[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens produces a homologue of clostripain (Clo), the arginine-specific endopeptidase of Clostridium histolyticum. To determine the biochemical and biological properties of the C. perfringens homologue (Clp), it was purified from the culture supernatant of a recombinant C. perfringens strain by cation-exchange chromatography and ultrafiltration. Analysis by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal amino acid sequencing and TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Clp consists of two polypeptides comprising heavy (38 kDa) and light (16 kDa or 15 kDa) chains, and that the two light chains differ in the N-terminal cleavage site. This difference in the light chain did not affect the enzymic activity toward N-benzoyl-l-arginine p-nitroanilide (Bz-l-arginine pNA), as demonstrated by assaying culture supernatants differing in the relative ratio of the two light chains. Although the purified Clp preferentially degraded Bz-dl-arginine pNA rather than Bz-dl-lysine pNA, it degraded the latter more efficiently than did Clo. Clp showed 2.3-fold higher caseinolytic activity than Clo, as expected from the difference in substrate specificity. Clp caused an increase in vascular permeability when injected intradermally into mice, implying a possible role of Clp in the pathogenesis of clostridial myonecrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epsilon-toxin (ET) of Clostridium perfringens, which causes fatal enterotoxemia in ungulates, was previously shown to bind to and form a heptameric pore within the detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) of MDCK cells. Depletion of cholesterol has also been shown to decrease the cytotoxicity of ET and its heptamerization. In this study, we investigated the effects of changes in sphingolipids, other DRM components of MDCK cells, on the cells' susceptibility to ET. Treatment with fumonisin B1 and PDMP, inhibitors of sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid syntheses, respectively, increased the susceptibility, while D609, a sphingomyelin synthesis inhibitor, had the opposite effect. The exogenous addition of ganglioside G(M1) dramatically decreased the ET binding, heptamerization and cytotoxicity. These effects were shown not to be due to ET binding to G(M1) or to denaturation of ET. We also found that the ET cytotoxicity towards MDCK cells decreased with an increase in culture time. In accordance with the resistance observed for prolonged cultured cells, G(M3), a major ganglioside component, increased and sialidase treatment increased their susceptibility. These results suggest that membrane-anchored sialic acid of G(M3) within DRMs inhibits ET binding, leading to prevention of the heptamerization of ET and cell death. It is also suggested that sialidase produced by this organism aids the targeting of ET to MDCK cells.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin, which is responsible for enterotoxaemia in ungulates, forms a heptamer in rat synaptosomal and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell membranes, leading to membrane permealization. Thus, the toxin may target the detergent-resistant membrane domains (DRMs) of these membranes, in analogy to aerolysin, a heptameric pore-forming toxin that associates with DRMs. To test this idea, we examined the distribution of radiolabeled epsilon-toxin in DRM and detergent-soluble membrane fractions of MDCK cells and rat synaptosomal membranes. When MDCK cells and synaptosomal membranes were incubated with the toxin and then fractionated by cold Triton X-100 extraction and flotation on sucrose gradients, the heptameric toxin was detected almost exclusively in DRMs. The results of a toxin overlay assay revealed that the toxin preferentially bound to and heptamerized in the isolated DRMs. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin abrogated their association and lowered the cytotoxicity of the toxin toward MDCK cells. When epsilon-protoxin, an inactive precursor able to bind to but unable to heptamerize in the membrane, was incubated with MDCK cell membranes, it was detected mainly in their DRMs. These results suggest that the toxin is concentrated and induced to heptamerize on binding to a putative receptor located preferentially in DRMs, with all steps from initial binding through pore formation completed within the same DRMs.
