[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dexamethasone (Dex) was shown to inhibit the differentiation, maturation, and antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells (DC) when added during DC generation or maturation stages. Here, we examined the direct effects of Dex on MHC-restricted antigen processing. Macrophages were incubated with microencapsulated ovalbumin (OVA) in the presence of different concentrations of Dex for 2 h, and the efficacy of OVA peptide presentation was evaluated using OVA-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells. Dex inhibited both class I- and class II-restricted presentation of OVA to T cells; this inhibitory effect on antigen presentation was much more potent in immature macrophages than in mature macrophages. The presentation of the exogenously added OVA peptide SIINFEKL was not blocked by Dex. In addition, short-term treatment of macrophages with Dex had no discernible effects on the phagocytic activity, total expression levels of MHC molecules or co-stimulatory molecules. These results demonstrate that Dex inhibits intracellular processing events of phagocytosed antigens in macrophages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer's patch cells. Peyer's patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer's patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer's patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Little information is available regarding the precise swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-derived immunogenic peptides that are presented in the context of human HLA molecules. Here, we identified SLA-derived immunogenic peptides that are presented in association with human HLA-A2 molecule. Methods
The SLA-derived peptides that bind to HLA-A*0201, a representative of the A2 supertype, were predicted using a computer-assisted algorithm. The candidate peptides were synthesized, and the stabilities of complexes formed between peptides and HLA-A*0201 were compared using major histocompatibility complex (MHC) stabilization assays. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-inducing activity of the selected peptides was examined in HLA-A*0201-transgenic mice. ResultsAmong 15 candidate peptides synthesized, two peptides, peptide-35 (YLGPDGLLL) and peptide-43 (TLICHVDSI), were selected to have high affinity and stability with HLA-A*0201. Examination of the CTL-inducing activity of the two peptides in HLA-A*0201-transgenic mice showed that immunization with peptide-35, but not peptide-43, elicited potent CD8-specific CTL responses. The Peptide-35 is present in non-polymorphic 2 domains of 34 SLA-1 alleles, 18 SLA-2 alleles, and 1 SLA-3 allele. Conclusion
This study identifies an immunogenic HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope derived from the SLA, which may be valuable for the development of epitope-specific immunoregulation strategies.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Xenotransplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mediate tumor-associated immune suppression in both cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. Reduction or elimination of MDSCs reduces the rate of tumor progression and improves cancer therapies that employ mechanisms of immunity. Here we show that baccatin III, which is the precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, exerts anti-tumor immunomodulatory activity in very low doses (0.05-0.5mg/kg), although it is regarded as an inactive derivative of paclitaxel. Oral administration of baccatin III significantly reduced the growth of tumors induced by engrafting BALB/c mice with either 4 T1 mammary carcinoma or CT26 colon cancer cells. Baccatin III (0.5mg/kg) did not exert anti-tumor activity in athymic nude mice. Baccatin III decreased the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleens of the tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, MDSCs isolated from baccatin III-treated mice, compared with those isolated from vehicle-treated mice, had a significantly reduced suppressive effect on T cells treated with the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, these cells produced significantly reduced amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. These results suggest that baccatin III reduced tumor progression by inhibiting the accumulation and suppressive function of MDSCs.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · International Immunopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, subsequently suppressing the host immune system. MDSCs represent a group of immature myeloid cells expressing CD11b and Gr-1. Here, we show that a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, resiquimod, which binds to TLR7 and TLR8, induces the differentiation of MDSCs into mature myeloid cells. MDSCs were isolated from mice bearing mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells, and the purified MDSCs were cultured in the presence of resiquimod for 5 days. Phenotypic analysis showed that the resiquimod-treated MDSCs differentiated into F4/80(+) macrophages and CD11c(+)/I-A(d+) dendritic cells. Functional analysis showed that the MDSCs also lost their suppressive activity on T cells. Resiquimod-treated MDSCs significantly enhanced the proliferation of T cells that were treated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. These results show that resiquimod induces the differentiation of MDSCs into macrophages and dendritic cells, and also suggest that resiquimod may improve cancer immunotherapy by reducing immunosuppressive MDSCs.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Archives of Pharmacal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte hormone involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to develop a human adiponectin expression system in transgenic silkworm using a human adiponectin expression vector. The silk gland of the silkworm is a highly specialized organ that has the wonderful ability to synthesize and secrete silk protein. To express human adiponectin in the silk gland of transgenic silkworm, targeting vectors pB-A3-adiponectin-IRES-RFP and pB-Ser1-adiponectin-IRES-RFP were constructed and then introduced into the silkworm pupa. The transgenic silkworms were verified by PCR and then generated. The level of adiponectin in the transgenic silkworm was 6-10 ng/50 mg of freeze-dried powder, and western blotting using an antibody against human adiponectin demonstrated a specific band with a molecular weight of 30 kDa in the silkworm. These results showed that human adiponectin introduced into the silkworm genome was expressed successfully on a large-scale.