M Giovarelli

Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (183)784.86 Total impact

  • Federica Cavallo · Katia Boggio · Mirella Giovarelli · Guido Forni
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular biology and genetics are currently providing a definition of tumor-associated antigens (TAA). This important issue enables the question of immune recognition of tumors be stated in defined terms. Immunological investigation of T lymphocyte receptor, costimulatory molecules, signal transduction and cytokines has progressively led to a much more exact description of the requirements for the induction of an immune response. Refinement of cell genetic engineering is making it almost daily easier to use molecular and genetic information to construct new cancer vaccines. The convergence of these issues is once again placing tumor immunology at the cutting edge of biological research1,2.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 1998
  • G Forni · K Boggio · M Giovarelli · F Cavallo

    No preview · Article · Oct 1997 · European cytokine network
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous animal model studies have examined the ability of genetically engineered tumor cells to release cytokines and to elicit an immune memory against the parental tumor. Often only a single cytokine is studied, and few comparative studies have been conducted. We evaluated the antitumor efficacy of adenocarcinoma cells engineered to release interleukin (IL)-12 in a mouse model system. The efficacy of this cytokine was compared with that of other cytokines released by engineered adenocarcinoma cells and that of exogenous IL-12 administered both locally and intraperitoneally. BALB/cAnCr mice were inoculated with syngeneic parental mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA) cells in quantities sufficient to lead to tumors in all inoculated mice. TSA cells engineered to release IL-12 (TSA-IL12) were also injected into normal and selectively immunosuppressed BALB/cAnCr mice. Tumor incidence, growth, and rejection patterns were evaluated by the measurement of neoplastic masses and by the study of the histologic and ultrastructural features of the tumor site. The effects of local or intraperitoneal administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) on tumor-bearing animals were also studied. Most mice rejected TSA-IL12 cells through a CD8-positive, T-lymphocyte-dependent reaction associated with macrophage infiltration, vessel damage, and necrosis. The systemic immunity of mice that had rejected TSA-IL12 cells to a subsequent challenge with parental TSA cells was less efficient than that elicited by TSA cells engineered to release IL-4 or IL-10 but equivalent to that elicited by TSA cells engineered to release IL-2, IL-7, and interferon alfa. Compared with TSA cells engineered to produce other cytokines, TSA-IL12 cells were the most efficient in curing mice with established TSA tumors; injection of 0.1 million proliferating cells contralaterally to the tumor growth area cured five of 15 mice bearing 1-day-old tumors; injection of the same dose of proliferating cells into the tumor growth area cured two of 20 tumor-bearing mice. However, two 5-day courses with a nontoxic dose (0.1 microgram) of rIL-12 given intraperitoneally cured a similar proportion of these animals (six of 20). Only two of 20 mice with 7-day-old TSA tumors were cured by vaccination with proliferating TSA-IL12 cells, whereas 24 of 30 mice with such tumors were cured by intraperitoneal administration of rIL-12. TSA cells engineered to release IL-12 are rejected by most mice; the ensuing immune memory for TSA parental cells, however, was less efficient than that elicited by proliferating TSA cells engineered to release other cytokines (e.g., IL-4, IL-10, and possibly interferon gamma). The immune reaction elicited by TSA-IL12 cells was the most efficient in curing mice with established TSA tumors; notably though, the same or a better cure rate was obtained with rIL-12 given intraperitoneally.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1997 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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    ABSTRACT: How do cytokines released by engineered tumour cells provoke tumour rejection and an immune memory? Is vaccination with tumour cells that have been engineered to secrete cytokines a viable therapeutic perspective? Piero Musiani and colleagues have sought an answer to these questions by transfecting the same tumour with the genes of various cytokines and elucidating the features of the reactions elicited.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Immunology Today
