[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After its release into the synaptic cleft, dopamine exerts its biological properties via its pre- and post-synaptic targets(1). The dopamine signal is terminated by diffusion(2-3), extracellular enzymes(4), and membrane transporters(5). The dopamine transporter, located in the peri-synaptic cleft of dopamine neurons clears the released amines through an inward dopamine flux (uptake). The dopamine transporter can also work in reverse direction to release amines from inside to outside in a process called outward transport or efflux of dopamine(5). More than 20 years ago Sulzer et al. reported the dopamine transporter can operate in two modes of activity: forward (uptake) and reverse (efflux)(5). The neurotransmitter released via efflux through the transporter can move a large amount of dopamine to the extracellular space, and has been shown to play a major regulatory role in extracellular dopamine homeostasis(6). Here we describe how simultaneous patch clamp and amperometry recording can be used to measure released dopamine via the efflux mechanism with millisecond time resolution when the membrane potential is controlled. For this, whole-cell current and oxidative (amperometric) signals are measured simultaneously using an Axopatch 200B amplifier (Molecular Devices, with a low-pass Bessel filter set at 1,000 Hz for whole-cell current recording). For amperometry recording a carbon fiber electrode is connected to a second amplifier (Axopatch 200B) and is placed adjacent to the plasma membrane and held at +700 mV. The whole-cell and oxidative (amperometric) currents can be recorded and the current-voltage relationship can be generated using a voltage step protocol. Unlike the usual amperometric calibration, which requires conversion to concentration, the current is reported directly without considering the effective volume(7). Thus, the resulting data represent a lower limit to dopamine efflux because some transmitter is lost to the bulk solution.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Visualized Experiments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of dopamine (DA) homeostasis is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction, and neuropsychiatric disorders. The neuronal plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is essential for the maintenance of DA homeostasis in the brain. α-Synuclein is a 140-amino acid protein that forms a stable complex with DAT and is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. To elucidate the potential functional consequences of DAT/α-synuclein interaction, we explored α-synuclein modulation of DAT activity in midbrain dopaminergic neurons obtained from TH::RFP mice, immortalized DA neurons, and a heterologous system expressing DAT. We used dual pipette whole cell patch clamp recording to measure the DAT-mediated current before and after dialysis of recombinant α-synuclein into immortalized DA neurons. Our data suggest that intracellular α-synuclein induces a Na+ independent but Cl--sensitive inward current in DAT-expressing cells. This current is blocked by DAT blocker GBR12935 and is absent when heat-inactivated α-synuclein is dialyzed into these cells. The functional consequence of this interaction on DAT activity was further examined with real-time monitoring of transport function using a fluorescent substrate of DAT, 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP+). Overexpression of α-synuclein in DAT-positive immortalized DA neurons and CHO cells expressing DAT decreased the magnitude and rate of DAT-mediated substrate uptake without a decrease in the initial binding of the substrate at the plasma membrane. Taken together our findings are consistent with the interpretation that DAT/α-synuclein interaction at the cell surface results in a DAT-dependent, Na+-insensitive, Cl-sensitive inward current with a decrease in substrate uptake, suggesting that DAT/α-synuclein interaction can modulate dopamine transmission and thus neuronal function.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of dopamine (DA) homeostasis is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction, and neuropsychiatric
disorders. The neuronal plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is essential for the maintenance of DA homeostasis in the
brain. α-synuclein is a 140-amino acid protein, which forms a stable complex with DAT and is linked to the pathogenesis of
neurodegenerative disease. To elucidate the potential functional consequences of DAT/α-synuclein interaction, we explored
α-synuclein modulation of DAT activity in midbrain dopaminergic neurons obtained from TH::RFP mice, immortalized DA neurons
and a heterologous system expressing DAT. We used dual pipette whole cell patch clamp recording to measure the DAT mediated
current before and after dialysis of recombinant α-synuclein into immortalized DA neurons. Our data suggest that intracellular
α-synuclein induces a Na+ independent but Cl- sensitive inward current in DAT-expressing cells. This current is blocked by
DAT blocker GBR12935, and is absent when heat-inactivated α-synuclein is dialyzed into these cells. The functional consequence
of this interaction on DAT activity was further examined with real-time monitoring of transport function using a fluorescent
substrate of DAT, 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N methylpyridinium (ASP+). Over-expression of α-synuclein in DAT-positive immortalized
DA neurons and CHO cells expressing DAT decreased the magnitude and rate of DAT-mediated substrate uptake, without a decrease
in the initial binding of the substrate at the plasma membrane. Taken together our findings are consistent with the interpretation
that DAT/α-synuclein interaction at the cell surface results in a DAT-dependent, Na+-insensitive, Cl-sensitive inward current
with a decrease in substrate uptake, suggesting that DAT/α-synuclein interaction can modulate dopamine transmission and thus
