical salvage. However, this decision must be carefully considered, respecting postoperative quality of life, the estimated life expectancy as well as general socioeconomic issues in each particular case.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Collegium antropologicum
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    ABSTRACT: State-of-the-art documents like ARIA and EPOS provide clinicians with evidence-based treatment algorithms for allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), respectively. The currently available medications can alleviate symptoms associated with AR and RS. In real life, a significant percentage of patients with AR and CRS continue to experience bothersome symptoms despite adequate treatment. This group with so-called severe chronic upper airway disease (SCUAD) represents a therapeutic challenge. The concept of control of disease has only recently been introduced in the field of AR and CRS. In case of poor control of symptoms despite guideline-directed pharmacotherapy, one needs to consider the presence of SCUAD but also treatment-related, diagnosis-related and/or patient-related factors. Treatment-related issues of uncontrolled upper airway disease are linked with the correct choice of treatment and route of administration, symptom-oriented treatment and the evaluation of the need for immunotherapy in allergic patients. The diagnosis of AR and CRS should be reconsidered in case of uncontrolled disease, excluding concomitant anatomic nasal deformities, global airway dysfunction and systemic diseases. Patient-related issues responsible for the lack of control in chronic upper airway inflammation are often but not always linked with adherence to the prescribed medication and education. This review is an initiative taken by the ENT section of the EAACI in conjunction with ARIA and EPOS experts who felt the need to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art of control in upper airway inflammation and stressing the unmet needs in this domain.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Allergy
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    ABSTRACT: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Rhinology. Supplement
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    ABSTRACT: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed. This executive summary for otorhinolaryngologists focuses on the most important changes and issues for otorhinolaryngologists. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Rhinology
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    Livije Kalogjera · Davor Dzepina
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    ABSTRACT: Olfaction is an essential chemosensory system in the living world. Although less appreciated in humans, smell impairment significantly affects many aspects of quality of life. Smell disorders may be caused by an impaired nasal airway or by lesions in the olfactory system, leading to reduced or distorted smell perception. The most common causes of smell disorders are aging, upper respiratory tract infection, sinonasal disease, and head trauma. Recovery is rarely complete. Counseling is important in progressive or severe smell loss. In patients with distorted smell perception, antidepressant medication is sometimes necessary. Best response to treatment is achieved for nasal obstruction and sinonasal inflammatory disease. Treatment of olfactory impairment caused by sinonasal disease includes medication with topical and systemic steroids, or surgery for refractory cases. Although there are reports that surgical resection of olfactory neurons may lead to reinnervation and recovery of smell, adequate treatment of the smell loss remains an unmet need.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also propose definitions for 'difficult to treat' rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between the upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed. This executive summary for otorhinolaryngologists focuses on the most important changes and issues for otorhinolaryngologists.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012

Publication Stats

1k Citations
99.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • University Clinical Hospital Center "Sestre Milosrdnice"
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1988-2015
    • University of Zagreb
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2012
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Sisters of Charity Hospital Zagreb
      Zagreb - Centar, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 1997
    • University Hospital Centre Zagreb
      • Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia