Xiuli Yang

University of Maryland, College Park, CGS, Maryland, United States

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Publications (25)115.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi harbors a limited set of transmembrane surface proteins, most of which constitute key targets of humoral immune responses. Here we show that BB0405, a conserved membrane-spanning protein of unknown function, fails to evoke detectable antibody responses despite its extracellular exposure. bb0405 is a member of an operon and ubiquitously expressed throughout the rodent-tick infection cycle. The gene product serves an essential function in vivo, as bb0405-deletion mutants are unable to transmit from ticks and establish infection in mammalian hosts. Despite the lack of BB0405-specific IgM or IgG antibodies during natural infection, mice immunized with a recombinant version of the protein elicited high-titer and remarkably long-lasting antibody responses, conferring significant host protection against tick-borne infection. Taken together, these studies highlight the essential role of an apparently immune-invisible borrelial transmembrane protein in facilitating infection and its usefulness as a target of protective host immunity blocking the transmission of B. burgdorferi.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, does not produce lipopolysaccharide but expresses a large number of lipoproteins on its cell surface. These outer membrane lipoproteins are highly immunogenic and have been used for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. Recent studies have shown that highly conserved cytosolic proteins such as enolase and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) unexpectedly localized on the surface of bacteria including B. burgdorferi, and surface-localized enolase has shown to contribute to the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi. In this study, we studied the immunogenicity, surface localization, and function of B. burgdorferi EF-Tu. We found that EF-Tu is highly immunogenic in mice, and EF-Tu antibodies were readily detected in Lyme disease patients. On the other hand, active immunization studies showed that EF-Tu antibodies did not protect mice from infection when challenged with B. burgdorferi via either needle inoculation or tick bites. Borrelial mouse-tick cycle studies showed that EF-Tu antibodies also did not block B. burgdorferi migration and survival in ticks. Consistent with these findings, we found that EF-Tu primarily localizes in the protoplasmic cylinder of spirochetes and is not on the surface of B. burgdorferi. Taken together, our studies suggest that B. burgdorferi EF-Tu is not surfaced exposed, but it is highly immunogenic and is a potential serodiagnostic marker for Lyme borreliosis.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Emerging Microbes and Infections
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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi surface-located membrane protein 1, also known as Lmp1, has been shown to play critical roles in pathogen evasion of host-acquired immune defenses, thereby facilitating persistent infection. Lmp1 possesses three regions representing potentially discrete domains, Lmp1N, Lmp1M, and Lmp1C. Due to its insignificant homology to known proteins, how Lmp1 or its specific regions contribute to microbial biology and infection remains enigmatic. Here we show that distinct from Lmp1N and Lmp1C, Lmp1M is composed of at least 70% alpha helices and completely lacks recognizable beta sheets. The region binds to host glycosaminoglycan chondroitin-6-sulfate molecules and facilitates mammalian cell attachment, suggesting an adhesin function of Lmp1M. Phenotypic analysis of the Lmp1-deficient mutant engineered to produce Lmp1M on the microbial surface suggests that Lmp1M can independently support B. burgdorferi infectivity in murine hosts. Further exploration of functions of Lmp1 distinct regions will shed new light on the intriguing biology and infectivity of spirochetes and help develop novel interventions to combat Lyme disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cellular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme disease spirochetes demonstrate strain- and species-specific differences in tissue tropism. For example, the three major Lyme disease spirochete species, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, are each most commonly associated with overlapping but distinct spectra of clinical manifestations. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the most common Lyme spirochete in the U.S., is closely associated with arthritis. The attachment of microbial pathogens to cells or to the extracellular matrix of target tissues may promote colonization and disease, and the Lyme disease spirochete encodes several surface proteins, including the decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding adhesin DbpA, which vary among strains and have been postulated to contribute to strain-specific differences in tissue tropism. DbpA variants differ in their ability to bind to its host ligands and to cultured mammalian cells. To directly test whether variation in dbpA influences tissue tropism, we analyzed murine infection by isogenic B. burgdorferi strains that encode different dbpA alleles. Compared to dbpA alleles of B. afzelii strain VS461 or B. burgdorferi strain N40-D10/E9, dbpA of B. garinii strain PBr conferred the greatest decorin- and dermatan sulfate-binding activity, promoted the greatest colonization at the inoculation site and heart, and caused the most severe carditis. The dbpA of strain N40-D10/E9 conferred the weakest decorin- and GAG-binding activity, but the most robust joint colonization and was the only dbpA allele capable of conferring significant joint disease. Thus, dbpA mediates colonization and disease by the Lyme disease spirochete in an allele-dependent manner and may contribute to the etiology of distinct clinical manifestations associated with different Lyme disease strains. This study provides important support for the long-postulated model that strain-specific variations of Borrelia surface proteins influence tissue tropism.