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant whose societal impact is on the rise. Emerging evidence suggests that psychostimulants alter synaptic plasticity in the brain--which may partly account for their adverse effects. While it is known that METH increases the extracellular concentration of monoamines dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, it is not clear how METH alters glutamatergic transmission. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and systemic METH on basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP; an activity-induced increase in synaptic efficacy) in CA1 sub-field in the hippocampus. Both the acute ex vivo application of METH to hippocampal slices and systemic administration of METH decreased LTP. Interestingly, the acute ex vivo application of METH at a concentration of 30 or 60 microM increased baseline synaptic transmission as well as decreased LTP. Pretreatment with eticlopride (D2-like receptor antagonist) did not alter the effects of METH on synaptic transmission or LTP. In contrast, pretreatment with D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 abrogated the effect of METH on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, METH did not increase baseline synaptic transmission in D1 dopamine receptor haploinsufficient mice. Our findings suggest that METH affects excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of dopamine and serotonin receptor systems in the hippocampus. This modulation may contribute to synaptic maladaption induced by METH addiction and/or METH-mediated cognitive dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The psychostimulants d-amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH) release excess dopamine (DA) into the synaptic clefts of dopaminergic neurons. Abnormal DA release is thought to occur by reverse transport through the DA transporter (DAT), and it is believed to underlie the severe behavioral effects of these drugs. Here we compare structurally similar AMPH and METH on DAT function in a heterologous expression system and in an animal model. In the in vitro expression system, DAT-mediated whole-cell currents were greater for METH stimulation than for AMPH. At the same voltage and concentration, METH released five times more DA than AMPH and did so at physiological membrane potentials. At maximally effective concentrations, METH released twice as much [Ca(2+)](i) from internal stores compared with AMPH. [Ca(2+)](i) responses to both drugs were independent of membrane voltage but inhibited by DAT antagonists. Intact phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal domain of DAT were required for the AMPH- and METH-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and for the enhanced effects of METH on [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C inhibitors alone or in combination also blocked AMPH- or METH-induced Ca(2+) responses. Finally, in the rat nucleus accumbens, in vivo voltammetry showed that systemic application of METH inhibited DAT-mediated DA clearance more efficiently than AMPH, resulting in excess external DA. Together these data demonstrate that METH has a stronger effect on DAT-mediated cell physiology than AMPH, which may contribute to the euphoric and addictive properties of METH compared with AMPH.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The developing central nervous system of the fetus and neonate is recognized as very sensitive to maternal or gestational hypothyroidism. Despite this recognition, there is still a lack of data concerning the relationship between thyroid-related biomarkers and neurological outcomes. We used propylthiouracil administered at 0, 3, or 10 ppm in drinking water from gestational d 2 until weaning to create hypothyroid conditions to study the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis compensation and impaired neurodevelopment. In addition to serum T(3), T(4), free T(4), and TSH concentrations, cerebrocortical T(3) concentration (cT(3)), hepatic type I and cerebrocortical type II (D2) 5'-deiodinase activity, and thyroidal mRNA for thyroglobulin and sodium iodide symporter were measured. Extracellular recordings from the CA1 region in hippocampal slices were obtained from both postnatal d 21-32 (pups) and postnatal d 90-110 (adults) rats to assess neurophysiological effects. Thyroidal mRNA for thyroglobulin and sodium iodide symporter were increased in pups but not in dams. Both propylthiouracil doses increased cerebrocortical D2 activity approximately 5-fold in pups but only 10 ppm increased D2 activity in dams. In dams, cT(3) concentrations were maintained at 3 ppm but fell 75% at 10 ppm. cT(3) concentration in pups fell 50% at 3 ppm and more than 90% at 10 ppm. In both 3 and 10 ppm pups, hippocampal baseline synaptic activity correlated negatively with cerebrocortical D2 activity. In 3 ppm adults, impaired long-term potentiation was evident. In summary, during depletion of serum T(4), D2 activity served as a sensitive marker of tissue thyroid status, an indicator of the brain's compensatory response to maintain cT(3), and correlated with a neurophysiological outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine is known to be an important modulator of learning and memory processes, but its mechanisms of action at the cellular level are diverse and are not fully characterized. In the hippocampus, pharmacologically isolated monosynaptic IPSCs were measured using the whole-cell voltage-clamp recording technique. Both electrically evoked and spontaneous miniature GABA(A) receptor currents were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in slices obtained from mature rats in the presence of the D3-selective agonist PD128907. The activation of D3 receptors inhibited synaptic GABAergic input without affecting presynaptic function or passive membrane properties. Inhibition of IPSCs evoked from stratum radiatum occurred via regulation of dynamin-dependent trafficking of the GABA(A) receptor, as inclusion of dynamin inhibitory peptide (50 microM) in the recording solution prevented the inhibitory effects of PD128907 (1 microM). This effect of D3 receptor activation could be prevented by intracellular application of either an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKI, 