[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Fabry disease, progressive glycolipid accumulation leads to damage in kidney and other organs. This study was designed to determine the prevalence rate of Fabry disease in Japanese dialysis patients.
All dialysis patients agreeing to Japan Fabry disease screening study (J-FAST) with informed consent were selected except for Fabry disease. The screening was performed by a method of measuring plasma and/or leukocytes lysosomal α-galactosidase A protein level and α-galactosidase A activity. If positive, genetic analysis was carried out upon patient's agreement.
J-FAST dealt with 8547 patients (male 5408, female 3139). At the tertiary examination, 26 out of 8547 patients were found to be positive. Six out of 26 patients could not accept genetic analysis because of death. Remaining 20 patients agreed with genetic analysis; then 2 patients (male 2, female 0) had a variation of the α-Gal gene and 11 patients showed E66Q variations. Therefore, the frequency of Fabry disease in J-FAST was 0.04 % (2/5408) in males and 0 % (0/3139) in females, and then 0.02 % (2/8547) in all patients. The presumptive clinical diagnoses of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) were 10 chronic glomerulonephritis, 7 diabetic nephropathy, 3 unknown etiology, 3 nephrosclerosis, 1 gouty nephropathy, 1 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 1 renal tuberculosis among 26 tertiary positive patients. Two male Fabry patients were initially diagnosed as nephrosclerosis and chronic glomerulonephritis.
The prevalence rate of Fabry disease in J-FAST was 0.02 %. Moreover, Fabry disease could not be ruled out as the clinical diagnosis of ESKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorders characterized by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, α-galactosidase A. This results in the accumulation of glycolipids, mainly globotriaosylceramide (GL-3), in the lysosomes of various organs. Although bone marrow transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy can offer the potential of a curative therapeutic outcome for FD, the minimum requirement of donor cells or gene-corrected cells to reduce GL-3 levels is not known.
Lethally-irradiated FD mice were transplanted intravenously with normal bone marrow cells (Ly5.1 positive) mixed with those of FD mice (Ly5.2 positive) at various ratios to investigate the level of engraftment and enzyme activity necessary to effect a reduction in GL-3 storage.
Chimerism of whole white blood cells of recipients' peripheral blood remained stable at 8 weeks after transplantation, and chimerism of granulocytes, monocytes, B cells and T cells was equal to that of white blood cells. GL-3 levels were significantly reduced in the lung and heart of animals with a 30% and 50% chimera, respectively. The extent of reduction in these mice was almost identical to that with 100% chimera.
In FD mice, reconstitution with 100% donor cells is not required to obtain a therapeutic effect following bone marrow transplantation. These results suggest that a 30% gene correction might be sufficient to reverse disease manifestations in FD.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · The Journal of Gene Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) activity. As enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) involving recombinant GLAs has been introduced for this disease, a useful biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of therapy has been strongly required. We measured globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in plasma samples from ten hemizygous males (six classic and four variant cases) and eight heterozygous females with Fabry disease, and investigated the responses of plasma lyso-Gb3 and Gb3 in a male Fabry patient who had undergone ERT for 4years to determine whether plasma lyso-Gb3 and Gb3 could be biomarkers of Fabry disease. The results revealed that plasma lyso-Gb3 was apparently increased in male patients and was higher in cases of the classic form than those of the variant one. In Fabry females, plasma lyso-Gb3 was moderately increased in both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases, and there was a correlation between the increase in lyso-Gb3 and the decrease in GLA activity. As to plasma Gb3, the levels in the variant Fabry hemizygotes and Fabry heterozygotes could not be distinguished from those in the controls, although those in the classic Fabry hemizygotes were increased. The plasma lyso-Gb3 level in the Fabry patient who had received ERT was elevated at the baseline and fell more dramatically on ERT than that of Gb3. Plasma lyso-Gb3 could thus be a potential biomarker of Fabry disease.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most appropriate time for screening for Fabry disease (FD) is school age. For this reason, we developed non-invasive methods for measuring urinary alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A) protein, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for globotriaosylceramide (GL-3), using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We measured these two biomarkers in the urine of previously diagnosed FD hemizygotes and heterozygotes, and in controls. All the classic FD hemizygotes were clearly distinguished from controls by either method alone, and combining the two assays produced 96% sensitivity for detecting heterozygotes. To assess the utility of these methods for screening school children and adults at high risk of FD, a pilot study was conducted. To distinguish FD from 432 controls, cut-off values for alpha-gal A protein and GL-3 were set at the 5th and 95th centile values of the controls, respectively. Among the high-risk patients, the measurements exceeded the cut-off values for both biomarkers in male and female subjects and were strong indicators for Fabry hemizygotes and heterozygotes. However, we recommend that if the results of the first measurements exceed the cut-off values for only one of these biomarkers, another urine sample should be requested for re-assay to confirm the result.
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Pediatric Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two recombinant human agalsidase preparations are available for treatment of Fabry disease. We assayed urinary GL-3 (uGL-3) concentration in seronegative and seropositive patients receiving agalsidase beta (1mg/kg). Antibody formation and residual enzyme activity were strongly correlated. Normalization of uGL-3 was achieved more efficiently in seronegatives. But different from previous reports, reduction of uGL-3 level was observed in some seropositive patients.
No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked sphingolipidosis due to a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A, which leads to the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in several organs. When recombinant human alpha-galactosidase A is intravenously administered repeatedly before the patient develops permanent tissue damage, there is evidence that the accumulation of GL-3 is decreased in some organs and that the clinical symptoms are alleviated in some patients. However, Fabry disease is rare and many patients are not diagnosed until adulthood after irreversible tissue damage has occurred. Our group has developed a simple and non-invasive screening method for Fabry disease that measures total GL-3 in whole urine samples by tandem mass spectrometry. Using this method, we found that the concentration of GL-3 in whole urine sample from hemizygous patients, including pre-symptomatic young children with classic type Fabry disease, was significantly higher than that in controls. The mean concentration of GL-3 in urine from heterozygotes with symptoms was significantly higher than control concentrations, but GL-3 levels in the urine from 2 out of 8 heterozygotes of classic type Fabry disease were within control levels. An asymptomatic 14-year old hemizygote in the family of a cardiac variant did not have elevated urinary GL-3. Therefore, screening for the classic type and probably renal variant of Fabry disease is possible by measuring urinary GL-3, using our method. The early diagnosis of cardiac variant hemizygotes and some heterozygotes with all types of Fabry disease will not be possible using our method. We propose that this procedure can be used as a reliable, non-invasive, simple method for general and high-risk population screening for hemizygotic patients with the classic type and probably renal variant of Fabry disease.
No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism