L Force

Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí, Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (32)204.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to produce a cascade of care for Catalonia to gain a public health perspective on the overall quality of HIV services and allow comparison with other countries. It was constructed using the Integrated Epidemiological Surveillance System of HIV in Catalonia and data from the PISCIS Cohort. Estimates of the number of people living with HIV in Catalonia are modelled using Spectrum Projection Package 2011 (UNAIDS/WHO). Totals for each stage in the cascade are obtained by applying to the preceding stage a proportion estimated from available surveillance and cohort data. Undiagnosed HIV was estimated from the European literature. The proportions retained in care, on ART and virally suppressed were derived from the PISCIS cohort. Programmatic data on ART consumption was used to validate estimates. By the end of 2011 there were about 33,000 people living with HIV in Catalonia, 71% of which had been both diagnosed and linked to care. We estimate that 61% of all HIV infected persons were retained in care, 56% were on ART and 48% were virally suppressed. These figures data are comparable, although slightly lower, than that of France or the UK. The Cascade of HIV Care in Catalonia is similar to other western European countries such as France and the UK. Direct estimates of the undiagnosed HIV population and linkage to care are desirable but the contribution of cohort data to the cascade highlights their continued importance in HIV surveillance and design of evidence-based health strategies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · AIDS Care
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prevalence and clinical consequences of virological failure (VF) to raltegravir-based regimens in Spain. Methods A multicentre, retrospective, observational study was performed in 10 tertiary hospitals (January 2006 to June 2013). The study included HIV-1-infected patients with loss of virological suppression (LVS; two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL) while receiving raltegravir. VF and low-level viraemia (LLV) were defined as two consecutive HIV-1 RNA ≥200 copies/mL and 50 to
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: To present clinical experience with a regimen including abacavir/lamivudine + darunavir/ritonavir in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. A retrospective, multicentre cohort study, including all consecutive adult HIV-1-infected patients who started abacavir/lamivudine + darunavir/ritonavir from April 2008 to December 2010 and had at least one follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was HIV-1 viral load (VL) <40 copies/mL at week 48. One hundred and eighty-three patients (42 naive and 141 experienced) from 19 hospitals in Spain were studied. The median follow-up was 26.7 (0.5-58.6) months, 79.8% were men, the median age was 47.1 (21.4-80.5) years, 26.2% had AIDS and 38.8% were positive for hepatitis C virus. At baseline, the median CD4 count was 246 cells/mm(3) in naive patients and 393 cells/mm(3) in experienced patients and the median VL was 4.80 and <1.59 log copies/mL, respectively. At week 48, 81.8% of naive patients and 84.2% of experienced patients receiving the regimen reached a VL <40 copies/mL, whereas at 96 weeks this occurred in 90.5% and 92.8%, respectively. CD4 cell count increases at 48 and 96 weeks were +176.5 and +283.5 cells/mm(3) in naive patients and +74.9 and +93 cells/mm(3) in experienced patients, respectively. Overall, 86 (47%) patients discontinued the study regimen, in many cases possibly related to non-medical reasons, such as drug switches to reduce cost or changes in address due to economic constraints. Three patients died of causes unrelated to therapy and 19 (10.4%) discontinued the regimen due to adverse events. In our cohort, abacavir/lamivudine + darunavir/ritonavir was safe, well tolerated and achieved high rates of virological suppression. In a proportion of patients, discontinuation of this effective regimen was possibly due to non-medical reasons.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with low CD4 counts achieve viral suppression but not CD4 cell recovery. We aimed to identify (1) risk factors for failure to achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL after 3 years of sustained viral suppression and (2) the association of the achieved CD4 count with subsequent mortality. Methods. We included treated HIV-infected adults from 2 large international HIV cohorts, who had viral suppression (≤500 HIV type 1 RNA copies/mL) for >3 years with CD4 count ≤200 cells/µL at start of the suppressed period. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for incomplete CD4 recovery (≤200 cells/µL) and Cox regression to identify associations with mortality. Results. Of 5550 eligible individuals, 835 (15%) did not reach a CD4 count >200 cells/µL after 3 years of suppression. Increasing age, lower initial CD4 count, male heterosexual and injection drug use transmission, cART initiation after 1998, and longer time from initiation of cART to start of the virally suppressed period were risk factors for not achieving a CD4 count >200 cells/µL. Individuals with CD4 ≤200 cells/µL after 3 years of viral suppression had substantially increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.86–3.61) compared with those who achieved CD4 count >200 cells/µL. The increased mortality was seen across different patient groups and for all causes of death. Conclusions. Virally suppressed HIV-positive individuals on cART who do not achieve a CD4 count >200 cells/µL have substantially increased long-term mortality.