[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to flavonoid-rich fruits has beneficial influence on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether intake of orange juice (OJ) could affect whole blood (WB) procoagulant activity.
17 healthy subjects (aged 31±1.5 SEM 10 males) were randomized to receive, according to a cross-over design, either red or blond OJ, enriched or free of anthocyanins, respectively. After one week run-in period on a controlled diet, the subjects were randomly allocated to receive either type of OJ for 4weeks, with a 4-week wash-out period. Venous blood was collected on citrate before and at the end of each treatment period. WB was incubated with or without an inflammatory stimulus (tumor necrosis factor-α or bacterial endotoxin LPS). Procoagulant activity was evaluated by a one-stage clotting assay. Tissue factor (TF) and TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) were measured in plasma by ELISA.
Intake of either type of OJ caused a prolongation of unstimulated and stimulated WB clotting times, without any difference between the two treatments. Intake of OJ did not modify TF levels. On the contrary, an increase in circulating TFPI antigen was detected following either treatment.
Orange juice intake by healthy volunteers decreases procoagulant activity, possibly through mechanisms independent of its anthocyanin content.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the post genomic era we became aware that the genomic sequence and protein functions cannot be correlated. One gene can encode multiple protein functions mainly because of mRNA splice variants, post translational modifications (PTM) and moonlighting functions. To study the whole population of proteins present in a cell to a specific time point and under defined conditions it is necessary to investigate the proteome. Comprehensive analysis of the proteome requires the use of emerging high technologies because of the complexity and wide dynamic range of protein concentrations. Proteomics provides the tools to study protein identification and quantitation, protein-protein interactions, protein modifications and localization. The most widespread strategy for studying global protein expression employs two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) allowing thousands of proteins to be resolved and their expression quantified. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as a high throughput technique for protein identification and characterization because of its high sensitivity, precision and accuracy. LC-MS/MS is well suited for accurate quantitation of protein expression levels, post-translational modifications and comparative and absolute quantitative analysis of peptides. Bioinformatic tools are required to elaborate the growing number of proteomic data. Here, we give an overview of the current status of the wide range of technologies that define and characterize the modern proteomics.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fatty meal may represent a challenge of in vivo acute inflammatory reaction. We evaluated the acute effects of a standardised fatty meal administration on leukocytes and platelets and on their interactions on 61 subjects at different degree of cardiovascular risk, without any clinical event. Before and 2 hours after a fatty meal, blood cells were counted and markers of leukocyte (intracellular myeloperoxidase [MPO] and Mac-1) and platelet (P-selectin and microparticles) activation and mixed platelet-leukocyte conjugates measured by flow-cytometry. After the fatty meal, both white blood cell and platelet count significantly increased, more markedly in subjects with lower cardiovascular risk score. Mac-1 expression too increased (from 32.2 ± 27.2% to 45.6 ± 29.0%, p=0.0016), while MPO decreased (from 83.1 ± 16.3% to 64.5 ± 23.1%, p<0.0001). A trend for increased platelet activation and interaction with leukocytes was also observed. Women were more markedly susceptible to fatty meal challenge, as compared to men, while age did not seem to affect any cell response to fatty meal. Waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index influenced polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) degranulation and platelet count increase, respectively. Cellular responses to the fatty meal, in particular PMN degranulation, were attenuated in subjects at higher degree of cardiovascular risk, who showed a basal mild inflammatory activation status. In conclusion, a fatty meal consumption may represent a model of acute inflammatory response and appears to be modulated by different demographic and cardiovascular risk degree. This model could be applied to study the effect of food-derived antioxidants or nutritional supplements, but its relevance remains to be demonstrated.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood orange juice (OJ) is an important source of anthocyanins (ACN). The latter molecules are endowed with antioxidant activity and might thus modulate different cell function. Our aim was to investigate ACN absorption following a 1-month daily supplementation of blood OJ and their potential effects on cell markers of platelet and leukocyte activation and interaction.
Eighteen healthy subjects (10 men and 8 women) were supplemented for 4 weeks with 1 L/day of either blood OJ or blond OJ (that contains no ACN), following a cross-over design. Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants both at baseline and after each week of treatment to measure plasma ACN concentration. At the same time-intervals, 24-h urinary excretion of these molecules was also measured. At the beginning and the end of each 4-week intervention period, platelet and leukocyte markers and mixed cell conjugates were assessed both in basal condition and upon in vitro collagen/ADP activation.