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit a wide array of human and animal pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi; however, how tick immune components influence the persistence of invading pathogens remains unknown. As originally demonstrated in Caenorhabditis elegans and later in Anopheles gambiae, we show here that an acellular gut barrier, resulting from the tyrosine cross-linking of the extracellular matrix, also exists in I. scapularis ticks. This dityrosine network (DTN) is dependent upon a dual oxidase (Duox), which is a member of the NADPH oxidase family. The Ixodes genome encodes for a single Duox and at least 16 potential peroxidase proteins, one of which, annotated as ISCW017368, together with Duox has been found to be indispensible for DTN formation. This barrier influences pathogen survival in the gut, as an impaired DTN in Doux knockdown or in specific peroxidase knockdown ticks, results in reduced levels of B. burgdorferi persistence within ticks. Absence of a complete DTN formation in knockdown ticks leads to the activation of specific tick innate immune pathway genes that potentially resulted in the reduction of spirochete levels. Together, these results highlighted the evolution of the DTN in a diverse set of arthropod vectors, including ticks, and its role in protecting invading pathogens like B. burgdorferi. Further understanding of the molecular basis of tick innate immune responses, vector-pathogen interaction, and their contributions in microbial persistence may help the development of new targets for disrupting the pathogen life cycle.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: OspC is produced by all species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and is required for infectivity in mammals. To test the hypothesis that the conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of OspC is required for function in vivo, a mutant Borrelia burgdorferi strain (B31::ospCΔC10) was created in which ospC was replaced with an ospC gene lacking the C10 motif. The ability of the mutant to infect mice was investigated using tick transmission and needle inoculation. Infectivity was assessed by cultivation, qRT-PCR, and measurement of IgG antibody responses. B31::ospCΔC10 retained the ability to infect mice by both needle and tick challenge and was competent to survive in ticks after exposure to the blood meal. To determine if recombinant OspC protein lacking the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues (rOspCΔC10) can bind plasminogen, the only known mammalian derived ligand for OspC, binding analyses were performed. Deletion of the C10 motif resulted in a statistically significant decrease in plasminogen binding. Although deletion of the C10 motif influenced plasminogen binding, it can be concluded that the C10 motif is not required for OspC to carry out its critical in vivo functions in tick to mouse transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Pathogens and Disease
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    Toru Kariu · Alexis Smith · Xiuli Yang · Utpal Pal
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    ABSTRACT: Ixodes scapularis is the specific arthropod vector for a number of globally prevalent infections, including Lyme disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. A feeding-induced and acellular epithelial barrier, known as the peritrophic membrane (PM) is detectable in I. scapularis. However, whether or how the PM influences the persistence of major tick-borne pathogens, such as B. burgdorferi, remains largely unknown. Mass spectrometry-based proteome analyses of isolated PM from fed ticks revealed that the membrane contains a few detectable proteins, including a predominant and immunogenic 60 kDa protein with homology to arthropod chitin deacetylase (CDA), herein termed I. scapularis CDA-like protein or IsCDA. Although IsCDA is primarily expressed in the gut and induced early during tick feeding, its silencing via RNA interference failed to influence either the occurrence of the PM or spirochete persistence, suggesting a redundant role of IsCDA in tick biology and host-pathogen interaction. However, treatment of ticks with antibodies against IsCDA, one of the most predominant protein components of PM, affected B. burgdorferi survival, significantly augmenting pathogen levels within ticks but without influencing the levels of total gut bacteria. These studies suggested a preferential role of tick PM in limiting persistence of B. burgdorferi within the vector. Further understanding of the mechanisms by which vector components contribute to pathogen survival may help the development of new strategies to interfere with the infection.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: La7, an immunogenic outer membrane lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi, produced during infection, has been shown to play a redundant role in mammalian infectivity. Here we show that La7 facilitates pathogen survival in all tested phases of the vector-specific spirochete life cycle, including tick-to-host transmission. Unlike wild type or la7-complemented isolates, isogenic La7-deficient spirochetes are severely impaired in their ability to persist within feeding ticks during acquisition from mice, in quiescent ticks during larval-nymphal inter-molt, and in subsequent pathogen transmission from ticks to naïve hosts. Analysis of gene expression during the major stages of the tick-rodent infection cycle showed increased expression of la7in the vector and a swift downregulation in the mammalian hosts. Co-immunoprecipitation studies coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis further suggested that La7, a highly conserved and abundant inner membrane protein, is involved in protein-protein interaction with a discrete set of borrelial ligands although biological significance of such interactions remains unclear. Further characterization of vector-induced membrane antigens like La7 and its interacting partners will likely aid in our understanding of the molecular details of B. burgdorferi persistence and transmission through a complex enzootic cycle.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Microbes and Infection