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Some HIV infected individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with low CD4 counts achieve viral suppression but not CD4 cell recovery. We aimed to identify (1) risk factors for failure to achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL after three years of sustained viral suppression and (2) the association of achieved CD4 count with subsequent mortality. Methods. We included treated HIV infected adults from two large international HIV cohorts, who were virally suppressed (≤500 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml) for >3 years with CD4 count ≤200 cells/µL at start of the suppressed period. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for incomplete CD4 recovery (≤200 cells/µL) and Cox regression to identify associations with mortality. Results. Of 5550 eligible individuals, 835 (15%) did not reach CD4 count >200 cells/µL after three years of suppression. Increasing age, lower initial CD4 count, male heterosexual and injection drug use transmission, cART initiation after 1998 and longer time from initiation of cART to start of the virally suppressed period were risk factors for not achieving CD4 count >200 cells/µL. Individuals with CD4 ≤200 cells/µL after three years of viral suppression had substantially increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.60; 95% confidence interval 1.86-3.61) compared to those who achieved CD4 count >200 cells/µL. The increased mortality was seen across different patient groups and for all causes of death. Conclusions. Virally suppressed HIV positive individuals on cART who do not achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL have substantially increased long-term mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study: Our aim was to evaluate factors associated with progression to AIDS/death in HIV-infected naïve pts initiating cART with low CD4 counts. Methods: Adult HIV-infected ARV-naïve pts with CD4 <200 who initiated NNRTI or PI-containing regimens between 1998 and 2009, were included. Primary end point was progression to AIDS (a first episode or a new AIDS-defining condition in pts with prior AIDS) or death. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine progression-free survival and multivariate Cox regression models were used to identify independent predictive factors of progression to AIDS/death. Summary of results: We included 1427 patients (80% men, median age 38 years, 25% IDU, 37% AIDS, 20% HCV) between 1998 and 2009. At baseline (BL), median (range) CD4 and viral load (VL) was 77 (1-199) cells/µL and 170,000 (19-8,750,000) copies/mL, respectively. After a median follow-up 4.6 years, 70% of pts reached CD4>200/µL, 65.2% reached undetectable VL and 268 (19%) pts progressed to AIDS/death during follow-up. The probability of AIDS/death at 5 years was 76%, 34%, 3% and 3%, in pts with BL CD4<100/VL>5 log and CD4<200/VL detectable during FU, BL CD4<100/ VL>5 log and CD4<200/VL undetectable during FU, BL CD4<100 and/or VL>5 log and CD4>200/VL undetectable during FU and BL CD4>100/ VL<5 log and CD4>200/VL undetectable during FU, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, several variables were associated with AIDS/death: CD4< 200 during FU (HR 10.89, p<0.001), detectable VL during FU (HR 3.49, p<0.001), age>50 years (HR 1.75, p=0.001), prior AIDS (HR 1.71, p<0.001) and BL VL>5 log (HR 1.45, p=0.011). If only pts without prior AIDS (n=895) were analyzed, the variables independently associated with AIDS/death were: CD4<200 during FU (HR 9.90, p<0.001), detectable VL during FU (HR 2.78, p<0.001) and BL VL>5 log (HR 1.62, p=0.016). Conclusions: In immunosuppressed patients initiating cARV therapy, not reaching CD4>200/µL during FU was the strongest variable associated with progression to AIDS/death. VL at BL and mainly at follow up also played a role in patient outcome.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: In this prospective, multicentre cohort study, we analysed specific prognostic factors and the impact of timing of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on disease progression and death among 625 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected, treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with an AIDS-defining disease. HAART was classified as early (<30 days) or late (30-270 days). Deferring HAART was significantly associated with faster progression to a new AIDS-defining event/death overall (p 0.009) and in patients with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (p 0.017). In the multivariate analysis, deferring HAART was associated with a higher risk of a new AIDS-defining event/death (p 0.002; hazard ratio 1.83; 95% CI 1.25-2.68). Other independent risk factors for poorer outcome were baseline diagnosis of AIDS-defining lymphoma, age >35 years, and low CD4(+) count (<50 cells/μL).