- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing worldwide. Although DM has been thought to play a great role for onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the effective surveillance for HCC in DM has not been established. We elucidated the risk factor for HCC in DM patients.Methods From 2000 to 2014, 80 naïve HCC only with DM were enrolled as DM-HCC group. Moreover, from 2005 October to 2014 after introducing abdominal ultrasonography (US) report data base, 2083 DM patients, who had no viral hepatitis, no known autoimmune hepatic diseases and/or no alcohol abuse (>60 g/day) were enrolled as DM-US group. The reports of first screening US were evaluated. Elderly was defined over 65 years. We evaluated the clinical feature of DM-HCC and compared it with the clinical features of HCC in DM-US group.ResultsElderly were 86.8% in DM-HCC group (74.1 ± 8.5 years, male:female = 54:26, Child-Pugh A:B:C:unknown = 63:13:2:2, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.3%, tumor diameter: 5.7 ± 3.5 cm, single:multiple = 56:24). FIB-4 index was 4.50 ± 3.42. In DM-US group (elderly: 45.4%). HCC was detected in 0.14% of them (3 cases) and 0.3% of elderly DM-US. Average age and Fib-4 index of the 3 cases were 75.6 years (67-92 years, male:female = 1:2, tumor diameter: 7.6 cm, tumor number: 2.6) and 4.84 (2.87-6.98). Especially in elderly DM patients with high FIB-4 index (≥4), HCC was detected 5.0%.Conclusions Elderly and high Fib-4 index were the characteristics of DM-HCC. HCCs in DM-US group showed similar tendency. Surveillance for HCC with US should be recommended in DM patients especially those that are elderly (≥65) and show high Fib-4 index.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 47-year-old Japanese woman consulted because of abnormal liver function test and hepatic tumors. Viral hepatitis markers and elevation of tumor markers (AFP, PIVKA-II, CEA, CA19-9, s-IL2r) were not detected. Although multiple hepatic tumors were detected by enhanced ultrasonography with SonazoidⓇ, abdominal dynamic computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, and up-take of FDG was observed in positron emission tomography-CT, definite diagnosis could not be obtained. Finally, they were diagnosed as hepatic angiosarcoma with immune-histological examination (positive for CD31, CD34, VIII factor and Vimentin, and negative for CKAE1/AE3, Desmin, αSMA) of biopsied liver specimen. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel was started. Because of neutropenia after first administration, dose and interval of administration were reduced to one third of the initial dosage, and every other week using with G-CSF. The tumors had been able to be controlled about for 1 year stable disease and she died 17 months after diagnosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined tumor marker levels to assess in more detail transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE)-refractory hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We enrolled patients treated from 2000 to 2011 for HCC beyond the Milan criteria who had good hepatic reserve function (Child-Pugh A) and no portal vein thrombosis or metastases (n = 154). The modified criteria for being TACE-refractory according to the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (m-LCSGJ), from which the tumor marker item was excluded, and the Assessment for Retreatment with TACE (ART) score were used for determining whether the HCC was TACE refractory. α-Fetoprotein ≥100 ng/ml, fucosylated α-fetoprotein ≥10%, and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin ≥100 mAU/ml were used to define whether tumor markers were positive. We added up the number of positive tumor markers as a prognostic score to assess in more detail the evaluation of TACE-refractory HCC. In order to divide the patients into a refractory and nonrefractory group, the m-LCSGJ criteria [mean survival time (MST) 27.1 vs. 49.9 months; p < 0.001] were superior to the ART score (MST 22.0 vs. 35.1 months; p = 0.051). In the refractory group according to the m-LCSGJ criteria, the patients with a low score of positive tumor markers (<2) after 2 sessions of TACE (n = 36) showed a better prognosis than the others (n = 72) (MST 37.7 vs. 23.2 months; p = 0.014). Patients being nonrefractory according to the m-LCSGJ criteria had a better response, and using the number of tumor markers (≥2) is an easy method for predicting the response to TACE and for a more detailed evaluation of TACE-refractory HCC. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The definition of muscle atrophy (pre-sarcopenia) and its diagnostic criteria have not been well reported. To elucidate the frequency of pre-sarcopenia in chronic liver disease (CLD), we examined clinical features of Japanese CLD patients using abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings. We enrolled 988 CLD (736 with naïve hepatocellular carcinoma) and 372 normal control subjects (NCs). The psoas muscle area index [PI, psoas muscle area at the mid-L3 level in CT (cm(2))/height (m)(2)] was calculated using personal computer software. The cut-off level for pre-sarcopenia was defined as less than two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean PI value in the NCs under 55 years old [males, 45.6 ± 5.7 years (n = 61), 4.24 cm(2)/m(2); females, 47.0 ± 6.1 years (n = 49), 2.50 cm(2)/m(2)]. Elderly was defined as 65 years or older. Clinical features were retrospectively evaluated. In the CLD group (HCV:HBV:HBV and HCV:alcohol:non-HBV and HCV = 652:88:7:82:159), pre-sarcopenia was observed in 15.3 % of patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), 24.4 % of those with liver cirrhosis (LC) Child-Pugh A, 37.7 % of those with LC Child-Pugh B, and 37.1 % of those with LC Child-Pugh C. A comparison between NC and CH by age (<55, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75 years) showed that the frequency of pre-sarcopenia was