Preview · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-protoxin by tryptic digestion is accompanied by removal of the 13 N-terminal and 22 C-terminal amino acid residues. In this study, we examined the toxicity of four constructs: an epsilon-protoxin derivative (PD), in which a factor Xa cleavage site was generated at the C-terminal trypsin-sensitive site; PD without the 13 N-terminal residues (DeltaN-PD); PD without the 23 C-terminal residues (DeltaC-PD); and PD without either the N- or C-terminal residues (DeltaNC-PD). A mouse lethality test showed that DeltaN-PD was inactive, as is PD, whereas DeltaC-PD and DeltaNC-PD were equally active. DeltaC-PD and DeltaNC-PD, but not the other constructs formed a large SDS-resistant complex in rat synaptosomal membranes as demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When DeltaNC-PD and DeltaC-PD, both labeled with (32)P and mixed in various ratios, were incubated with membranes, eight distinct high molecular weight bands corresponding to six heteropolymers and two homopolymers were detected on a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, indicating the active toxin forms a heptameric complex. These results indicate that C-terminal processing is responsible for activation of the toxin and that it is essential for its heptamerization within the membrane.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The substrate spectrum of the tandem collagen-binding domain (CBD) of Clostridium histolyticumclass I collagenase (ColG) was examined both in vitro and in vivo. CBD bound to insoluble type I, II, III and IV collagens in vitro, and to skin, aorta, tendon, kidney, trachea and corneal tissues containing various types of collagen fibrils or sheets. CBD bound to all kinds of collagen fibrils regardless of their diameters and also bound to sheet-forming collagen in the glomerular basal lamina or Descemet's membrane of the cornea. This wide substrate spectrum expands possible applications of the drug delivery system we proposed previously (PNAS 95:7018-7023, 1998). Therapeutic agents fused with CBD will bind not only to subcutaneous tissues, but also to other tissues containing non-type I collagen.
No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Connective Tissue Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have conducted the genetic analysis of fermentative nitrate reduction in Clostridium perfringens, a strict anaerobic bacterium. Nitrate reductase (NarA) was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the organism. Using a degenerate primer designed from its N-terminal amino acid sequence, a 9.5 kb fragment containing seven ORFs was cloned. The molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequence predicted from the nucleotide sequence of ORF 4 coincided with those determined for the purified NarA, indicating that ORF 4 corresponds to a narA gene. ORFs 5 and 6 encode a 15.4 kDa ferredoxin-like protein containing four iron-sulfur clusters and a 45 kDa protein homologous to NADH oxidase, respectively. Analyses involving primer extension and Northern blotting revealed that these three ORFs are transcribed as a polycistronic message. The ORF 5- and ORF 6-encoded proteins were shown by immunoblotting to be synthesized by cells grown in the presence of nitrate. Thus, these two proteins are likely to function as electron-transfer components in nitrate reduction in C perfringens. The 9.5 kb fragment and a downstream region of 6.1 kb do not contain any genes involved in nitrate uptake or nitrite reduction. Instead, all 5 ORFs downstream of ORF 6 are homologous to genes reported for molybdopterin biosynthesis, unlike the genomic organization already determined for the respiratory and assimilatory nitrate-reduction systems. The evolutionary relationships between these two nitrate-reduction systems and the fermentative one based on the results of comparative genetic analysis are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phospholipase C gene (plc) of Clostridium perfringens possesses three phased A-tracts forming bent DNA upstream of the promoter. An in vitro transcription assay involving C.perfringens RNA polymerase (RNAP) showed that the phased A-tracts have a stimulatory effect on the plc promoter, and that the effect is proportional to the number of A-tracts, and more prominent at lower temperature. A gel retardation assay and hydroxyl radical footprinting revealed that the phased A-tracts facilitate the formation of the RNAP-plc promoter complex through extension of the contact region. The upstream (UP) element of the Escherichia coli rrnB P1 promoter stimulated the downstream promoter activity temperature independently, differing from the phased A-tracts. When the UP element was placed upstream of the plc promoter, low temperature-dependent stimulation was observed, although this effect was less prominent than that of the phased A-tracts. These results suggest that both the phased A-tracts and UP element cause low temperature-dependent activation of the plc promoter through a similar mechanism, and that the more efficient low temperature-dependent activation by the phased A-tracts may be due to an increase in the bending angle at a lower temperature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Clostridium histolyticum 116-kDa collagenase has an H415EXXH motif but not the third zinc ligand, as found in already characterized zinc metalloproteinases. To identify its catalytic site, we mutated the codons corresponding to the three conserved residues in the motif to other amino acid residues. The mutation affecting His415 or His419 abolished catalytic activity and zinc binding, while that affecting Glu416 did the former but not the latter. These results suggest that the motif forms the catalytic site. We also mutated the codons corresponding to other amino acid residues that are likely zinc ligands. The mutation affecting Glu447 decreased markedly both the enzymatic activity and the zinc content, while that affecting Glu446 or Glu451 had smaller effects on activity and zinc binding. These mutations caused a decrease in kcat but no significant change in Km. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Glu447 is the third zinc ligand. The spacing of the three zinc ligands is the same in all known clostridial collagenases but not in other known gluzincins, indicating that they form a new gluzincin subfamily. The effects of mutations affecting Glu446 and Glu451 suggest that the two residues are also involved in catalysis, possibly through an interaction with the two zinc-binding histidine residues.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1999 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase contains a number of different active components. Previously we have shown that colH encodes a 116-kDa collagenase (ColH) and a 98-kDa gelatinase. We purified a different 116-kDa collagenase (ColG) from the culture supernatant and sequenced its gene (colG). We also identified four other gelatinases (105, 82, 78, and 67 kDa) and determined their N-terminal amino acid sequences, all of which coincided with that of either ColG or ColH. Hybridization experiments showed that each gene is present in a single copy and each gene is transcribed into a single mRNA. These results suggest that all the gelatinases are produced from the respective full-length collagenase by the proteolytic removal of C-terminal fragments. The substrate specificities of the enzymes suggest that colG and colH encode class I and class II enzymes, respectively. Analysis of their DNA locations by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and nucleotide sequencing of their surrounding regions revealed that the two genes are located in different sites on the chromosome. C. histolyticum colG is more similar to C. perfringens colA than to colH in terms of domain structure. Both colG and colA have a homologous gene, mscL, at their 3' ends. These results suggest that gene duplication and segment duplication have occurred in an ancestor cell common to C. histolyticum and C. perfringens and that further divergence of the parent gene produced colG and colA.
Preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hem gene cluster, which consists of hemA, cysG(B), hemC, hemD, hemB, and hemL genes, and encodes enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway from glutamyl-tRNA to uroporphyrinogen III, has been identified by the cloning and sequencing of two overlapping DNA fragments from Clostridium perfringens NCTC8237. The deduced amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region of C. perfringens HemD is homologous to those reported for the C-terminal region of Salmonella typhimurium CysG and Clostridium josui HemD. C. perfringens CysG(B) is a predicted 220-residue protein which shows homology to the N-terminal region of S. typhimurium CysG. Disruption of the cysG(B) gene in C. perfringens strain 13 by homologous recombination reduced cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels by a factor of 200. When grown in vitamin B12-deficient medium, the mutant strain showed a four-fold increase in its doubling time compared with that of the wild-type strain, and this effect was counteracted by supplementing the medium with vitamin B12. These results suggest that C. perfringens CysG(B) is involved in the chelation of cobalt to precorrin II as suggested for the CysG(B) domain of S. typhimurium CysG, enabling the synthesis of cobalamin.
Preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The neurotoxicity of epsilon-toxin, one of the major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens type B, was studied by histological examination of the rat brain. When the toxin was injected intravenously at a lethal dose (100 ng/kg), neuronal damage was observed in many areas of the brain. Injection of the toxin at a sublethal dose (50 ng/kg) caused neuronal damage predominantly in the hippocampus: pyramidal cells in the hippocampus showed marked shrinkage and karyopyknosis, or so-called dark cells. The dark cells lost the immunoreactivity to microtubule-associated protein-2, a postsynaptic somal and dendric marker, while acetylcholinesterase-positive fibers were not affected. Timm's zinc staining revealed that zinc ions were depleted in the mossy layers of the CA3 subfield containing glutamate as a synaptic transmitter. The cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus was not altered significantly before or after administration of the toxin, as measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, excluding the possibility that the observed histological change was due to a secondary effect of ischemia in the hippocampus. Prior injection of either a glutamate release inhibitor or a glutamate receptor antagonist protected the hippocampus from the neuronal damage caused by epsilon-toxin. These results suggest that epsilon-toxin acts on the glutamatergic system and evokes excessive release of glutamate, leading to neuronal damage.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1998 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have cloned and sequenced two overlapping fragments of chromosomal DNA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The nucleotide sequence contained two open reading frames. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two open reading frames showed significant homology with the heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp40 of other organisms respectively. The upstream open reading frame consisted of 1902 bp, corresponding to 634-amino-acid residues. The CAA codon for glutamines was frequently seen in hsp70, i.e., in 30 of 32 glutamines (93.8%). The spacing region between the two open reading frames was unusually long compared with other prokaryotic organisms. A number of unique and distinguishing features of the sequences in the hsp70 family were verified, and it was found that a particular spacing sequence between the hsp70 and hsp40 gene loci can be used to identify A. actinomycetemcomitans from the periodontal pocket.
No preview · Article · Apr 1998 · Oral Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Clostridium histolyticum 116-kDa collagenase consists of four segments, S1, S2a, S2b, and S3. A 98-kDa gelatinase, which can degrade denatured but
not native collagen, lacks the C-terminal fragment containing a part of S2b and S3. In this paper we have investigated the
function of the C-terminal segments using recombinant proteins. Full-length collagenase degraded both native type I collagen
and a synthetic substrate, Pz-peptide, while an 88-kDa protein containing only S1 and S2a (S1S2a) degraded only Pz-peptide.