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate long-term outcomes in patients maintaining a nevirapine (NVP)-based regimen. Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study including patients currently receiving an NVP regimen that had been started at least 5 years previously. Demographic, clinical, and analytical variables were recorded. Median follow-up was 8.9 (5.7-11.3) years. Baseline characteristics: 74% men, 47 years old, 36% drug users, 40% AIDS, 40% HCV+, 51.4% detectable HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count 395 (4-1,421)/μL, 19% CD4 < 200/μL, 27% ALT grade 1-2, 36% AST grade 1-2. Thirty percent ART-naive, 83%received NVP associated with 2 nucleoside analogues during the study period, and 17% a protease inhibitor. A significant improvement was observed in general health status markers, including hemoglobin, platelets, and albumin, regardless of HCV coinfection. CD4 cell gain was +218 and +322/μL after 6 and 9 years, respectively (+321 and +391 in naive patients). Triglycerides significantly decreased in pretreated patients, whereas the percentage of patients with HDLc < 1.03 mmol/L and LDL-c > 3.37 mmol/L significantly decreased in a subsample with available values. A significant decrease in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and Fib4 score was observed, mainly in HCV+ and ARV-naive patients. In patients who tolerate NVP therapy, (even those with HCV coinfection), long term benefits may be significant in terms of a progressive improvement in general health status markers and CD4 response, a favorable lipid profile, and good liver tolerability.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Current HIV research
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    ABSTRACT: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate. To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated. Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L. HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States. 20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis. Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death. Limitations: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist. Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Annals of internal medicine
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: CD4 cell count and plasma viral load are well known predictors of AIDS and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This study investigated, in patients treated for at least 3 years, the respective prognostic importance of values measured at cART initiation, and 6 and 36 months later, for AIDS and death. METHODS: Patients from 15 HIV cohorts included in the ART Cohort Collaboration, aged at least 16 years, antiretroviral-naive when they started cART and followed for at least 36 months after start of cART were eligible. RESULTS: Among 14 208 patients, the median CD4 cell counts at 0, 6 and 36 months were 210, 320 and 450 cells/microl, respectively, and 78% of patients achieved viral load less than 500 copies/ml at 6 months. In models adjusted for characteristics at cART initiation and for values at all time points, values at 36 months were the strongest predictors of subsequent rates of AIDS and death. Although CD4 cell count and viral load at cART initiation were no longer prognostic of AIDS or of death after 36 months, viral load at 6 months and change in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months were prognostic for rates of AIDS from 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Although current values of CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA are the most important prognostic factors for subsequent AIDS and death rates in HIV-1-infected patients treated with cART, changes in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months and the value of 6-month HIV-1 RNA are also prognostic for AIDS.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-related mitochondrial toxicity has been suggested as a key factor in the induction of antiretroviral-related lipoatrophy. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo the effects of NRTI withdrawal on mitochondrial parameters and body fat distribution. A multicenter, prospective, randomized trial assessed the efficacy and tolerability of switching to lopinavir-ritonavir plus nevirapine (nevirapine group; n = 34), compared with lopinavir-ritonavir plus 2 NRTIs (control group; n = 33) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with virological suppression. A subset of 35 individuals (20 from the nevirapine group and 15 from the control group) were evaluated for changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA ratio and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity after NRTI withdrawal. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used to objectively quantify fat redistribution over time. The nevirapine group experienced a progressive increase in mtDNA content (a 40% increase at week 48; P = .039 for comparison between groups) and in the COX activity (26% and 32% at weeks 24 and 48, respectively; P = .01 and P = .09 for comparison between groups, respectively). There were no statistically significant between-group differences in DEXA scans at week 48, although a higher fat increase in extremities was observed in the nevirapine group. No virologic failures occurred in either treatment arm. Switching to a nucleoside-sparing regimen of nevirapine and lopinavir-ritonavir maintained full antiviral efficacy and led to an improvement in mitochondrial parameters, which suggests a reversion of nucleoside-associated mitochondrial toxicity. Although DEXA scans performed during the study only revealed slight changes in fat redistribution, a longer follow-up period may show a positive correlation between reduced mitochondrial toxicity and a clinical improvement of lipodystrophy.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The strategy of switching nevirapine (NVP) twice daily to once daily was evaluated. Forty-eight-week randomized, open, multicenter trial. Stable HIV-infected patients on NVP twice daily for >12-18 weeks with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) <2.5, the upper normal limit were randomized to continue their regimen or switch to NVP 400 mg once daily. Primary end point was the proportion of ALT/aspartate transaminase (AST) > or =grade 3. Two hundred eighty-nine patients were included, mean CD4 620 cells per microliter. Noninferiority was demonstrated in the per protocol analysis, with 97.9% (once daily) and 99.3% (twice daily) of patients event free (difference, 1.4%; 95% confidence interval, -1.95% to 5.4%), whereas 81.8% vs. 93.8% were event free by intent-to-treat switch = toxicity analysis (difference, 12%; 95% confidence interval, 4.6% to 19.4%). Only 4 patients (3 once daily, 1 twice daily) had NVP-related grade 3/4 ALT/AST increases, but in 2 of them (once daily), transaminases decreased despite continuation with NVP. Two other once daily patients presented grade 3/4 ALT/AST increase due to well-documented acute hepatitis A virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Grade 2 ALT/AST increases occurred in 11.2% (once daily) vs. 10.3% (twice daily) of patients (P = 0.80). A larger number of once daily patients were lost to follow-up/violated protocol (15% vs. 5%). In patients on standard twice daily NVP-containing regimens for at least 12-18 weeks, per protocol analysis showed that switching to once daily NVP was not inferior to continued twice daily NVP in terms of the predefined noninferiority margin of 10% for hepatotoxicity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to characterize the ways in which older HIV-infected people differ from younger HIV-infected people. Prospective cohort study. PISCIS cohort includes newly attended HIV-infected subjects since January 1, 1998. Naive patients were selected. Two groups were defined: G1 (>or=50 years at time of diagnosis, n=493) and G2 (18-49 years, n=4511). Statistical analysis was performed using chi(2), Student's t test, Cox regression and linear mixed models. G1 had different features: males (G1: 84% vs. G2: 75%, p<0.001), sexual transmission (52% vs. 32%, p<0.001), AIDS at first visit (38% vs. 22%, p<0.001). The follow-up was 6 years. Ninety-five percent of patients in G1 and 92% in G2 presented a detectable viral load (>or=500 copies/mm(3)) at the first visit (p=0.016). G1 presented lower CD4 levels with respect to G2 throughout the period but the increase of CD4 in G1 at the end of the study period was 254 cells/mm(3) whereas for G2 it was 196 cells/mm(3) (p<0.001). Mortality was 9% for G1 and 4% for G2 (p<0.001). HIV-infected people diagnosed at the age of 50 years or older showed different features. They showed good viral and immunological response to HAART.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of infection
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the factors related to progression to AIDS or death in HIV-infected patients from the Proyecto para la Informatización del Seguimiento Clínico epidemiológico de los pacientes con Infección por VIH/SIDA (PISCIS) Cohort and we assess the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) taking lead time into account. We selected naive patients who were AIDS-free and initiated HAART after January 1998. Statistical analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Lead time was defined as the time it took the deferred group with an early disease stage to reach the later stage. The analysis accounting for lead time was performed using multiple imputation methods based on estimates from the pre-HAART period as described elsewhere. Multivariate analysis on 2035 patients (median follow-up = 34.3 months) showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for a CD4 count <200 cells/microL (HR = 3.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18 to 6.57), HIV-1 RNA level >100,000 copies/mL (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.69), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (HR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.65 to 3.49), whereas a lower risk was found for those who started HAART between January 2001 and June 2004 (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.90). When lead time and unseen events were included, we found a higher risk of progression to AIDS among patients who deferred treatment when the CD4 count reached <200 cells/microL (HR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.91 to 4.63) and 200 to 350 cells/microL (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.33) compared with those who started treatment with CD4 counts from 200 to 350 cells/microL and >350 cells/microL, respectively. Advanced HIV disease, HCV coinfection, and early HAART period were determinants of AIDS progression or death. Lead-time analysis in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients suggests that the best time to start HAART is before the CD4 count falls to lower than 350 cells/microL.