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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi gene product BB0323 is required for cell fission and pathogen persistence in vivo. Here, we show that BB0323, which is conserved amongst globally prevalent infectious strains, supports normal spirochete growth and morphology even at early phases of cell division. We demonstrate that native BB0323 undergoes proteolytic processing at the C-terminus, at a site after the first 202 N-terminal amino acids. We further identified a periplasmic BB0323-binding protein in B. burgdorferi, annotated as BB0104, having serine protease activity responsible for the primary cleavage of BB0323 to produce discrete N- and C-terminal polypeptides. These two BB0323 polypeptides interact with each other, and either individually or as a complex, are associated with multiple functions in spirochete biology and infectivity. While N-terminal BB0323 is adequate to support cell fission, the C-terminal LysM domain is dispensable for this process, despite its ability to bind B. burgdorferi peptidoglycan. However, the LysM domain or the precisely processed BB0323 product is essential for mammalian infection. As BB0323 is a membrane protein crucial for B. burgdorferi survival in vivo, exploring its function may suggest novel ways to interrupt infection while enhancing our understanding of the intricate spirochete fission process.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Molecular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Life cycle alternation between arthropod and mammals forces the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, to adapt to different host milieus by utilizing diverse carbohydrates. Glycerol and chitobiose are abundantly present in the Ixodes tick. B. burgdorferi can utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis and chitobiose to produce N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a key component of the bacterial cell wall. A recent study reported that Rrp1, a response regulator that synthesizes cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), governs glycerol utilization in B. burgdorferi. In this report, we found that the rrp1 mutant had growth defects and formed membrane blebs that led to cell lysis when GlcNAc was replaced by chitobiose in the growth medium. The gene chbC encodes a key chitobiose transporter of B. burgdorferi. We found that the expression level of chbC was significantly repressed in the mutant and that constitutive expression of chbC in the mutant successfully rescued the growth defect, indicating a regulatory role of Rrp1 in chitobiose uptake. Immunoblotting and transcriptional studies revealed that Rrp1 is required for the activation of bosR and rpoS and that its impact on chbC is most likely mediated by the BosR-RpoS regulatory pathway. Tick-mouse infection studies showed that although the rrp1 mutant failed to establish infection in mice via tick bite, exogenous supplementation of GlcNAc into unfed ticks partially rescued the infection. The finding reported here provides us with new insight into the regulatory role of Rrp1 in carbohydrate utilization and virulence of B. burgdorferi.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Infection and immunity
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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi bba57 is a conserved gene encoding a potential lipoprotein of unknown function. Here we show that bba57 is up-regulated in vivo and is required for early murine infection and potential spirochete transmission process. Although BBA57 is dispensable for late murine infection, the mutants were unable to induce disease. We show that BBA57, an outer membrane and surface-exposed antigen, is a major trigger of murine Lyme arthritis; even in cases of larger challenge inocula, which allow their persistence in joints at a level similar to wild-type spirochetes, bba57 mutants are unable to induce joint inflammation. We further showed that BBA57 deficiency reduces the expression of selected “neutrophil-recruiting” chemokines and associated receptors, causing significant impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis. New approaches to combat Lyme disease may include strategies to interfere with BBA57, a novel virulence factor and a trigger of murine Lyme arthritis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Similar to Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane (OM) of the pathogenic spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, contains integral OM-spanning proteins (OMPs), as well as membrane-anchored lipoproteins. Although the mechanism of OMP biogenesis is still not well-understood, recent studies have indicated that a heterooligomeric OM protein complex, known as BAM (β-barrel assembly machine) is required for proper assembly of OMPs into the bacterial OM. We previously identified and characterized the essential β-barrel OMP component of this complex in B. burgdorferi, which we determined to be a functional BamA ortholog. In the current study, we report on