Pamela M Ling

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (145)438.76 Total impact

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    Nan Jiang · Daniel K. Cortese · M. Jane Lewis · Pamela M. Ling
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Advertising influences people's health behaviors. Tobacco companies have linked tobacco and alcohol in their marketing activities. We examined how depictions of alcohol were placed in lifestyle magazines produced by tobacco companies, and if these references differed depending on the magazine's orientation, if it was towards men, women, or if it was unisex. Methods: Content analysis of 6 different tobacco industry lifestyle magazines (73 issues), including 73 magazine covers, 1558 articles, 444 tobacco ads, and 695 non-tobacco ads. Results: 14 of 73 (19%) magazine covers featured alcohol; 581 of 1558 (37%) magazine articles mentioned alcohol; 119 of 444 (27%) tobacco ads showed alcohol images; and 57 of 695 (8%) non-tobacco ads portrayed alcohol. Male-oriented magazines (Unlimited, CML, and Real Edge) contained the most alcohol references, and the references were mainly beer, mixed drinks, and liquor or spirits. Female-oriented magazines (All Woman and Flair) contained the fewest alcohol references, and wine and mixed drinks were the major types of alcoholic beverage portrayed. For the unisex magazine (P.S.), the frequency of alcohol references fell between the male- and female-oriented magazines, and the magazine most frequently mentioned mixed drinks. Conclusions: Frequent depictions of smoking and drinking in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines might have reinforced norms about paired use of tobacco and alcohol among young adults. The pairing of tobacco and alcohol may particularly target young men. Anti-tobacco interventions need to address the co-use of tobacco and alcohol, change the social acceptability of smoking in social settings, and tailor anti-tobacco messaging by gender.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes. Young adults completed cross-sectional surveys between 2012 and 2014 in bars in seven U.S. cities (N = 5,503). The SPI is a 13-item scale that includes personality items and information on how frequently participants attend bars and how late they stay out. Three step-by-step multinomial regression models were run using the SPI as a predictor of smoking status (nondaily and daily smoking vs. nonsmoking): (1) SPI as the sole predictor, (2) SPI and demographics, and (3) SPI, demographics, and tobacco-related attitude variables. Next, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis to examine if the number of items in SPI could be reduced and retain its strong relationship with smoking. Higher scores on the SPI were related to an increased probability of being a Nondaily Smoker (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [1.04, 1.14], p < .001) or Daily Smoker (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [1.07, 1.22], p < .0001) compared to a Nonsmoker, controlling for demographics and other tobacco-related attitudes. The SPI and reduced SPI were independently related to young adult tobacco use. The measure's brevity, ease of use, and strong association with tobacco use may make it useful to tobacco and other prevention researchers.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Health Education & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Use of non-cigarette tobacco products is common, and e-cigarette use is increasing among young adults. We aimed to identify use of other tobacco products among young adult bar patrons in the context of a bar-based intervention to decrease cigarette smoking. Methods: 2,291 cross-sectional surveys were collected from young adults in bars in Albuquerque, New Mexico using time-location sampling between 2011 and 2013 (N=1142 in 2011, N=1149 in 2012-2013), 2 and 3years into an intervention to reduce cigarette use, and analyzed in 2014-2015. Participants reported current (i.e. past 30-day) use of cigarettes, snus, dip, cigarillos, hookah, and e-cigarettes, demographics, and tobacco-related attitudes. Multiple imputation was used to account for planned missing data. Logistic regression determined correlates of multiple tobacco product use. Results: Cigarette smoking in the population decreased during the intervention from 43% to 37%. Over 60% of current cigarette smokers reported poly-use, most frequently with e-cigarettes (46%) and hookah (44%), followed by cigarillos (24%), dip (15%), and snus (14%) in 2012-2013. Among cigarette smokers, current e-cigarette use increased, while use of other products decreased during the intervention. Odds of poly-use (versus smoking cigarettes only) were greater among males and those reporting past 30-day binge drinking, and lower in those who strongly believed secondhand smoke exposure is harmful. Conclusions: Among young adult bar patrons in Albuquerque, New Mexico, most cigarette smokers reported currently using at least one other tobacco product. Public health interventions should address use of all tobacco products, use of which may rise despite decreased cigarette use.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Preventive Medicine
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Tobacco Control