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compares the risk factors, presentation and outcome of community-acquired Legionella pneumophila pneumonia in 138 sporadic-case patients (1994-2004) and 113 outbreak-case patients (2002) treated in two hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) since urinary antigen assays were adopted. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to compare epidemiological and clinical features, blood chemistry values, radiological findings and outcome of sporadic and epidemic legionnaires' disease. Univariate analysis showed that male sex, chronic lung disease, HIV infection and immunosuppressive therapy prevailed in sporadic cases. Presentation with respiratory symptoms, confusion and blood chemistry alterations, such as hyponatraemia, aspartate aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen elevation, and partial pressure of oxygen P(O)(2) <7.98 KPa (60 mmHg) were also more frequent in sporadic cases, while headache prevailed in outbreak cases. Sporadic cases had a greater delay in treatment, were more severe and had a worse outcome than epidemic cases. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in sex, chronic lung disease, HIV infection and headache. The clinical and outcome differences between the two groups may be explained by the detection of milder forms of legionnaires' disease, the earlier treatment and the lower severity of underlying disease in the outbreak cases.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · European Respiratory Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The degree of adherence to anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is not known. A prospective cohort study was performed in two groups of patients: 79 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (group 1) and 78-HCV-monoinfected patients (group 2). Patients were treated with interferon alpha-2a (3 million international units [MIU], three times per week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) for 48 weeks. Adherence to therapy was defined as having received +/-80% of both drug dosages for +/-80% of the expected duration of therapy. The degree of adherence to treatment was similar for patients with or without HIV coinfection (72.2 versus 80.8%). The overall sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with adherence to therapy was 41.7% as compared with only 8.1% (p = 0.0001) in patients without adherence. The difference in SVR rate according to adherence to treatment was also evident in patients of group 1 (29.8% versus 9.1%; p = 0.05) as well as in those of group 2 (52.4 versus 6.7%; p = 0.001). Adherence to anti-HCV therapy, which can be similar in mono- and coinfected patients, enhances the likelihood of achieving an increase in SVR rate. In addition to improved adherence, in coinfected patients more aggressive therapeutic strategies may be necessary to achieve SVR.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Using a multicenter, cross-sectional, observation study, the long-term safety, metabolic profile, and viral efficacy of nevirapine (NVP)-based approaches in HIV-1-infected patients treated for at least 2 years were assessed. For 4 months, all consecutive HIV-1-infected patients who had been receiving an NVP-containing regimen for at least 2 years were recruited. A total of 613 patients were included with a median follow-up period of 43 months (IQR: 31-51). At baseline, 24.5% (150 patients) were treatment naive, 41.5% (254 patients) switched for simplification purposes, and 34% (209 patients) were failing HAART. Increases by five times or more in AST/ALT values were observed in fewer than 2% of patients. Only 5.7% of all adverse events reported during the investigation were attributable to NVP. The percentage of patients with normal HDL cholesterol levels rose from 17.7% at baseline to 35.4% at the last visit. At the latest time point available for analysis, 76% of naive and 74% of those who had switched had HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml, while 59% of salvage patients achieved this level of viral suppression. Factors associated with viral suppression at the latest visit were adequate adherence (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 0.85-7.78, p < 0.001), first-line treatment (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.52-6.00, p = 0.002), and baseline CD4 cells >400 cells/microl (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.22-4.47, p = 0.010). Exposure to nevirapine for up to 4 years is safe. Liver toxicity is infrequent and generally mild. HDL cholesterol levels consistently increase over time and viral suppression is maintained.