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    ABSTRACT: Gene-transfected tumour cells were used to cure mice bearing lung metastases by the parental, non-transduced mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA-pc). Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) administrations of mitomycin C (MitC)-treated interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) transfectants induced a 90% inhibition in the number of lung metastases. Therapeutic effect required an intact T-cell response, as shown by the lack of efficacy in nude mice. Autocrine stimulation by IFN-gamma induces specific modifications in the phenotype of transfectants that acquire a high metastatic ability and show a high expression of IFN-responsive genes; these two features were exploited to design two experimental protocols to obtain an improvement of the therapeutic effect. The increased metastatic ability of IFN-gamma transfectants was used to deliver IFN-gamma selectively to the lungs of mice bearing TSA-pc pulmonary metastases. A significant therapeutic effect was obtained when TSA-pc experimental metastases were treated by repeated intravenous (i.v.) injections of MitC IFN-gamma transfectants. Since i.v. administrations of IFN-gamma transfectants did not induce immune memory, the therapeutical effect appeared to depend on the inflammatory-like response activated by local IFN release. To exploit the autocrine stimulation of IFN-sensitive genes an IFN-gamma transfectant clone was subjected to a second transfection with an allogeneic class I MHC gene (H-2K(b) or H-2D(h)). IFN-gamma plus MHC double transfectants maintained IFN-gamma release, showed a very high expression of the MHC gene products, stimulated both macrophages and T cells, and were less tumorigenic in immunocompetent mice than the parent IFN-gamma clone. Therapeutic efficacy of double transfectant IFN-gamma plus H-2D(b) cells against TSA-pc was superior to single transfectants, showing that the reaction elicited by genetically engineered cells can be selectively tuned to increase therapeutic efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1996 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Impressive inhibition of tumor growth has been observed after transduction of cytokine genes into tumor cells. Secreted cytokines do not affect the proliferation of a tumor directly but activate a host immune reaction strong enough to overcome its oncogenic capacity. However, the reaction mechanisms activated are difficult to interpret; because these mechanisms have been derived from experiments with different tumors, comparisons are hindered. To compare the reactive mechanisms induced by each cytokine, BALB/c mice were challenged with the parental cells of the syngeneic spontaneous mammary adenocarcinoma TSA, or with TSA cells engineered to release IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and TNF alpha, and the tumor growth area was studied histologically, ultrastructurally, and immunohistochemically. These observations were integrated with data on the growth and rejection patterns of TSA cells in mice depleted of natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes, CD4+, or CD8+ lymphocytes. The rejection of TSA-IL2 and TSA-TNF alpha cells was associated with the massive presence of neutrophils, that of TSA-IL4 and TSA-IL7 cells with neutrophils and very small areas of colliquative necrosis, and that of TSA-IFN alpha and TSA-IL10 cells with extensive areas of ischemic-coagulative necrosis and some neutrophils. TSA-IFN gamma cells displayed a delay in growth, but were not rejected. Their growth areas comprised necrotic zones of ischemic necrosis devoid of neutrophils. The selective depletion experiments demonstrated that rejection of engineered TSA cells depends on several leukocyte populations. The weight of each population varied with the secreted cytokine, although neutrophils and CD8+ lymphocytes constantly played the major role. Employment of the same tumor line engineered with the genes of different cytokines showed that each cytokine evokes a distinct reaction and that tumor inhibition results from a complex mechanism in which neutrophils and CD8+ lymphocytes and ischemic necrosis are of primary importance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · Laboratory Investigation
  • M Zucca · M Millesimo · M Giovarelli · D Diverio · T Musso · D Savoia
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    ABSTRACT: Four groups of female Balb/c mice were inoculated in the left hind footpad with 30 microliters of RPMI 1640 medium containing 10(7) Leishmania major amastigotes/ml. One group was injected sc with 200 microliters of RPMI 1640 containing 180 micrograms of pefloxacin for 20 days, a second group with the same amount of medium containing 100 units of recombinant murine interferon gamma (rmIFN-gamma). The third group was treated with the association, while the fourth group received plain medium in an identical regimen. Pefloxacin or IFN-gamma significantly decreased the size of primary lesions, while their association was significantly more efficient in this respect, in reducing the incidence of metastatic lesions, and in clearing parasites from the spleen. We also investigated the effect of pefloxacin on the activation of mouse spleen cells by Concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro, without detecting any interference on the proliferative response or IFN-gamma production.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM)
  • G Forni · F Cavallo · M Consalvo · A Allione · P Dellabona · G Casorati · M Giovarelli