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Young adults in the military are aggressively targeted by tobacco companies and are at high risk of tobacco use. Existing anti-smoking advertisements developed for the general population might be effective in educating young adults in the military. This study evaluated the effects of different themes of existing anti-smoking advertisements on perceived harm and intentions to use cigarettes and other tobacco products among Air Force trainees. Methods In a pretest-posttest experiment, 782 Airmen were randomized to view anti-smoking advertisements in one of six conditions: anti-industry, health effects+anti-industry, sexual health, secondhand smoke, environment+anti-industry, or control. We assessed the effect of different conditions on changes in perceived harm and intentions to use cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), smokeless tobacco, hookah and cigarillos from pretest to posttest with multivariable linear regression models (perceived harm) and zero-inflated Poisson regression model (intentions). Results Anti-smoking advertisements increased perceived harm of various tobacco products and reduced intentions to use. Advertisements featuring negative effects of tobacco on health and sexual performance coupled with revealing tobacco industry manipulations had the most consistent pattern of effects on perceived harm and intentions. Conclusion Anti-smoking advertisements produced for the general public might also be effective with a young adult military population and could have spillover effects on perceptions of harm and intentions to use other tobacco products besides cigarettes. Existing anti-smoking advertising may be a cost-effective tool to educate young adults in the military.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Tobacco Control
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Light and intermittent smoking (LITS) has become increasingly common. Alcohol drinkers are more likely to smoke. We examined the association of smokefree law and bar law coverage and alcohol use with current smoking, LITS, and smoking quit attempts among US adults and alcohol drinkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses among a population-based sample of US adults (n = 27,731) using restricted data from 2009 National Health Interview Survey and 2009 American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation United States Tobacco Control Database. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship of smokefree law coverage and drinking frequency (1) with current smoking among all adults; (2) with 4 LITS patterns among current smokers; and (3) with smoking quit attempts among 6 smoking subgroups. Same multivariate analyses were conducted but substituted smokefree bar law coverage for smokefree law coverage to investigate the association between smokefree bar laws and the outcomes. Finally we ran the above analyses among alcohol drinkers (n = 16,961) to examine the relationship of smokefree law (and bar law) coverage and binge drinking with the outcomes. All models controlled for demographics and average cigarette price per pack. The interactions of smokefree law (and bar law) coverage and drinking status was examined. Results: Stronger smokefree law (and bar law) coverage was associated with lower odds of current smoking among all adults and among drinkers, and had the same effect across all drinking and binge drinking subgroups. Increased drinking frequency and binge drinking were related to higher odds of current smoking. Smokefree law (and bar law) coverage and drinking status were not associated with any LITS measures or smoking quit attempts. Conclusions: Stronger smokefree laws and bar laws are associated with lower smoking rates across all drinking subgroups, which provides further support for these policies. More strict tobacco control measures might help reduce cigarette consumption and increase quit attempts.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. Young adults are less successful at quitting, use cessation treatment less often than smokers of other ages, and can be a challenge to retain in treatment. Social media, integrated into the lives of many young adults, represents a promising strategy to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatment to a large, diverse audience. The goal of this trial is to test the efficacy of a stage-based smoking cessation intervention on Facebook for young adults age 18 to 25 on smoking abstinence, reduction in cigarettes smoked, and thoughts about smoking abstinence. Methods/Design: This is a randomized controlled trial. Young adult smokers throughout the United States are recruited online and randomized to either the 3 month Tobacco Status Project intervention on Facebook or a referral to a smoking cessation website. The intervention consists of assignment to a secret Facebook group tailored to readiness to quit smoking (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation), daily Facebook contacts tailored to readiness to quit smoking, weekly live counseling sessions, and for those in preparation, weekly Cognitive Behavioral Therapy counseling sessions on Facebook. Primary outcome measure is biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence from smoking at posttreatment (3 months), 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcome measures are reduction of 50 % or more in cigarettes smoked, 24 h quit attempts, and commitment to abstinence at each time point. A secondary aim is to test, within the TSP condition, the effect of a monetary incentive at increasing engagement in the intervention. Discussion: This randomized controlled trial is testing a novel Facebook intervention for treating young adults' tobacco use. If efficacious, the social media intervention could be disseminated widely and expanded to address additional health risks.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · BMC Public Health
  • M Jane Lewis · Pamela M Ling