higher in CH regardless of age (1.8 vs. 3.6 %, 3.2 vs. 15.9 %, 4.9 vs. 13.4 %, 14.3 vs. 20.2 %, respectively). PI values showed correlations with BMI (r = 0.361), age (r = -0.167), albumin (r = 0.115), and branched-chain amino acids (r = 0.199) (P < 0.01). Retrospective evaluate for pre-sarcopenia was easy to perform with CT findings. Nutrition and exercise instruction should be considered for early stage and even non-elderly CLD as well as LC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To elucidate the clinical features of affected patients, we examined prognosis and therapy choices. Materials/methods: We enrolled 67 patients treated for a ruptured HCC (HCV 44, HBV 5, HBV+HCV 1, alcohol 2, others 15; naïve HCC 34, recurrent 33) from 2000 to 2013, and investigated their clinical background and prognosis. Results: Median survival time (MST) for all cases was 4 months. For patients who survived for more than 1 year after rupture, the percentages of Child-Pugh C and positive for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT)/extrahepatic metastasis were less than for those who died within 1 year. Child-Pugh classification (A:B:C=14:15:5 vs. 4:9:20, P<0.001) was better, while the percentage of patients with multiple tumors was lower [19/34 (55.9%) vs. 29/33 (87.9%), respectively; P<0.001] in the naïve group. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were better in the naïve as compared to the recurrent group (60.6% and 33.3% vs. 12.6% and 0%, respectively; P<0.01). MST according to modified TNM stage (UICC 7th) calculated after exclusion of T4 factor of rupture, stage I was better than others (22.7 vs. (II) 2.2, (III) 1.2, and (IV) 0.7 months) (P=0.010). Conclusion: In patients with a ruptured HCC, especially those with a single tumor, and without decompensated liver cirrhosis and PVTT/extrahepatic metastasis, better prognosis can be expected with curative treatment. The present naïve group included more of such cases than the recurrent group, indicating the effectiveness of curative therapy.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy for advanced fibrosis of real-time tissue elastography (RTE), is a newly introduced non-invasive method, in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Sixty-six chronic liver diseases with HCV (CLD-HCV) were evaluated by RTE, FIB-4, and APRI, as well as biopsy or hepatectomy findings. Seventeen healthy volunteers, and 1 with elevation of transaminase and 5 with liver tumors within their normal liver were enrolled for normal controls. Severe fibrosis was defined as METAVIR score 3 or 4. The tissue elasticity value was expressed by LF-index created by the program incorporated in the ultrasound device. The percentage of fibrosis area in each specimen (%FA) was determined with a personal computer. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was calculated for each non-invasive method of estimation of fibrosis. The values for the area under the ROC for LF-index, APRI, and FIB-4 were 0.88, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for prediction of LF-index (>2.8) for severe fibrosis were 86.5%, 78.6%, and 93.6%, respectively, which were better than those of FIB-4 and APRI. LF-index showed a good relationship to %FA (r=0.276, P=0.020). RTE is an effective method for predicting severe fibrosis in CLD-HCV.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 20-year-old man consulted a local doctor due to edema and dyspnea. He was referred to our hospital because he had jaundice and pleural effusion. He had psychiatric symptoms of " Hikikomori", i.e., social withdrawal, and had stayed indoors for 3 years. He was diagnosed with liver failure due to Wilson's disease by blood test, urine cupper, and Kayser-Fleischer ring. Conservative treatments were not effective enough, and he was rescued by liver transplantation. Wilson's disease is known to cause various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and his " Hikikomori" symptoms may be caused by Wilson's disease. We report a case of liver failure due to Wilson's disease who had symptoms of social withdrawal.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 67-year-old woman presented with periumbilical pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings indicated intussusception of the ascending colon without ischemia or necrosis, and we performed successful colonoscopy to treat the condition. Furthermore, an edematous area caused by anisakis was detected in the ascending colon and the anisakis was removed. The patient noted that she had eaten raw fish one day before the symptoms developed. Although colonic intussusception caused by anisakiasis is extremely rare, colonoscopy should be performed in colonic intussusception patients suspected of having anisakiasis in order to avoid invasive resection.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 25-year-old Japanese woman with a large abdominal tumor (10 cm in diameter) and high level of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, 1,222.4 ng/mL) was introduced and admitted to our hospital in January 2011. Pre-operative imaging modalities could not identify the tumor origin. There was no chronic hepatic viral disease, however, the elevated level of fucosylated AFP (87.8%) and connection with the left hepatic lobe led us to diagnose the tumor as a hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgical resection was performed in February. Histological findings revealed a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC). Herein, we provide details of this difficulty to diagnose a case of ACC.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2008, a 28-year-old woman consulted our hospital due to general fatigue. Her ALT level was within normal range but she was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Her ALT level was nearly within normal range thereafter and she was consistently positive for HBeAg. Later, it was proven that she was negative for HBsAg in 1999. She had been a sex worker in 2007-2008. Complete genome sequencing revealed that her HBV was genotype C. The present case may indicate that it is possible for acute infection with HBV genotype C to progress to chronic infection in adults.