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Archives of Pharmacal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared lung tumor growth in PRDX6 over-expressing transgenic (Tg) mice and normal mice. These mice expressed elevated levels of Prdx6 mRNA and protein in multiple tissues. In vivo model, Tg mice displayed a greater increase in the growth of lung tumor compared with normal mice. Glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase 2 (iPLA2) activities in tumor tissues of Tg mice were much higher than in tumor tissues of normal mice. Higher tumor growth in PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice was associated with the increase of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity. Moreover, expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, vascular endothelial growth factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, metalloproteinase-9, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cyclines were much higher in the tumor tissues of PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice than in tumor tissues of normal mice. However, expressions of apoptotic regulatory proteins including caspase-3 and Bax were slightly less in the tumor tissues of normal mice. In tumor tissues of PRDX6 over-expressing Tg mice, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was much higher than in normal mice. In cultured lung cancer cells, PRDX6 siRNA suppressed glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities and cancer cell growth, but enforced over-expression of PRDX6 increased cancer cell growth associated with increased their activities. In vitro, among the tested MAPK inhibitors, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor clearly suppressed growth of lung cancer cells and AP-1 DNA binding, glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities in normal and PRDX6 over-expressing lung cancer cells. These data indicate that over-expression of PRDX6 promotes lung tumor growth via increased glutathione peroxidase and iPLA2 activities through the up-regulation of the AP-1 and JNK pathways.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we showed that biodegradable nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) together with ovalbumin (OVA) were efficient at inducing MHC-restricted presentation of OVA peptides in dendritic cells. The CTL-inducing activities of the nanoparticles were examined in the present study. Nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG ODN together with OVA were prepared using biodegradable polymer poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), and then were opsonized with mouse IgG. The nanoparticles were injected into the tail vein of mice, and 7 days later the OVA-specific CTL activities were measured using an in vivo CTL assay. Immunization of mice with the nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG ODN together with OVA elicited potent OVA-specific CTL activity compared to those containing OVA only. In accordance with these results, nanoparticles containing poly-IC or CpG ODN together with OVA exerted potent antitumor activity in mice that were subcutaneously implanted with EG7.OVA tumor cells. These results show that encapsulation of poly-IC or CpG ODN together with antigen in biodegradable nanoparticles is an effective approach for the induction of potent antigen-specific CTL responses in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metformin is widely used for T2D therapy but its cellular mechanism of action is undefined. Recent studies on the mechanism of metformin in T2D have demonstrated involvement of the immune system. Current immunotherapies focus on the potential of immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of T2D. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on the antigen-presenting function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Metformin decreased both MHC class I and class II-restricted presentation of OVA and suppressed the expression of both MHC molecules and co-stimulatory factors such as CD54, CD80, and CD86 in DCs, but did not affect the phagocytic activity toward exogenous OVA. The class II-restricted OVA presentation-regulating activity of metformin was also confirmed using mice that had been injected with metformin followed by soluble OVA. These results provide an understanding of the mechanisms of the T cell response-regulating activity of metformin through the inhibition of MHC-restricted antigen presentation in relation to its actions on APCs.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Biomolecules and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity-induced disorders contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, fatty liver diseases, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we evaluated whether the Aloe QDM complex could improve metabolic disorders related to blood glucose levels and insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 54 days received a supplement of Aloe QDM complex or pioglitazone (PGZ) or metformin (Met) and were compared with unsupplemented controls (high-fat diet; HFD) or mice fed a regular diet (RD). RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to quantify the expression of obesity-induced inflammation. Dietary Aloe QDM complex lowered body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and leptin levels, and markedly reduced the impairment of glucose tolerance in obese mice. Also, Aloe QDM complex significantly enhanced plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity via AMPK activity in muscles. At the same time, Aloe QDM decreased the mRNA and protein of PPARγ/LXRα and scavenger receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Dietary Aloe QDM complex reduces obesity-induced glucose tolerance not only by suppressing PPARγ/LXRα but also by enhancing AMPK activity in the WAT and muscles, both of which are important peripheral tissues affecting insulin resistance. The Aloe QDM complex could be used as a nutritional intervention against T2D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypocrellin A has gained much attention in recent years due to its light-induced antitumor, antifungal and antiviral activities. Here we report that hypocrellin A exerts immunomodulatory effects on MHC-restricted presentation of antigen. Hypocrellin A inhibited class II-MHC restricted presentation of exogenous antigen, but not class I MHC-restricted presentation of exogenous antigen, in dendritic cells. Hypocrellin A also inhibited the cytosolic pathway of endogenous antigen presentation. However, hypocrellin A did not inhibit the expression of class I and class II MHC molecules on dendritic cells (DCs), the phagocytic activity of DCs, or the H-2K(b)-restricted presentation of a synthetic peptide, SIINFEKL. These results show that hypocrellin A differentially modulates the MHC-restricted antigen presentation pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, activates the innate immunity system through a receptor complex of myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MD-2 directly recognizes the lipid A domain of LPS, which triggers MD-2/TLR4-mediated cellular response aimed at eliminating the invaded pathogen. However, excess production of inflammatory mediators is harmful to host tissue and this can cause septic death in extreme cases. MD-2 represents an attractive therapeutic target of inflammatory and immune diseases in human. In particular, eritoran is a synthetic tetraacylated lipid A that binds directly to MD-2 and antagonizes LPS binding to the same site, and it ameliorates various inflammatory conditions due to infection or sterile organ injury. In this review, we outline the recent advances in the structure biology of ligand interaction with MD-2/TLR4, and highlight the MD-2-directed LPS antagonists, which are natural and synthetic chemicals, under development to treat inflammatory diseases.