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    ABSTRACT: As limitations on traditional marketing tactics and scrutiny by tobacco control have increased, the tobacco industry has benefited from direct mail marketing which transmits marketing messages directly to carefully targeted consumers utilising extensive custom consumer databases. However, research in these areas has been limited. This is the first study to examine the development, purposes and extent of direct mail and customer databases. We examined direct mail and database marketing by RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris utilising internal tobacco industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Document Library employing standard document research techniques. Direct mail marketing utilising industry databases began in the 1970s and grew from the need for a promotional strategy to deal with declining smoking rates, growing numbers of products and a cluttered media landscape. Both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris started with existing commercial consumer mailing lists, but subsequently decided to build their own databases of smokers' names, addresses, brand preferences, purchase patterns, interests and activities. By the mid-1990s both RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris databases contained at least 30 million smokers' names each. These companies valued direct mail/database marketing's flexibility, efficiency and unique ability to deliver specific messages to particular groups as well as direct mail's limited visibility to tobacco control, public health and regulators. Database marketing is an important and increasingly sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. Additional research is needed on the prevalence of receipt and exposure to direct mail items and their influence on receivers' perceptions and smoking behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Tobacco control
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    ABSTRACT: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about "partying fresh and smokefree." Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%-48% lower odds for current smoking. While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Nicotine & Tobacco Research
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    ABSTRACT: We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 16, 2015: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302518).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · American Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women’s cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers. The case study of Virginia Slims reveals that the classification of “vulnerable” consumers is variable depending on culture, tobacco firms display responsive efforts and strategies when operating within a “mature” market, and cultural values played a role in informing Philip Morris’ strategic decision to embrace an adaptive marketing approach, particularly when entering the Korean market. Finally, moral questions are raised with tobacco being identified as a priority product for export and international trade agreements being used by corporations, governments, or trade partners in efforts to undermine domestic public health policies.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Business Ethics
  • Andie Chan · Malinda Reddish Douglas · Pamela M Ling
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    ABSTRACT: Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health's voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point-of-sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers' perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found that mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove noncontractual POS advertisements for a 6-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Health Promotion Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate predictors of dual use of cigarettes with smokeless tobacco or e-cigarettes. Methods: Adult smokers (N = 1324) completed online cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression evaluated predictors of dual use and cigarette quit attempts. Results: Smokeless tobacco dual use was associated with past attempts to quit smoking by switching to smokeless products. E-cigarette dual use was associated with using stop-smoking medication and strong anti-tobacco industry attitudes. Ever use of stop-smoking medication was associated with quit attempts among dual e-cigarette users and cigarette-only users. Conclusions: Dual users are more likely than cigarette-only users to endorse certain cessation-related attitudes and behaviors. This may provide an opportunity for clinicians or others to discuss evidence-based strategies for smoking cessation.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · American journal of health behavior
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    ABSTRACT: More than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing. To evaluate an intervention to reduce smoking among young adult "Partiers" in Oklahoma. The Partier peer crowd was described as follows: attendance at large nightclubs, fashion consciousness, valuing physical attractiveness, and achieving social status by exuding an image of confidence and financial success. Repeated cross-sectional study with three time points. Randomized time location survey samples of young adult Partier bar and club patrons in Oklahoma City (Time 1 [2010], n=1,383; Time 2 [2011], n=1,292; and Time 3 [2012], n=1,198). Data were analyzed in 2013. The "HAVOC" Social Branding intervention was designed to associate a smoke-free lifestyle with Partiers' values, and included events at popular clubs, brand ambassador peer leaders who transmit the anti-tobacco message, social media, and tailored anti-tobacco messaging. Daily and nondaily smoking rates, and binge drinking rates (secondary). Overall, smoking rates did not change (44.1% at Time 1, 45.0% at Time 2, and 47.4% at Time 3; p=0.17), but there was a significant interaction between intervention duration and brand recall. Partiers reporting intervention recall had lower odds of daily smoking (OR=0.30 [0.10, 0.95]) and no difference in nondaily smoking, whereas Partiers who did not recall the intervention had increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.74 [1.04, 2.89]; nondaily AOR=1.97 [1.35, 2.87]). Among non-Partiers, those who recalled HAVOC reported no difference in smoking, and those who did not recall HAVOC reported significantly increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.53 [1.02, 2.31]; nondaily AOR=1.72 [1.26, 2.36]). Binge drinking rates were significantly lower (AOR=0.73 [0.59, 0.89]) overall. HAVOC has the potential to affect smoking behavior among Oklahoma Partiers without increasing binge drinking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015
  • Emily Anne McDonald · Pamela M Ling