Unlike the full-length enzyme, S1S2a did not bind to insoluble type I collagen. To determine the molecular determinant of
collagen binding activity, various C-terminal regions were fused to the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase. S3 as well as S2bS3 conferred collagen binding. However, a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein with a region shorter than S3 exhibited reduced collagen binding activity. S3 liberated from the
fusion protein also showed collagen binding activity, but not S2aS2b or S2b. S1 had 100% of the Pz-peptidase activity but
only 5% of the collagenolytic activity of the full-length collagenase. These results indicate that S1 and S3 are the catalytic
and binding domains, respectively, and that S2a and S2b form an interdomain structure.
Preview · Article · Mar 1998 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of lambda-toxin, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease of Clostridium perfringens, on the inactive epsilon-prototoxin produced by the same organism was examined. When the purified epsilon-prototoxin was incubated with the purified lambda-toxin at 37 C for 2 hr, the 32.5-kDa epsilon-prototoxin was processed into a 30.5-kDa polypeptide, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A mouse lethality test showed that the treatment activated the prototoxin: the 50% lethal doses (LD50) of the prototoxin with and without lambda-toxin treatment were 110 and 70,000 ng/kg of body weight, respectively. The lethal activity of the prototoxin activated by lambda-toxin was comparable to that with trypsin plus chymotrypsin and higher than that with trypsin alone: LD50 of the prototoxin treated with trypsin and trypsin plus chymotrypsin were 320 and 65 ng/kg of body weight, respectively. The epsilon-toxin gene was cloned and sequenced. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of each activated epsilon-prototoxin revealed that lambda-toxin cleaved between the 10th and 11th amino acid residues from the N-terminus of the prototoxin, while trypsin and trypsin plus chymotrypsin cleaved between the 13th and 14th amino acid residues. The molecular weight of each activated epsilon-prototoxin was also determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The C-terminus deduced from the molecular weight is located at the 23rd or 30th amino acid residue from the C-terminus of the prototoxin, suggesting that removal of not only N-terminal but also C-terminal peptide is responsible for activation of the prototoxin.
Preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The colH gene encoding 116‐kDa collagenase of Clostridium histolyticum (cColH) was cloned into an Escherichia coli‐Bacillus subtilis shuttle vector to develop a method for purification of recombinant collagenase (rColH). When plasmid pJCM310 containing the colH gene was introduced into B. subtilis DB104 and the transformant was grown in LB broth at 37 C, stability of the plasmid was not maintained. However, stability was partly improved by growing the transformant in a modified LB broth containing 0.5 M sodium succinate with gentle shaking at 35 C. When the transformant was grown to an optical density of 0.4 at 600 nm in this medium, pJCM310 was stable and rColH was produced in sufficient amounts. rColH was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion‐exchange chromatography. The yield of rColH from an 800‐ml culture was 0.53 mg and its specific activity was estimated to be 1,210 U per mg of protein. The purified rColH was capable of degrading native type‐I collagen fibril from bovine achilles tendon, as was demonstrated by zymography. A comparison of the N‐terminal amino acid sequence between cColH and rColH revealed that rColH has 10 extra N‐terminal amino acid residues. However, the peptide mapping of rColH with V8 protease was virtually identical to that of cColH. Furthermore, the molecular mass of rColH was estimated to be 112,999 Da by mass spectrometry, coinciding with the value of 112,977 Da, which was predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the colH gene. Therefore, the recombinant B. subtilis culture is capable of serving as a useful source for enzyme purification.
No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plc gene, which encodes phospholipase C (alpha-toxin) of Clostridium perfringens, possesses three poly(A) tracts forming an intrinsically curved DNA region immediately upstream of the promoter. The in vivo transcriptional activity of the plasmid-borne plc gene was stimulated by this curved-DNA-containing sequence, depending on its proper linear and rotational orientation. The in vitro transcriptional activity of the plc gene was also stimulated by the upstream sequence. In addition, the stimulatory effect of the sequence and the degree of DNA bending were greater at lower temperature, as was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo transcription assays, and a gel-mobility assay, respectively. A similar temperature effect was also observed with the chromosomal plc gene. These observations suggest that the upstream DNA curvature per se stimulates the initiation of transcription of the plc gene, possibly through direct contact with RNA polymerase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lambda-toxin of Clostridium perfringens type B NCIB10691 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by size exclusion, anion-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified toxin had an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The toxin possessed casein-hydrolyzing activity, which was inhibited specifically by metal chelators, indicating that the toxin is a metalloprotease. The gene encoding the lambda-toxin (lam), which was shown by Southern analysis to be located on a 70-kb plasmid, was cloned into Escherichia coli cells. Nucleotide and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed that the lam gene encodes a 553-amino-acid protein, which is processed into a mature form, the molecular mass of which was calculated to be 35,722 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme contains an HEXXH motif characteristic of zinc metalloproteases and is homologous to other known enzymes belonging to the thermolysin family. The purified toxin degraded various biologically important substances, such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin A, and the complement C3 component. It caused an increase in vascular permeability and hemorrhagic edema on injection into the dorsal skin of mice. These results suggest that the toxin contributes to the pathogenesis of histolytic infection by lambda-toxin-producing C. perfringens.
Preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Infection and Immunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens KZ1340 isolated from Antarctic soil was first classified as Clostridium plagarum and later as a lecithinase-negative variant of C. perfringens. Although the strain produced no detectable lecithinase (phospholipase C, PLC) activity in the culture supernatant, it was shown by Southern blot hybridization to possess a PLC-encoding gene (plc). To determine the cause of the PLC deficiency, we cloned and sequenced the plc gene from KZ1340. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 398 amino acid residues, coinciding with those of the plc genes previously determined. Tyrosine was substituted for histidine at amino acid position 148, which is thought to bind a zinc ion essential for PLC activity. Northern blot analysis revealed that KZ1340 expressed the plc gene at an extremely low level. Furthermore, the plc gene cloned from C. perfringens strain 13 into a plasmid was expressed weakly in KZ1340, compared to that in strain 13. This indicates that the former strain represses plc gene expression in trans. When a phylogenetic tree of plc genes was constructed, the KZ1340 plc gene formed a monophyletic branch along with those of various other C. perfringens strains, supporting the classification of the strain as a variant of C. perfringens.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The colH gene encoding 116-kDa collagenase of Clostridium histolyticum (cColH) was cloned into an Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis shuttle vector to develop a method for purification of recombinant collagenase (rColH). When plasmid pJCM310 containing the colH gene was introduced into B. subtilis DB104 and the transformant was grown in LB broth at 37 C, stability of the plasmid was not maintained. However, stability was partly improved by growing the transformant in a modified LB broth containing 0.5 M sodium succinate with gentle shaking at 35 C. When the transformant was grown to an optical density of 0.4 at 600 nm in this medium, pJCM310 was stable and rColH was produced in sufficient amounts. rColH was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The yield of rColH from an 800-ml culture was 0.53 mg and its specific activity was estimated to be 1,210 U per mg of protein. The purified rColH was capable of degrading native type-I collagen fibril from bovine achilles tendon, as was demonstrated by zymography. A comparison of the N-terminal amino acid sequence between cColH and rColH revealed that rColH has 10 extra N-terminal amino acid residues. However, the peptide mapping of rColH with V8 protease was virtually identical to that of cColH. Furthermore, the molecular mass of rColH was estimated to be 112,999 Da by mass spectrometry, coinciding with the value of 112,977 Da, which was predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the colH gene. Therefore, the recombinant B. subtilis culture is capable of serving as a useful source for enzyme purification.
Preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic interrelationships between strains of 5 toxin types (A to E) of Clostridium perfringens were examined by analysis of differences in the nucleotide sequences of phospholipase C genes (plc genes) among 10 strains, including 3 strains for which the plc gene sequences have been previously reported. A plc gene was also cloned from a Clostridium novyi type A strain and sequenced to analyze the interspecies diversity of plc genes. Phylogenetic trees constructed by the neighbor-joining method revealed that the phylogeny of C. perfringens strains is not related to toxin typing, in agreement with the results of a comparative genome mapping study by Canard et al. (B. Canard, B. Saint-Joanis, and S. T. Cole, Mol. Microbiol. 6:1421-1429, 1992). Various C. perfringens phospholipase C enzymes were purified from cultures of Escherichia coli cells into which the encoding plc genes had been cloned. All of the enzymes showed the same specific activity. On the other hand, the level of plc transcripts differed greatly (up to 40-fold) from one C. perfringens strain to another. No significant difference in the nucleotide sequence of the plc promoter region was observed for any of the plc genes. These results suggest that the variation in phospholipase C activity among different strains is not due to mutation in the plc coding region but to that in an extragenic region. The evolution of C. perfringens phospholipase C is discussed on the basis of similarities and differences between clostridial plc genes.
Preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Journal of Bacteriology