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective The aims of this study were to describe the process of implementation of the PISCIS cohort, and to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and trends of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among patients enrolled from 1998 through 2003. Patients and method Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 16 years newly attended in 10 Catalonian hospitals and one Balearic Islands hospital. Analysis were done using the Mantel's χ2 test for trend. Results A total of 5,968 patients (mean age 39 yrs; 75% men) were recruited with a mean follow-up of 26.4 months (13,130 person-years). A total of 2,763 patients were newly diagnosed and among these, the most frequent transmission route was the heterosexual one (43%), followed by homosexual (31%). We observed an increasing trend in the proportion of persons < 35 years and immigrants. Among newly diagnosed, 43% had < 200 CD4 T cells/μl in the nearest determination from HIV diagnosis. In the year 2003, 83% of patients were on ART. A decrease of the protease inhibitor-based regimen (from 85% in 1998 to 25% in 2003; p < 0.001) and an increase of nucleoside and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors-containing regimens were observed over time among naïve patients who started ART with three or more drugs. Conclusions HIV infected patients’ cohorts are feasible in our setting and are an important tool in clinical and public health. The heterosexual route of transmission was the most frequent among newly diagnosed patients. The diagnosis delay is high and, on the other hand, ARV regimens have been changing according to the recommended guidelines.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Medicina Clínica
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to describe the process of implementation of the PISCIS cohort, and to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and trends of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among patients enrolled from 1998 through 2003. Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged > or = 16 years newly attended in 10 Catalonian hospitals and one Balearic Islands hospital. Analysis were done using the Mantel's chi2 test for trend. A total of 5,968 patients (mean age 39 yrs; 75% men) were recruited with a mean follow-up of 26.4 months (13,130 person-years). A total of 2,763 patients were newly diagnosed and among these, the most frequent transmission route was the heterosexual one (43%), followed by homosexual (31%). We observed an increasing trend in the proportion of persons < 35 years and immigrants. Among newly diagnosed, 43% had < 200 CD4 T cells/microl in the nearest determination from HIV diagnosis. In the year 2003, 83% of patients were on ART. A decrease of the protease inhibitor-based regimen (from 85% in 1998 to 25% in 2003; p < 0.001) and an increase of nucleoside and non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors-containing regimens were observed over time among naive patients who started ART with three or more drugs. HIV infected patients' cohorts are feasible in our setting and are an important tool in clinical and public health. The heterosexual route of transmission was the most frequent among newly diagnosed patients. The diagnosis delay is high and, on the other hand, ARV regimens have been changing according to the recommended guidelines.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Medicina Clínica
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the baseline factors associated with haematological toxicity that lead to ribavirin or pegylated interferon (peginterferon) dosage reductions in hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HCV/HIV)-coinfected patients. Multicentre, prospective, observational study. Setting: Eleven hospitals in Spain during the period 2002-2003. One-hundred and forty-two HIV/HCV-coinfected patients received peginterferon-alpha2a plus ribavirin. Baseline characteristics and haematological parameters were recorded at baseline, week 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48. Cox's regression model was used to study the factors associated with the appearance of a haemoglobin level below 10g/dl (haemoglobin-endpoint), a neutrophil count below 750/mm(3) (neutrophil-endpoint) and a platelet count below 50,000/mm(3) (platelet-endpoint). Nineteen patients (13.4%) reached the haemoglobin-endpoint, 22.5% the neutrophil-endpoint and 7% the platelet-endpoint. Mean time of follow-up was 8 months (+/-3.5). A baseline haemoglobin level below 14g/dl [hazard ratio (HR): 3.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-9.06] and treatment with zidovudine (HR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.31-8.11) were the independent factors associated with the appearance of the haemoglobin-endpoint. A baseline neutrophil below 2050/mm(3) (HR: 3.59; 95% CI: 1.77-7.28) and baseline weight <60 kg (HR: 2.21; 95% Cl: 1.04-4.56) were independently associated with the appearance of the neutrophil-endpoint. Baseline platelet count (x1000/mm(3) decrease) (HR: 1.074; 95% CI: 1.04-1.11) was independently associated with the appearance of the platelet-endpoint. Baseline factors allow the identification of a subset of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who are prone to experience haematological toxicity during HCV antiviral therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Antiviral therapy