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims: The mean age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients has increased (=65 years old). We want to identify the recent trend of the clinical features of HCC patients due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) (HCV-HCC). Methodology: From 2000 to 2009, 855 naive HCC patients were admitted. HCV-HCC patients were divided into two groups, first period group (2000-04, n=270) and second period group (2005-09, n=343) and the clinical features of HCV-HCC were investigated. Results: There was no difference in gender, TNM stage and percentages of HCV-HCC between the periods. On the other hand, the ratio of HCV-HCC patients with worse liver function (Child-Pugh B or C), elderly (=75 years old) and the population of patients treated with low invasive radiofrequency ablation were increased (30.0% to 42.0%, 17.2% to 35.8% and 25.1% to 36.2%, respectively; p<0.01). The 1y-, 3y- and 5y-survival rate of HCV-HCC did not show differences (82.1%, 60.5% and 44.7% vs. 81.8%, 56.9% and 37.7%, respectively; p=0.219). Conclusions: The ratio of aged HCV-HCC as well as HCV-HCC patients with worse liver function was increased. The less invasive treatment for HCC in these patients and the quick anti-viral treatment for HCV patients should be considered to avoid occurrence of HCC in Japan.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We attempted combinations of resection and ablative therapies (ethanol injection (EI) or radiofrequency therapy (RFA)) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Thirty-one patients with naive HCC treated from January 2000 to June 2010 were enrolled. All were tumor node metastasis stage III and the number of tumors was countable (< or = 5). Twelve were treated with resection assisted with an ablative therapy (combination group) and 19 with resection only (resection group). Clinical backgrounds and prognosis were investigated. The total scores for up-to-seven criteria were larger in the combination group than in the resection group (p=0.01), while other clinical background findings were not significantly different between the groups. In the combination group, 10 cases underwent resection combined with RFA and 2 with EI. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were not significantly different between the groups (combination group, 88.2% and 88.2%, respectively; resection group, 90.9% and 80.8%, respectively). There were no severe complications. Our results indicate that combination therapy is a therapeutic option for cases with countable HCCs who are difficult to treat by resection only.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoglycemia caused by insulin-like growth factor II is difficult to control. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed with gastric cancer and multiple liver metastases in September 2006 and underwent chemotherapy; however, at that time there were no symptoms of hypoglycemia. From January 2007 onwards, hypoglycemic comas and symptoms of hypoglycemia began to appear frequently. Her serum level of insulin was normal; thus, we suspected the presence of big insulin-like growth factor II was causing the hypoglycemia. This was proven by Western immunoblotting and we diagnosed non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia associated with gastric cancer. Overnight nutrition provided via a central venous catheter port to prevent hypoglycemia allowed the patient to become ambulant and to remain free of hypoglycemic coma at follow-up until her death 7months later. KeywordsNon-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH)–Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II–Hypoglycemia–Gastric carcinoma
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 37-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis due to Wilson's disease in 2001 and treated with D-penicillamine. Thereafter, he was admitted to our hospital for further examination of a space occupying lesion in the liver. The patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (7th segment, 2.5 cm in diameter) in May 2010 and treated with radiofrequency ablation therapy. Biopsy findings from a non-cancerous area revealed a fatty liver, though cirrhotic nodules were not found. Long-term treatment for Wilson's disease may improve hepatic fibrosis, and careful screening for HCC by abdominal imaging is needed in such cases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with perflubutane (Sonazoid) for hepatic metastasis and compared it with that of 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT). From January 2007 to July 2009, 109 Japanese patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer were enrolled, of whom 4 had esophageal cancer, 28 gastric cancer, 1 duodenal cancer, and 76 colorectal cancer. After a bolus injection with Sonazoid (0.5 ml/body), the liver was scanned in both arterial and Kupffer phases. The results of PET/CT and other abdominal imaging examinations were not shown to the CEUS operators. We compared diagnostic efficacy between CEUS and PET/CT. Average values for age, body mass index, and maximum diameter of the hepatic metastasis were 68.7 +/- 11.0 years, 21.2 +/- 4.2, and 29.2 +/- 20.5mm, respectively. Hepatic metastasis were suspected in 31 patients based on PET/CT findings and 32 by CEUS. Finally, hepatic metastasis was diagnosed in 30 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rates for CEUS and PET/CT were similar (100% vs. 100%, 97.5% vs. 98.7%, and 95.5% vs. 93.6%, respectively). CEUS had a diagnostic value similar to that of PET/CT for hepatic metastasis.
Ehime Prefectural Central HospitalMatuyama, Ehime, Japan