the identification of two additional protein components of the B. burgdorferi BAM complex, which were identified as putative lipoproteins encoded by ORFs BB0324 and BB0028. Biochemical assays with a BamA-depleted B. burgdorferi strain indicate that BB0324 and BB0028 do not readily interact with the BAM complex without the presence of BamA, suggesting that the individual B. burgdorferi BAM components may associate only when forming a functional BAM complex. Cellular localization assays indicate that BB0324 and BB0028 are OM-associated subsurface lipoproteins, and in silico analyses indicate that BB0324 is a putative BamD ortholog. The combined data suggest that the BAM complex of B. burgdorferi contains unique protein constituents which differ from those found in other proteobacterial BAM complexes. The novel findings now allow for the B. burgdorferi BAM complex to be further studied as a model system to better our understanding of spirochetal OM biogenesis in general.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · BMC Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The surface-exposed antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi represent important targets for induction of protective host immune responses. BBA52 is preferentially expressed by B. burgdorferi in the feeding tick, and a targeted deletion of bba52 interferes with vector-host transitions in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that BBA52 is an outer membrane surface-exposed protein and that disulfide bridges take part in the homo-oligomeric assembly of native protein. BBA52 antibodies lack detectable borreliacidal activities in vitro. However, active immunization studies demonstrated that BBA52 vaccinated mice were significantly less susceptible to subsequent tick-borne challenge infection. Similarly, passive transfer of BBA52 antibodies in ticks completely blocked B. burgdorferi transmission from feeding ticks to naïve mice. Taken together, these studies highlight the role of BBA52 in spirochete dissemination from ticks to mice and demonstrate the potential of BBA52 antibody-mediated strategy to complement the ongoing efforts to develop vaccines for blocking the transmission of B. burgdorferi.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Using two-dimensional blue-native and LC−MS/MS assays, the identity of protein complexes and subunits were revealed in isolated outer membrane vesicles of Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. An assessment of protein complexes in subunit-deficient mutants showed that their assembly process is specific and revealed the existence of additional complex/subunits that are undetectable in parental cells. Further characterization of protein complexes may shed new light on the intriguing biology of spirochetes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Proteome Research
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is common in horses and ponies from the New England and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Here, we evaluated luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) for profiling antibody responses against three different antigenic targets for the diagnosis of equine B. burgdorferi infection. LIPS testing of horse serum samples suspected of Lyme infection revealed that approximately 75% of the horse samples (114/159) were seropositive against the synthetic VOVO antigen, comprising repeated immunodominant C6 epitopes as well as OspC immunodominant epitopes. A comparison of VOVO and immunofluorescence assays (IFA) showed that 51% of the samples were positive in both assays (VOVO+/IFA+), 13% were VOVO−/IFA+, 21% were VOVO+/IFA−, and 15% were negative in both. To further understand humoral responses to B. burgdorferi and reconcile the diagnostic differences between IFA and VOVO, two additional B. burgdorferi LIPS tests were performed with DbpA and DbpB. Robust seropositive antibody responses against DbpA and/or DbpB were detected in 98% (79/81) of the VOVO+/IFA+ and 93% (50/54) of the discrepant samples. Additionally, some of the samples negative by both VOVO and IFA showed immunoreactivity against DbpA and/or DbpB. Overall, 94% of the suspected horse samples were seropositive by LIPS, and heat map analysis revealed that seropositive samples often were immunoreactive with at least two of the three antigens. These results suggest that LIPS tests employing multiple recombinant antigens offer a promising approach for the evaluation of antibody responses in Lyme disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian virus that is attenuated in primates and is a potential vaccine vector for human use. We evaluated NDV as a vector for expressing selected antigens of the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. A series of recombinant NDVs were generated that expressed intracellular or extracellular forms of two B. burgdorferi antigens: namely, the basic membrane protein A (BmpA) and the outer surface protein C (OspC). Expression of the intracellular and extracellular forms of these antigens was confirmed in cultured chicken cells. C3H or Balb/C mice that were immunized intranasally with the NDV vectors mounted vigorous serum antibody responses against the NDV vector, but failed to mount a robust response against either the intracellular or extracellular forms of BmpA or OspC. By contrast, a single immunization of hamsters with the NDV vectors via the intranasal, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal route resulted in rapid and rigorous antibody responses against the intracellular or extracellular forms of BmpA and OspC. When groups of hamsters were separately inoculated with various NDV vectors and challenged with B. burgdorferi (10(8)cells/animal), immunization with vector expressing either intracellular or extracellular BmpA was associated with a