[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of extracellular nucleoside concentrations by Extracellular Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolases (Ecto-NTPDases) is essential in the regulation of the purinergic signalling and also in immune response. In mammals, four isoforms of Ecto-NTPDases have been described (NTPDase1-3 and NTPDase8). The isoform 1 of human Ecto-NTPDase (HsNTPDase1 or CD39) is expressed in endothelial cells of veins and arteries. An Ecto-NTPDase have been identified in the tegument of adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni (SmNTPDase1), and it was located on the outer surface of parasite’s tegument.Due to the location of the SmATPDase1, it was proposed that these Ecto-NTPDase participate in the evasion of the host immune system by parasite. These assumptions reinforce the importance of researching the SmATPDase1 as a drug target candidate for the schistosomiasis treatment. In this work, we propose the three-dimensional structure model of the enzymes SmATPDase1 and CD39 using comparative modeling. The results show similarities between these proteins, especially in the active site region, and become necessary to search for alternative binding site of drugs aiming new therapies for schistosomiasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The control of extracellular nucleoside concentrations by Nu-cleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) is essential in the regulation of the purinergic signalling and also in immune response. In humans, eight members (HsNTPDase) were identified as transmembrane and secreted proteins. In Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis, NTPDases similar to the humans enzymes have also been identified. The expression of these enzymes in S. mansoni (SmATPDases) is related to the weakening of the immune and inflammatory responses of the host against infections. Despite of the high phylogenetic conserva-tion between these proteins, SmATPDases have been reported as molec-ular target candidates for antischistosomal treatment. In this work, we constructed three-dimensional models for secreted SmATPDase and HsNTPDase6, using comparative modeling technique. The comparative structural analysis aim the investigation of possible differences that could help future works in the development of new therapies that minimize the risk of cross inhibition.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Lecture Notes in Computer Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An antigenic conserved B domain was previously identified within nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) of plants and parasites. Now, the r-potDomain B, a 6× His-tag polypeptide belonging to the conserved B domain from the potato apyrase, and synthetic peptides LbB1LJ and LbB2LJ derived from the B domain from Leishmania NTPDase 1 were used as molecular tools for studies of the Leishmania amazonensis NTPDase 1. Widespread subcellular location of the specific NTPDase 1 was detected by Western blots of promastigote fractions and ultrastructural immunocytochemical microscopy using immune sera raised against these biomolecules. In addition, the L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were evaluated at 12 to 120 days after infection, which progresses showing typical nodular lesion. High antibody reactivity with either r-potDomain B, LbB1LJ, or LbB2LJ was found in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice indicating the antigenicity of the B domain from NTPDase 1 isoform. The IgG1 antibody reactivity significantly increased at 90-120 days postinfection, 18- to 24-fold when compared to the 12th day, and remained elevated even at 120th after infection, coinciding with the most active stage of the disease. In contrast, significantly higher IgG2a antibody reactivity with each biomolecule was observed at 40th day, about two- to fourfold higher than those found at 12th or 20th day, and decreased along 120-day period. Apparently, the conserved B domain is capable to induce IgG2a production in early disease stages. All together, these results suggest that r-potDomain B or synthetic peptides could be molecular starting points in experimental protocols of immunotherapy and/or vaccination for leishmaniasis.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identified a shared B domain within nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) of plants and parasites. Now, an NTPDase activity not affected by inhibitors of adenylate kinase and ATPases was detected in Leishmania infantum promastigotes. By non-denaturing gel electrophoresis of detergent-homogenized promastigote preparation, an active band hydrolyzing nucleosides di- and triphosphate was visualized and, following SDS-PAGE and silver staining was identified as a single polypeptide of 50kDa. By Western blots, it was recognized by immune sera raised against potato apyrase (SA), r-pot B domain (SB), a recombinant polypeptide derived from the potato apyrase, and LbB1LJ (SC) or LbB2LJ (SD), synthetic peptides derived from the Leishmania NTPDase 1, and by serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, identifying the antigenic L. infantum NTPDase 1 and, also, its conserved B domain (r83-122). By immunoprecipitation assays and Western blots, immune sera SA and SB identified the catalytically active NTPDase 1 in promastigote preparation. In addition, the immune sera SB (44%) and SC or SD (87-99%) inhibited its activity, suggesting a direct effect on the B domain. By ELISA, 37%, 45% or 50% of 38 infected dogs were seropositive for r-pot B domain, LbB1LJ and LbB2LJ, respectively, confirming the B domain antigenicity.