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    ABSTRACT: The use of cytokines and costimulatory molecule gene-engineered tumor cells to enhance tumor immunogenicity and elicit curative responses against established tumors and tumor recurrences has become an attractive prospect. The immunotherapy data obtained in many experimental tumor systems using these engineered cells are reviewed here to provide a realistic assessment of the potential and limits of this technique.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1996 · Cytokines and molecular therapy
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    ABSTRACT: The cDNA coding for mouse IL-10 (mIL-10) was transduced into the parental cells of a spontaneous adenocarcinoma of BALB/c mice (TSA-pc), and clones secreting small, medium, and large quantities of IL-10 were selected. In vivo, both low and high producer clones do not display an enhanced ability to grow in H-2 and non-H-2 incompatible mice. Instead, the intensity of their rejection increases in function of the amount of mIL-10 released. After an initial growth period in syngeneic mice, high producer clones undergo complete rejection due to the combined action of CD8+ lymphocytes, NK cells, and neutrophils. After this rejection, mice are immune to a subsequent challenge with TSA-pc. This memory rests on a strong lytic activity of CD8+ CTL and granulocytes. Following the rejection, mice also develop anti-TSA Ab that guide the granulocytes in TSA-pc memory reaction. A direct comparison shows that although TSA clones engineered to release IL-2 activate CTL and no anti-TSA Ab, those engineered to release IL-4 activate a strong Ab response but not CTL. The kind of cytokine released by the tumors appears to determine the type of response. However, IL-10 high producer cells do not deviate the immune memory, neither toward a Th1 nor a Th2. Both the CTL activity and the Ab responses induced by IL-10 high producer cells are the strongest so far observed in the TSA system.
    No preview · Article · Oct 1995 · The Journal of Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The mouse mammary carcinoma TS/A, of BALB/c (H-2d) origin, was transfected with the murine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene (Int. J. Cancer 55: 320, 1993). We used IFN-gamma transfectants as recipients for a second round of transfections with murine allogeneic class I histocompatibility (H-2b) genes that are modulated by IFN. Transfectants with either gene alone, as well as parent TS/A cells (TS/A-pc), were used as controls. Only double transfectants expressed high levels of the allogeneic H-2b genes, while in H-2b single transfectants the expression was very low (but was induced by treatment with exogenous IFN-gamma). The tumorigenic potential of IFN-gamma or H-2b single transfectants was reduced in comparison to TS/A-pc. IFN-gamma+H-2Kb double transfectants were almost nontumorigenic, while IFN-gamma+H-2Db clones gave rise to tumors in about one-half of mice. The experimental metastatic ability of all IFN-gamma+H-2b double transfectants was very low. IFN-gamma single transfectants were known to induce a strong macrophage response in the host. The expression of allogeneic H-2 antigens added a T-lymphocyte-mediated response that accounted for the lower tumorigenicity of double transfectants. These results show that it is possible to steer the immune response evoked by tumor cells for therapeutic purposes. Moreover, the high H-2 expression obtained in IFN-gamma+H-2b double transfectants suggests that single IFN-gamma transfectants are ideal recipients for all IFN-sensitive genes. This approach can be used also for other general-purpose inducers of gene expression.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1995 · Human Gene Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Cells transduced with cytokine genes are currently used to enhance the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of these molecules in cancer therapy. The sustained release of cytokine thus obtained can perturb many homeostatic systems of the host. We have previously shown that the murine mammary adenocarcinoma TS/A transfected with the murine gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) gene stimulates a strong immune response that impairs tumor growth. Mice bearing tiny tumors have serum IFN-gamma levels constantly exceeding 100 IU/ml. Therefore, we asked which systemic effects can be triggered in mice by such transfectants. BALB/c mice bearing tumors produced by clone 16.6000 cells (which release 6,000 IU/ml of IFN-gamma in culture) were compared to normal mice and to mice with tumors produced by parent cells transfected with the neomycin resistance gene (NEO cells, no IFN-gamma release). Histological studies revealed a marked hyperplasia of small bowel in mice bearing 16.6000 tumors; the villi and crypts of these mice were > 1.5 times longer than those of normal mice and of mice bearing NEO tumors. In vivo administration of bromodeoxyuridine evidenced a 2.5-3 times increase in the proliferative score of the intestinal crypts of mice bearing 16.6000 tumors compared to control mice. No intestinal alterations were observed in nude mice bearing 16.6000 tumors. T lymphocytes thus appear to play a causal role in this phenomenon.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1995 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Cells transduced with cytokine genes are currently used to enhance the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects of these molecules in cancer therapy. The sustained release of cytokine thus obtained can perturb many homeostatk systems of the host. We have previously shown that the murine mammary adenocarcinoma TS/A transfected with the murine γ-in-terferon (IFN-γ) gene stimulates a strong immune response that impairs tumor growth. Mice bearing tiny tumors have serum IFN-γ levels constantly exceeding 100 IU/ml. Therefore, we asked which systemic effects can be triggered in mice by such transfectants. BALB/c mice bearing tumors produced by clone 16.6000 cells (which release 6,000 IU/ml of IFN-γ in culture) were compared to normal mice and to mice with tumors produced by parent cells transfected with the neomycin resistance gene (NEO cells, no IFN-γ release). Histological studies revealed a marked hyperplasia of small bowel tn mice bearing 16.6000 tumors; the villi and crypts of these mice were >1.5 times longer than those of normal mice and of mice bearing NEO tumors. In vivo administration of bromodeoxyuridine evidenced a 2.5–3 times increase in the proliferative score of the intestinal crypts of mice bearing 16.6000 tumors compared to control mice. No intestinal alterations were observed in nude mice bearing 16.6000 tumors. T lymphocytes thus appear to play a causal role in this phenomenon. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 1995 · International Journal of Cancer
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    M Zucca · F Novelli · M Giovarelli · P Caramello · G Garotta · T Musso · D Savoia
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    ABSTRACT: PBMC from individuals both exposed and non-exposed to leishmaniae proliferative and produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) following stimulation with Leishmania antigens. We studied the kinetics of the proliferative response of PBMC from non-exposed individuals and from patients recovering from visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum, using heat-killed stationary-phase promastigotes of L. infantum as stimulating agent. The kinetics of both groups followed a similar temporal pattern, with higher values in the patient's group. Moreover, we observed that in both groups the activation was dose-dependently inhibited following the addition of gamma 123 anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody. These results indicate the need for IFN-gamma in the activation process of PBMC induced by Leishmania antigens and stress the role of IFN-gamma in the immune response to leishmaniasis. The relevance of the elucidation of the immune response mechanism in human leishmaniasis for therapy and vaccination is briefly discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1995 · The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM)
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of vaccinations with cytokine-gene-transduced tumor cells, BALB/c mice were challenged with 1 x 10(5) parental cells of a syngeneic adenocarcinoma cell line (TSA-pc). No protection was observed in mice immunized 30 days earlier with 1 x 10(5) nonreplicating mitomycin-C-treated TSA-pc alone, or with Corynebacterium parvum or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA). Ten to 30% of mice immunized with nonreplicating cells engineered to produce interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and gamma-interferon gene were protected. Fifty % of mice immunized with replicating TSA-pc admixed with C. parvum and 80-100% of mice immunized with replicating tumor cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10, or gamma-interferon gene were protected. No cure was afforded by TSA cells admixed with C. parvum or CFA, nor by TSA cells engineered with IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene injected starting 1 day after TSA-pc challenge. Complete tumor regression, however, was obtained in 10-20% of mice treated with TSA cells transduced with IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, or IL-10 and in 30% of those treated with TSA cells transduced with gamma-interferon gene.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: A retroviral infection was used to introduce the cDNA coding for mouse IL-4 into the parental cells of a spontaneous adenocarcinoma of BALB/c mice (TS/A-pc). Four clones releasing between 5 to 40 U of IL-4 (10(5) cells) in 48 h culture were selected. The secretion of IL-4 does not affect their in vitro growth, whereas their ability to form tumor in vivo inversely correlates with the amount of IL-4 secreted. Although morphologic observation suggested that the rejection of clone D5.40 cells (releasing 40 U of IL-4) depends on eosinophil cytolysis, lymphocyte depletion experiments showed that this required CD8+ lymphocyte guidance. Mice that had rejected D5.40 cells were immune to a subsequent challenge with TS/A-pc. This memory rests on the interaction between noncytotoxic lymphocytes, eosinophils, and IgG1 and IgE anti-TS/A Abs. Comparison of these memory mechanisms with those elicited by IL-2 gene-transduced TS/A cells shows that the kind of cytokine released by the tumor cells determines the type of response. This Th2 memory seems to be more efficient in protecting against a subsequent challenge of TS/A-pc than the Th1-type memory elicited by IL-2 gene-transduced TS/A cells.