20 microM) or an activator of protein kinase A (8-OH-cAMP, 50 microM). Neither synchronous IPSCs evoked from the stratum oriens nor asynchronous miniature IPSCs recorded from the stratum radiatum were affected by D3 agonist. The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of the extracellular field response in both the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens demonstrated that only potentiation in the stratum radiatum was significantly enhanced by PD128907 (1 microM). Our results suggest that the activation of D3 receptors can modulate GABA(A) receptor endocytosis in the hippocampus in a lamina specific manner, and thereby alter the efficacy of GABAergic transmission in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region through a postsynaptic mechanism of action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the process of extinction has been well documented for various forms of behavioral responses, the effects of extinction on the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior are relatively understudied. In this report, the effectiveness of an extinction training protocol to reduce primed reinstatement responses was compared with the effectiveness of an equivalent period of enforced abstinence. We found that extinction training performed in the drug taking environment significantly reduced reinstatement behavior subsequently primed by either contextual cues, conditioned cues, or cocaine infusion. The ability of extinction to reduce cocaine primed reinstatement was blocked by the systemic administration of the competitive NMDAR antagonist ((+/-)CPP, 5mg/kg i.p.) administered prior to each extinction training session. Interestingly, this pharmacological intervention had no impact on the effectiveness of extinction to reduce drug-seeking behavior primed by either contextual cues or conditioned cues. These results suggest that an extinction training experience involves multiple mechanisms that can be dissociated into nonNMDAR and NMDAR dependent components with respect to the type of reinstatement (i.e. context-, conditioned stimuli (CS)-, or drug-induced) being assessed.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Behavioural Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slice preparation. Application of the DAT-specific blocker GBR 12,935 produced a significant enhancement in LTP of Schaffer collateral synapses in the CA1 at concentrations as low as 100 nM. A selective D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23,390, 1 microM) did not affect the ability of GBR 12,935 to enhance LTP, whereas application of the D3 dopamine receptor antagonist U 99,194 (1 microM) blocked the GBR 12,935-induced enhancement in LTP. In addition, a D3 dopamine receptor agonist (7-OH-DPAT, 1 microM) caused a significant increase in LTP, an effect that was also blocked by U 99,194 (3 microM). These results suggest that either endogenously released dopamine (facilitated by DAT blockade) or exogenously applied dopamine agonist can act to increase LTP in the CA1 of the hippocampus via activation of the D3 subtype of dopamine receptor.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Learning & Memory
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to further characterize the actions of cocaine on synaptic activity in the hippocampus, recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slice preparation were used to monitor drug effects on long-term potentiation (LTP) evoked in response to stimulation of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Cocaine had dose-dependent, biphasic effects on the magnitude of LTP at these excitatory synapses in the stratum radiatum ranging from a significant enhancement of LTP at intermediate drug concentrations (5-10 microM), to an inhibition of LTP at a relatively high drug concentration (30 microM). The local anesthetic lidocaine had only inhibitory effects on the induction of LTP at all concentrations examined (10-75 microM), whereas the monoamine transporter antagonists, WIN 35348 (1 microM) or GBR 12935 (5 microM) significantly enhanced the magnitude of LTP. The D(2)-like dopamine receptor antagonist, eticlopride was effective in preventing this action of cocaine, whereas pretreatment with the D(1/5) antagonist, SCH 23390 was ineffective. These results suggest that endogenously released dopamine, in the presence of cocaine (5-10 microM), can act via D(2)-like receptors to significantly increase the magnitude of LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-lasting neuroadaptations that occur during drug use and remain after withdrawal are thought to contribute to the persisting and compulsive nature of drug addiction and relapse. At the molecular and cellular levels, mechanisms that have been implicated in the normal process of memory formation are increasingly being identified as potential contributors to the persistence of the addicted state. To investigate the effect of cocaine self-administration on synaptic plasticity, rats were allowed to self-administer 0.5 mg/kg/infusion cocaine or 0.9% NaCl during 90 min sessions for 15 consecutive days. These cocaine and saline self-administration subjects were then restricted to their home cages for 3, 30, or 100 days (3, 30, and 100 day cocaine/saline withdrawal groups) before the assessment of the induction and reversal of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices. The magnitude of LTP was increased in the 3-day cocaine withdrawal group as compared with the 3-day saline withdrawal group, but this effect was short lived, as the 30-day cocaine and saline withdrawal groups exhibited similar LTP magnitudes. Interestingly, LTP was significantly decreased in the 100-day cocaine withdrawal group compared with the 100-day saline withdrawal group. These results support the hypothesis that the capacity for LTP is persistently altered after withdrawal from exposure to an addictive substance. In addition, this alteration can be differentially expressed such that depending upon the duration of the withdrawal period following the last drug exposure, LTP may be enhanced, unchanged, or suppressed.