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Parasitology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity was recently characterized in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (Lb), and an antigenic conserved domain (r82-121) from the specific NTPDase 1 isoform was identified. In this work, mouse polyclonal antibodies produced against two synthetic peptides derived from this domain (LbB1LJ, r82-103; LbB2LJ, r102-121) were used. The anti-LbB1LJ or anti-LbB2LJ antibodies were immobilized on protein A-sepharose and immunoprecipitated the NTPDase 1 of 48kDa and depleted approximately 40% of the phosphohydrolytic activity from detergent-homogenized Lb preparation. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical microscopy identified the NTPDase 1 on the parasite surface and in its subcellular cytoplasmic vesicles, mitochondria, kinetoplast and nucleus. The ATPase and ADPase activities of detergent-homogenized Lb preparation were partially inhibited by anti-LbB1LJ antibody (43-79%), which was more effective than that inhibition (18-47%) by anti-LbB2LJ antibody. In addition, the immune serum anti-LbB1LJ (67%) or anti-LbB2LJ (33%) was cytotoxic, significantly reducing the promastigotes growth in vitro. The results appoint the conserved domain from the L. braziliensis NTPDase as an important target for inhibitor design and the potential application of these biomolecules in experimental protocols of disease control.
Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Experimental Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By western blots, cross-immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-potato apyrase antibodies identified the Calliandra brevipes apyrase as a band of 75kDa in the tissues of non-galled stem and leaves, and those of globose galls. The non-galled tissues hydrolysed either ATP, ADP, UDP, GTP or GDP. In globose galls, ADP, UDP and GDP hydrolysis were 1.75.1-fold higher than in non-galled tissues. ADP and UDP hydrolysis either from non-galled or globose gall tissues were 1038% stimulated by 5mM calcium, and drastically reduced (6699%) by the addition of 5mM EDTA or EGTA, confirming the divalent cation dependence. Nucleotidase, phosphatase or ATPase activities contributed in lower reaction rates. Apyrase activity was confirmed in C. brevipes tissues by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blots. By histochemical techniques, the ADPase activity was found as a granular-dense lead phosphate deposit homogeneously distributed at the external surface, and inside the nutritive cells of the globose gall. The sites of polyclonal anti-potato apyrase antibodies corroborate these localisations. The globose galls of the C. brevipes stems increase their capacity of hydrolysing nucleotides, which could be associated with carbohydrate biosynthesis, signalling and/or cell proliferation, crucial for feeding and survival of the insect.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Australian Journal of Botany
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eremanthus erythropappus (DC) McLeisch, a plant popularly known as Candeia (Asteraceae), has high therapeutic potential. In this study, the in vitro schistosomicidal potentials of the ethanolic, dichloromethane and hexane extract of branches were evaluated. Couples of worms obtained from the infected mice were cultured in RPMI supplemented with foetal bovine serum and antibiotics. Four pairs of adult worms were exposed to increasing concentrations of each extract and examined by light microscope. The extracts at 100 and 200 µg mL(-1) had schistosomicidal activity, as demonstrated by the analysis of several aspects such as tegument darkening, absence of motility, incapacity of adhesion in culture plate and absence of egg in culture medium. At 50 and 75 µg mL(-1), the dichloromethane and hexane extracts were highly effective. The results suggest that these extracts could be useful in the development of new schistosomicidal drugs.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Natural product research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A peptide (SmB2LJ; r175-194) that belongs to a conserved domain from Schistosoma mansoni SmATPDase 2 and is shared with potato apyrase, as predicted by in silico analysis as antigenic, was synthesised and its immunostimulatory property was analysed. When inoculated in BALB/c mice, this peptide induced high levels of SmB2LJ-specific IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes, as detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, dot blots were found to be positive for immune sera against potato apyrase and SmB2LJ. These results suggest that the conserved domain r175-194 from the S. mansoni SmATPDase 2 is antigenic. Western blots were performed and the anti-SmB2LJ antibody recognised in adult worm (soluble worm antigen preparation) or soluble egg antigen antigenic preparations two bands of approximately 63 and 55 kDa, molecular masses similar to those predicted for adult worm SmATPDase 2. This finding strongly suggests the expression of this same isoform in S. mansoni eggs. To assess localisation of SmATPDase 2, confocal fluorescence microscopy was performed using cryostat sections of infected mouse liver and polyclonal antiserum against SmB2LJ. Positive reactions were identified on the external surface from the miracidium in von Lichtenberg's envelope and, in the outer side of the egg-shell, showing that this soluble isoform is secreted from the S. mansoni eggs.
Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polypeptide (r78-117) belonging to the potato apyrase was identified as a conserved domain shared with apyrase-like proteins from distinct pathogenic organisms, and was obtained as a 6xHis tag polypeptide (r-Domain B). By ELISA, high IgG, and IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes levels were detected in BALB/c mice pre-inoculated with r-Domain B. In Schistosoma mansoni adult worm or Leishmania (V.) braziliensis promastigote preparation, anti-r-Domain B antibodies inhibit 22-72% of the phosphohydrolytic activities and when immobilized on Protein A-Sepharose immunoprecipitate 42-91% of them. Western blots of the immunoprecipitated resin-antibody-antigen complexes identified bands of mw similar to those predicted for parasite proteins. Total IgG and subclasses of patients with leishmaniasis or schistosomiasis exhibited cross-immunoreactivity with r-Domain B. Therefore, the domain B within both S. mansoni SmATPDase 2 (r156-195) and L. (V.) braziliensis NDPase (r83-122) are potentially involved in the host immune response, and also seem to be conserved during host and parasites co-evolution.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Developmental and comparative immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms and potato apyrase share conserved epitopes. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, elevated levels of IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 antibody reactivity against potato apyrase were observed in S. mansoni-infected BALB/c mice during the acute phase of infection, while only IgM and IgG1 antibody reactivity levels maintained elevated during the chronic phase of infection. Antibody reactivity against potato apyrase was monitored over an 11-month period in chronically-infected mice treated with oxamniquine. Eleven months later, the level of seropositive IgM decreased significantly (approximately 30%) compared to the level found in untreated, infected mice. The level of seropositive IgG1 decreased significantly four months after treatment (MAT) (61%) and remained at this level even after 11 months. The IgG2a reactivity against potato apyrase, although unchanged during chronic phase to 11 MAT, appeared elevated again in re-infected mice suggesting a response similar to that found during the acute phase. BALB/c mouse polyclonal anti-potato apyrase IgG reacted with soluble egg antigens probably due to the recognition of parasite ATP diphosphohydrolase. This study, for the first time, showed that the IgG2a antibody from S. mansoni-infected BALB mice cross-reacts with potato apyrase and the level of IgG2a in infected mice differentiates disease phases. The results also suggest that different conserved-epitopes contribute to the immune response in schistosomiasis.
Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80%) of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14) after treatment (AT) with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.
Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 184.108.40.206) activity was identified in a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes preparation (Lb). Ultrastructural cytochemical microscopy showed this protein on the parasite surface and also stained a possible similar protein at the mitochondrial membrane. Isolation of an active ATP diphosphohydrolase isoform from Lb was obtained by cross-immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-potato apyrase antibodies. These antibodies, immobilized on Protein A-Sepharose, immunoprecipitated a polypeptide of approximately 48 kDa and, in lower amount, a polypeptide of approximately 43 kDa, and depleted 83% ATPase and 87% of the ADPase activities from detergent-homogenized Lb. Potato apyrase was recognized in Western blots by IgG antibody from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients, suggesting that the parasite and vegetable proteins share antigenic conserved epitopes. Significant IgG seropositivity in serum samples diluted 1:50 from ACL patients (n=20) for Lb (65%) and potato apyrase (90%) was observed by ELISA technique. Significant IgG antibody reactivity was also observed against synthetic peptides belonging to a conserved domain from L. braziliensis NDPase (80% seropositivity) and its potato apyrase counterpart (50% seropositivity), in accordance with the existence of shared antigenic epitopes and demonstrating that in leishmaniasis infection the domain r82-103 from L. braziliensis NDPase is a target for the human immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evolutionary and closer structural relationships are demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis, peptide prediction and molecular modelling between Solanum tuberosum apyrase, Schistosoma mansoni SmATPase 2 and Leishmania braziliensis NDPase. Specific protein domains are suggested to be potentially involved in the immune response, and also seem to be conserved during host and parasite co-evolution. Significant IgG antibody reactivity was observed in sera from patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and schistosomiasis using potato apyrase as antigen in ELISA. S. mansoni adult worm or egg, L. braziliensis promastigote (Lb) and Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote (EPI) have ATP diphosphohydrolases, and antigenic preparations of them were evaluated. In ACL patients, IgG seropositivity was about 43% and 90% for Lb and potato apyrase, respectively, while IgM was lower (40%) or IgG (100%) seropositivity for both soluble egg (SEA) and adult worm (SWAP) antigens was higher than that found for potato apyrase (IgM=10%; IgG=39%). In Chagas disease, IgG seropositivity for EPI and potato apyrase was 97% and 17%, respectively, while the IgM was low (3%) for both antigens. The study of the conserved domains from both parasite proteins and potato apyrase could lead to the development of new drug targets or molecular markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously showed that Schistosoma mansoni ATP-diphosphohydrolase and Solanum tuberosum potato apyrase share epitopes and the vegetable protein has immunostimulatory properties. Here, it was verified the in situ cross-immunoreactivity between mice NTPDases and anti-potato apyrase antibodies produced in rabbits, using confocal microscopy. Liver samples were taken from Swiss Webster mouse 8 weeks after infection with S. mansoni cercariae, and anti-potato apyrase and TRITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG antibody were tested on cryostat sections. The results showed that S. mansoni egg ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, developed by anti-potato apyrase, are expressed in miracidial and egg structures, and not in granulomatous cells and hepatic structures (hepatocytes, bile ducts, and blood vessels). Therefore, purified potato apyrase when inoculated in rabbit generates polyclonal sera containing anti-apyrase antibodies that are capable of recognizing specifically S. mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase epitopes, but not proteins from mammalian tissues, suggesting that autoantibodies are not induced during potato apyrase immunization. A phylogenetic tree obtained for the NTPDase family showed that potato apyrase had lower homology with mammalian NTPDases 1-4, 7, and 8. Further analysis of potato apyrase epitopes could implement their potential use in schistosomiasis experimental models.
Preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fact that the Schistosoma mansoni egg has two ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 220.127.116.11) isoforms with different net charges and an identical molecular weight of 63,000, identified by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunological cross-reactivity with potato apyrase antibodies, is shown. In soluble egg antigen (SEA), only the isoform with the lower net negative charge was detected and seemed to be the predominant species in this preparation. By confocal fluorescence microscopy, using anti-potato apyrase antibodies, the S. mansoni egg ATP diphosphohydrolase was detected on the external surface of miracidium and in von Lichtenberg's envelope. Intense fluorescence was also seen in the outer side of the egg-shell, entrapped by the surface microspines, suggesting that a soluble isoform is secreted. ATP diphosphohydrolase antigenicity was tested using the vegetable protein as antigen. The purified potato apyrase was recognized in Western blots by antibodies present in sera from experimentally S. mansoni-infected mice. In addition, high levels of IgG anti-ATP diphosphohydrolase antibodies were detected by ELISA in the same sera. This work represents the first demonstration of antigenic properties of S. mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase and immunological cross-reactivity between potato apyrase and sera from infected individuals.