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · The Journal of Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Cells from a spontaneous, invasive, and metastasizing mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (TS/A-pc) were transfected with a retroviral vector containing the mouse IFN-alpha 1 gene. TS/A clones secreting varying amounts of IFN-alpha 1 were isolated and their tumorigenicity was evaluated after s.c. or i.v. injection into immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Almost all of the IFN-alpha-secreting TS/A clones failed to grow in a high percentage of mice or formed small tumors after a long latency time, whereas TS/A-pc or transfection control cells always grew into large s.c. tumors. Rejection was mainly mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes and partially by polymorphonuclear cells, as demonstrated by selective immunosuppression experiments and histologic and ultrastructural data. After rejection, a significant portion of mice displayed an immune resistance to the subsequent challenge with TS/A-pc. When the metastatic ability of IFN-alpha-secreting clones was compared with that of previously characterized IFN-gamma-secreting TS/A clones, it was found that the expression of IFN-alpha into TS/A tumor cells resulted in a potent inhibition of metastases formation, whereas IFN-gamma expression either did not affect or even enhanced the metastatic behavior of TS/A cells. These results provide strong evidence for the usefulness of IFN-alpha-producing tumor cells for the development of gene therapy strategies and vaccines against metastatic tumors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1994 · The Journal of Immunology
  • F Cavallo · M Giovarelli · A Gulino · A Vacca · G Scala · G Forni

    No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · Immunology series
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of interleukin 2-gene-transfected tumor cells to prevent tumor growth and cure established tumors was evaluated using cells from a spontaneous, invasive, and metastasizing mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. Tumor cells engineered to secrete interleukin 2 initially trigger a local inflammatory reaction that leads to inhibition of established parental adenocarcinomas, as well as an antigenically unrelated fibrosarcoma. The ensuing systemic immunity selectively inhibits subsequent parental cell challenges and cures established parental adenocarcinomas and their lung metastases, although less effectively as the neoplastic mass increases. Multiple injections of interleukin 2-gene-transfected tumor cells may thus be considered a new form of vaccination in the management of minimal residual disease and incipient metastases.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1993 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: The local presence of cytokines can drastically alter tumor host immune relations and activate a nonspecific reaction that in some cases leads to induction of specific responses to otherwise nonimmunogenic tumors. The employment of cytokines in the creation of new antitumor vaccines is thus a tempting prospect. Analogous effects have been obtained with cytokines inoculated locally and cytokines released from tumor cells engineered to produce them. An account is given of some mechanisms whereby this cytokine-induced reaction results in increased tumor immunogenicity. However, the real value of this potential form of vaccine in inducing the regression of incipient or established tumors remains to be established.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1993 · Journal of immunotherapy with emphasis on tumor immunology: official journal of the Society for Biological Therapy

Publication Stats

5k Citations
784.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1977-2014
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • • Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze della Sanità Pubblica e Pediatriche
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2012
    • Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont
      • Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases IRCAD
      Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2008
    • IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
  • 1989-2004
    • Ospedale San Giovanni Battista, ACISMOM
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
      • Department of Experimental Medicine
      Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 1998
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine DIMES
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1997
    • Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione Pascale"
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1990-1996
    • Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara
      • Center for Aging Sciences CESI
      Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 1993
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 1983-1984
    • University of Catania
      • Department of Chemical Sciences
      Catania, Sicily, Italy