After 1 week supplementation with blood OJ, 24-h urinary excretion of ACN reached average levels of 11.47 ± 5.63 nmol that significantly differed from baseline and remained substantially unchanged until the end of treatment. No plasma accumulation of ACN following blood OJ supplementation was observed. Cellular markers were not significantly affected by either OJ after 4-week supplementation.
Following supplementation of healthy volunteers with 1 L/day of blood OJ for 4 weeks, the ACN plasma levels reached were insufficient to significantly modify cell markers of platelet and leukocyte activation and interaction.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · European Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking accelerates atherosclerosis and is a well-known risk factor for acute cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms of these effects have not been completely clarified. Recently developed proteomic approaches may offer new clues when combined with well-established functional tests. Platelet proteome of healthy smokers and non-smokers was resolved by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, compared by Decyder software and identified by mass spectrometry analysis (nano-LC-MS/MS). In smokers, three proteins (Factor XIII-A subunit, platelet glycoprotein IIb and beta-actin) were significantly up-regulated, whereas WDR1 protein and chaperonine HSP60 were down-regulated. Furthermore, the highest scored network derived by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis using the modulated proteins as input showed the involvement of several proteins to be related to inflammation and apoptosis. Platelet function tests and the levels of markers of platelet and leukocyte activation were not different in smokers vs. non-smoker subjects. The platelet proteomic approach confirms that cigarette smoking triggers several inflammatory reactions and may help clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of smoke effect on cellular systems relevant for vascular integrity and human health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteome of quiescent human platelets was analyzed by a shotgun proteomics approach consisting of enzymatic digestion, peptide separation based on isoelectric point by the use of OFFgel fractionation and, finally, RP nanoscale chromatography coupled to MS/MS detection (nano-LC-MS/MS). OFFgel fractionation in the first dimension was effective in providing an additional dimension of separation, orthogonal to RP nano-LC, thus generating an off-line multidimensional separation platform that proved to be robust and easy to set up. The analysis identified 1373 proteins with high confidence (false discovery rate<0.25%). The core set of 1373 human platelet proteins was investigated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software from which ten canonical pathways and eight networks have been validated, to suggest that platelets behave either as inflammatory or immune cells, and plasma membrane and cytoskeleton proteins play a fundamental role in their function. Moreover, toxicity pathway in agreement with network analysis, supports the concept that platelet life span is governed by an apoptotic mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy of the reproductive system and is the leading cause of gynecological cancer mortality. Although the majority of advanced ovarian carcinomas initially respond successfully to taxane-based chemotherapy, resistance to chemotherapy remains the primary factor accounting for the low 5-year survival in this patient population. Recent data obtained by our group demonstrate that the disulphide isomerase ERp57 is strongly modulated in paclitaxel resistance suggesting that it may represent a chemoresistance biomarker in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we characterise a nuclear multimeric complex where ERp57 is associated with protein species involved in cell division and gene expression, as Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, Vimentin, Aurora kinase C and beta-actin. In particular, we show that the occurrence of the interaction of nuclear ERp57 with beta-actin is associated with paclitaxel resistance and that specific actin conformations modulate this complex. We propose the involvement of the nuclear ERp57 complex in mechanisms associated with chromosome segregation in which specific conformational states of actin play a role in the pathway involved in paclitaxel resistance.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of literature defines MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for studying plasma and serum, thus enabling the detection of proteins, and the generation of reproducible protein profile mass spectra, potentially able to discriminate correctly different biological systems. In this work, the different steps of the pre-analytical phase that may affect the reproducibility of plasma proteome analysis have been carefully considered. The results showed that the method is highly accurate (9.1%) and precise (8.9%) and the calibration curve for the ACTH (18-39), in human plasma, gave a good correlation coefficient (r>0.99 and r(2)>0.98). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ), relative intensity, were of 0.5 x 10(-)(9)M and 1.0 x 10(-)(9)M respectively. Thus, an assay has been developed for the detection of low-abundant and low molecular weight proteins, from human plasma, aiming at the identification of new potential biomarkers. The method was tested on plasma from patients with a first diagnosis of pelvic mass. Statistical analysis of plasma profile generated a sub-profile of 17 peptides with their relative abundance able to discriminate patients bearing malignant or benign tumors. The sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 80.0% respectively.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycosylation, one of the most common post translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, is often associated with carcinogenesis and tumor malignancy. Ovarian cancer is the sixth cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Currently, it is treated by debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy based on paclitaxel, alone or in combination with other drugs. However, chemoresistance represents a major obstacle to positive clinical outcome. We used two approaches, Multiplexed Proteomics (MP) technology and Multilectin Affinity Chromatography (MAC) to characterize the glycoproteome of the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its paclitaxel resistant counterpart A2780TC1. Furthermore proteins were separated by traditional 2DE or DIGE and identified by MS (MALDI TOF or LC MS/MS). Seventy glycoproteins were successfully identified in ovarian cancer cells and 10 were found to be differentially expressed between sensitive and resistant cell lines. We focused on four glycoproteins (tumor rejection antigen (gp96) 1, triose phosphate isomerase, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 precursor and ER-associated DNAJ) which were remarkably upregulated in A2780TC1 compared to A2780 cell line and which may represent biomarkers for paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of proteomics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, a disease related to oxidative stress. However, the effects of different alcoholic beverages on antioxidant status are not fully known. Our aim was therefore to compare the effects of a moderate intake of an alcoholic beverage with high polyphenol content (red wine) and another without polyphenol content (gin) on plasma antioxidant vitamins, lipid profile and oxidability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles.
Forty healthy men (mean age, 38 years) were included in a randomised cross-over trial. After a 15-day washout period, subjects received 30 g/ethanol/d as either wine or gin for 28 days. Diet and exercise were monitored. Before and after each intervention, we measured serum vitamins, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid profile, oxidized LDL and LDL resistance to ex-vivo oxidative stress. Compared to gin intervention, wine intake reduced plasma SOD activity [-8.1 U/gHb (95% confidence interval, CI, -138 to -25; P=0.009)] and MDA levels [-11.9 nmol/L (CI, -21.4 to-2.5; P=0.020)]. Lag phase time of LDL oxidation analysis also increased 11.0 min (CI, 1.2-20.8; P=0.032) after wine, compared to gin, whereas no differences were observed between the two interventions in oxidation rate of LDL particles. Peroxide concentration in LDL particles also decreased after wine [-0.18 nmol/mL (CI, -0.3 to-0.08;P=0.020)], as did plasma oxidized LDL concentrations [-11.0 U/L (CI,-17.3 to -6.1; P=0.009)].
Compared to gin, red wine intake has greater antioxidant effects, probably due to its high polyphenolic content.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological cancer mortality. Despite good response to surgery and initial chemotherapy, chemoresistance occurrence represents a major obstacle to a successful therapy. To better understand biological mechanisms at the basis of paclitaxel resistance, a comparative proteomic approach based on DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS) was applied to the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and its paclitaxel resistant counterpart A2780TC1. Most of the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines belong to the class of stress response (29%), metabolism (21%), and cell cycle and apoptosis (17%). We focused on proteins which were most strongly modulated by paclitaxel resistance and in particular on the disulphide isomerase ERp57, which may represent a chemoresistance biomarker. ERp57 was found to interact with class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3), involved in paclitaxel resistance in ovarian and other cancers. Moreover, we demonstrated a novel localization of this protein in cytoskeleton and described that ERp57/TUBB3 interaction occurs also in the nuclear compartment and in association with a multimeric complex formed by nucleolin, nucleophosmin, hnRNPK, and mortalin. Our data suggest that ERp57 plays an important role in chemoresistance mechanisms in ovarian cancer by modulating the attachment of microtubules to chromosomes following paclitaxel treatment through its interaction with TUBB3.