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    ABSTRACT: This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar 'vapor' delivery devices among young adults in New York City. We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more 'toy' among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Tobacco Control
  • Jeffrey W. Jordan · Mayo Djakaria · Pamela Ling
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tobacco industry marketing campaigns often target young adults in social environments such as bars/nightclubs, but tobacco control programs rarely visit these venues. Social Branding (a unique social marketing model) interventions are designed to compete with these marketing efforts. The purpose of this intervention was to reduce smoking among young adults in California, New Mexico and Nevada (LGBT). Methods: Focus groups (FG) were conducted in each state prior to campaign launch. Three different campaigns were developed to target three different young adult cultures—Commune (CA – For “Hipsters”), HAVOC (NM – For “Partiers”) and Crush (NV – For LGBT). Each campaign used the Social Branding model with materials and messages tailored to their local audiences. Components include social media, paid digital media, bar and club events, brand ambassadors and direct mail. A pre-post test time series cross-sectional study was designed for each campaign, with a baseline and multiple follow-ups including at least 2,000 young adults in each site. Results. Tobacco use reductions among young adults at bars and clubs were observed in all 3 sites: Relative tobacco use rate reductions of 16% in CA, 25.1% NM and 13.8% in NV. Reductions were concentrated in the targeted young adult subcultures and were present among both non-daily and daily tobacco users. Conclusions. Social Branding is a promising strategy to reduce young adult tobacco use that has demonstrated impact in three distinct sites with three distinct young adult cultures. Broader implementations of the Social Branding model should be considered to reduce young adult tobacco use rates.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
  • Lucy Popova · Pamela Ling
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Perceived risk is central to initiation and cessation of tobacco, and warning labels on cigarettes promote cessation and effectively communicate risk, but research on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarette warning labels is nascent. Tobacco companies have proposed alternative smokeless tobacco warning labels that endorse smokeless tobacco as safer than cigarettes. Methods: Online experiment with a national sample of 455 adult non-users of tobacco randomized to view print advertisements for snus, e-cigarettes, and moist snuff with either warning labels (current warning label, graphic warning label), or endorsements (“FDA-approved” or the label proposed by one of the large tobacco companies “Warning: No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes”), or control. Perceived harm of each product was measured at pretest and post-test. Results: Warning labels increased perceived harm of e-cigarettes. Endorsements decreased perceived harm of moist snuff and snus, and the large tobacco company proposed endorsement had an effect similar to the prohibited “FDA Approved” endorsement. Almost 16% of non-users were interested in a free sample of an alternative tobacco product, mostly e-cigarettes (the most requested brand was blu, even if blu was not the brand of e-cigarette ad shown in the experiment). Those interested in a free sample had significantly lower perceived harm of all tobacco products than those not interested in a free sample. Conclusions: Regulatory agencies should not allow endorsements of alternative tobacco products and should implement graphic warning labels for smokeless tobacco products and warning labels for e-cigarettes.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014
  • Ganna Kostygina · Pamela Ling
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Flavored little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) use represents an underserved domain in tobacco control. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of strategies used by tobacco companies to encourage uptake of LCCs and to describe industry research findings on consumer perceptions of flavored LCC products. Method: Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from tobacco advertisement archives, national newspapers, trade press, and Internet. Results: Internally, flavored little cigar and cigarillo products have been associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that menthol flavor and candy-like sweeter flavors (e.g., cherry) could increase appeal to starters by masking the heavy cigar taste and reducing throat irritation. Flavors made the product easier to inhale, which contributed to the initiation and maintenance of LCCs. Furthermore, to appeal to new users, little cigar manufacturers reduced the size of cigars to make them more cigarette-like, introduced filters and flavored filter tips, emphasized mildness and ease of draw in advertising, evoked associations with cigarettes, and featured actors inhaling the little cigar smoke in television commercials promoting the product. Discussion: Flavors in LCCs tend to make these products more attractive and palatable to new users. While fruit, candy, alcohol flavored cigarettes have been banned, flavored little cigars and cigarillos continue to be sold. Bans on flavored cigarettes should be expanded to include flavored LCCs due to their appeal to new users. Future tobacco use prevention initiatives should be adapted to ensure they are inclusive of LCC use.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2014

Publication Stats

2k Citations
438.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2016
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for AIDS Prevention Studies
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of California, Merced
      • School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts
      Merced, California, United States