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five new dimeric ent-kauranoids, biexcisusins A-E (1-5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon excisus. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Of these, biexcisusins C-E (3-5) are dimeric ent-kaurane diterpenoids exhibiting an unprecedented linkage through a nine-membered lactone ring between two ent-kaurane subunits. Compounds 1-5 showed no inhibitory effects on the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, up to a dose of 50 μM.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Natural Products
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the rhizomes and roots of Nardostachys chinensis led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpenoids, narchinol B (8) and narchinol C (9), along with 10 known compounds, ursolic acid (1), nardosinone (2), pinoresinol (3), desoxo-narchinol A (4), kanshone B (5), epoxyconiferyl alcohol (6), debilon (7), 4α,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4,4α,5,6,7-octahydronaphthalene (10), p-coumaric acid (11), and isoferulic acid (12). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques, which included 1D- and 2D-NMR. Among the isolates, compounds 2, 4, 5, 8 and 9 showed inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production with IC(50) values of 4.6-21.6 μM.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polymers have increasingly been recognized for various biological applications in recent years. Here we examined the immunostimulatory activities of the novel poly(aspartic acid) conjugated with L-lysine (PLA).
PLA was synthesized by conjugating L-lysine to aspartic acid polymer. PLA-nanoliposomes (PLA-NLs) were prepared from PLA using a microfluidizer. The immunostimulatory activities of PLA-NLs were examined in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs).
PLA-NLs increased the number of BM-DCs when added to cultures of GM-CSF-induced DC generation on day 4 after the initiation of cultures. Examination of the phenotypic properties showed that BM-DCs generated in the presence of PLA-NLs are more mature in terms of the expression of MHC class II molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules than BM-DCs generated in the absence of PLA-NLs. In addition, the BM-DCs exhibited enhanced capability to produce cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IL-1β. Allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions also confirmed that the BMDCs were more stimulatory on allogeneic T cells. PLA- NL also induced further growth of immature BM-DCs that were harvested on day 8.
These results show that PLA-NLs induce the generation and functional activities of BM-DCs, and suggest that PLA-NLs could be immunostimulating agents that target DCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthraquinone (PAQ) isolated from the tuberous roots of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) dependent prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.08 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively. In the Western blotting with specific anti-COX-2 antibodies, the decrease of the quantity of PGD(2) was accompanied by a decrease in the COX-2 protein level. But PAQ did not affect COX-1 protein level. In addition, this compound inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) dependent production of leukotriene C(4) in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 0.032 μM. These results demonstrate that PAQ has a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. This compound also inhibited the degranulation reaction in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.7 μM. Thus, these results suggest that PAQ may be useful in regulating mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Archives of Pharmacal Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arctiin, isolated from Forsythia suspensa has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral effects in vitro. However, there has been a lack of studies regarding its effects on immunological activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential and possible mechanisms of arctiin in LPS-induced macrophages.
We investigated the mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines through RT-PCR and western blot analysis, followed by a FACS analysis for surface molecule changes.
Arctiin dose dependently decreased the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2, and it reduced the gene and protein levels as determined by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1 and B7-2 were also inhibited by arctiin. Furthermore, the activation of the nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB in macrophages was inhibited by arctiin.
Taken together these results provide evidence of the bioactivity of arctiin in inflammatory diseases and suggest that arctiin may exert anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory mediators through the inactivation of NF-kB.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from biodegradable polymers, such as poly (D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), have been studied as vehicles for the delivery of antigens to phagocytes. This paper describes the preparation of antigen-loaded PLGA-NPs for efficient cross-priming.
NPs containing a similar amount of ovalbumin (OVA) but different sizes were produced using a micromixer-based W/O/W solvent evaporation procedure, and the efficiency of the NPs to induce the cross-presentation of OVA peptides were examined in dendritic cells (DCs). Cellular uptake and biodistribution studies were performed using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-loaded NPs in mice.
The NPs in the range of 1.1~1.4µm in size were the most and almost equally efficient in inducing the cross-presentation of OVA peptides via H-2K(b) molecules. Cellular uptake and biodistribution studies showed that opsonization of the NPs with mouse IgG greatly increased the percentage of FITC-positive cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. The major cell type of FITC-positive cells in the spleen was macrophages, whereas that of lymph nodes was DCs.
These results show that IgG-opsonized PLGA-NPs with a mean size of 1.1µm would be the choice of biodegradable carriers for the targeted-delivery of protein antigens for cross-priming in vivo.