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer mortality. Paclitaxel is used in the first line treatment of ovarian cancer, but acquired resistance represents the most important clinical problem and a major obstacle to a successful therapy. Several mechanisms have been implicated in paclitaxel resistance, however this process has not yet been fully explained. To better understand molecular resistance mechanisms, a comparative proteomic approach was undertaken on the human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 (paclitaxel sensitive), A2780TC1 and OVCAR3 (acquired and inherently resistant). Proteins associated with chemoresistance process were identified by DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS). Out of the 172 differentially expressed proteins in pairwise comparisons among the three cell lines, 151 were identified and grouped into ten main functional classes. Most of the proteins were related to the category of stress response (24%), metabolism (22%), protein biosynthesis (15%) and cell cycle and apoptosis (11%), suggesting that alterations of those processes might be involved in paclitaxel resistance mechanisms. This is the first direct proteomic comparison of paclitaxel sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells and may be useful for further studies of resistance mechanisms and screening of resistance biomarkers for the development of tailored therapeutic strategies.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) has been discovered as a marker of drug resistance in human cancer. To get insights into the mechanisms by which this protein is involved in drug resistance, we analyzed TUBB3 in a panel of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cell lines. We identified two main different isoforms of TUBB3 having a specific electrophoretic profile. We showed that the apparently higher molecular weight isoform is glycosylated and phosphorylated and it is localized in the cytoskeleton. The apparently lower molecular weight isoform is instead found exclusively in mitochondria. We observed that levels of phosphorylation and glycosylation of TUBB3 are associated with the resistant phenotype and compartmentalization into cytoskeleton. By two-dimensional nonreduced/reduced SDS-PAGE analysis, we also found that TUBB3 protein in vivo forms protein complexes through intermolecular disulfide bridges. Through TUBB3 immunoprecipitation, we isolated protein species able to interact with TUBB3. Following trypsin digestion, these proteins were characterized by mass spectrometry analysis. Functional analysis revealed that these proteins are involved in adaptation to oxidative stress and glucose deprivation, thereby suggesting that TUBB3 is a survival factor able to directly contribute to drug resistance. Moreover, glycosylation of TUBB3 could represent an attractive pathway whose inhibition could hamper cytoskeletal compartmentalization and TUBB3 function.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and beverages is thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Whereas the biological activities of flavonoids have been characterized in vitro, there are no clear experimental data demonstrating that chronic dietary intake and intestinal absorption of flavonoids actually protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. We tested whether long-term consumption of specific flavonoids (anthocyanins) included in normal food could render the heart of rats more resistant to myocardial infarction. Maize kernels that differed specifically in their accumulation of anthocyanins were used to prepare rodent food in which anthocyanins were either present or absent. Male Wistar rats were fed the anthocyanin-rich (ACN-rich) or the anthocyanin-free (ACN-free) diet for a period of 8 wk. Anthocyanins were significantly absorbed and detected in the blood and urine of only rats fed the ACN-rich diet. In Langendorff preparations, the hearts of rats fed the ACN-rich diet were more resistant to regional ischemia and reperfusion insult. Moreover, on an in vivo model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion, infarct size was reduced in rats that ate the ACN-rich diet than in those that consumed the ACN-free diet (P < 0.01). Cardioprotection was associated with increased myocardial glutathione levels, suggesting that dietary anthocyanins might modulate cardiac antioxidant defenses. Our findings suggest important potential health benefits of foods rich in anthocyanins and emphasize the need to develop anthocyanin-rich functional foods with protective activities for promoting human health.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin is an agonist inducing platelet activation. We combined two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to analyse differentially expressed proteins secreted from thrombin-stimulated platelets. Human washed platelets, from healthy volunteers, were stimulated with thrombin 0.5 U/ml at 37 degrees C without stirring and the secreted proteins were resolved by 2D-DIGE. By image analysis, 1094 spots were detected in the 2D gel. The spots whose mean intensity showed at least a five-fold change intensity increase or decrease in the thrombin-activated platelet gel in comparison with unstimulated control were digested by trypsin and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Peptides from mass spectra of in-gel digest samples were matched against available databases, using the Mascot search engine (Matrix Science) for peptide mass fingerprint. In the activated platelet secretome, transferrin, glutathione-transferase, WD repeat protein, ER-60, thrombospondin-1 precursor and thrombospondin were the most abundant. Also lamin A, a nuclear protein, not previously identified in platelets, appeared to be released. The novel strategy to combine 2D-DIGE with MALDI-TOF MS is a useful approach for a quantitative analysis of the effect of thrombin on the secretome profile of human platelets.