significant reduction of the pathogen load in the joints. Taken together, our studies highlighted the importance of NDV as vaccine vector that can be used for simple yet effective immunization of hosts against bacterial infections including Lyme disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne infection caused by the bacterial pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. Current diagnostic tests mostly use borrelial lysates or select antigens to detect serum antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These immunoassays are not entirely effective, especially for detection of early infection. We have recently characterized an in vivo-induced antigen, BBK07, as a serodiagnostic marker for LD. We now report that in a line blot assay, recombinant BBK07 protein-based detection is 90% sensitive and nearly 100% specific against B. burgdorferi infection in humans. Using an overlapping peptide library of 23 peptides encompassing full-length BBK07, we identified the immunodominant epitopes of BBK07 during human infection. We show that a select combination of amino-terminal peptides significantly enhanced BBK07-based diagnostic accuracy compared to that with the full-length protein. Although in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies BBK07 peptides had overall lower sensitivity than established serodiagnostic peptides, such as the VlsE peptide C6 and OspC peptide pepC10, for the detection of early human LD, a subset of serum samples that failed to recognize either VlsE or OspC peptides were preferentially reactive to BBK07 peptides. These results highlight the fact that BBK07 peptides could be useful to complement the efficacy of VlsE and OspC peptide-based serodiagnostic assays. Finally, using a panel of canine sera, we show that BBK07 peptide is also effective for LD diagnosis in infected dogs. Together, our data show that peptides from the B. burgdorferi surface protein BBK07 are highly specific and sensitive serodiagnostic markers, and we suggest their future use in LD diagnostic assays.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogen of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces a putative surface protein termed "surface-located membrane protein 1" (Lmp1). Lmp1 has been shown previously to assist the microbe in evasion of host-acquired immune defenses and in the establishment of persistent infection of mammals. Here, we show that Lmp1 is an integral membrane protein with surface-exposed N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions. During murine infection, antibodies recognizing these three protein regions were produced. Separate immunization of mice with each of the discrete regions exerted differential effects on spirochete survival during infection. Notably, antibodies against the C-terminal region primarily interfered with B. burgdorferi persistence in the joints, while antibodies specific to the N-terminal region predominantly affected pathogen levels in the heart, including the development of carditis. Genetic reconstitution of lmp1 deletion mutants with the lmp1 N-terminal region significantly enhanced its ability to resist the bactericidal effects of immune sera and also was observed to increase pathogen survival in vivo. Taken together, the combined data suggest that the N-terminal region of Lmp1 plays a distinct role in spirochete survival and other parts of the protein are related to specific functions corresponding to pathogen persistence and tropism during infection that is displayed in an organ-specific manner. The findings reported here underscore the fact that surface-exposed regions of Lmp1 could potentially serve as vaccine targets or antigenic regions that could alter the course of natural Lyme disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Infection and immunity
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    Manish Kumar · Xiuli Yang · Adam S Coleman · Utpal Pal
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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen of Lyme borreliosis, persists in nature through a tick-rodent transmission cycle. A selective assessment of the microbial transcriptome, limited to gene-encoding putative membrane proteins, reveals that bba52 transcription in vivo is strictly confined to the vector-specific portion of the microbial life cycle, with the highest levels of expression noted in feeding ticks and with swift down-regulation noted in mice. bba52 deletion did not affect murine disease as assessed by the genesis of arthritis and carditis or long–term persistence of pathogens in mice or ticks. However, bba52 deficiency did impair microbial transitions between hosts and vector, defects that could be fully rescued when bba52 expression was genetically restored to the original genomic locus. These studies establish that BBA52 facilitates vector-host transitions by the pathogen and therefore is a potential antigenic target for interference with transmission of B. burgdorferi from ticks to mammalian hosts.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    Xinyue Zhang · Xiuli Yang · Manish Kumar · Utpal Pal
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    ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi bb0323 encodes an immunogenic protein in mammalian hosts, including humans. An analysis of bb0323 expression in vivo showed variable transcription throughout the spirochete infection cycle, with elevated expression during tick-mouse transmission. Deletion of bb0323 in infectious B. burgdorferi did not affect microbial survival in vitro, despite considerable alterations in growth kinetics and cell morphology. The bb0323 mutants were unable to infect either mice or ticks and were quickly eliminated from immunocompetent and immunodeficient hosts and the vector within the first few days after inoculation. Chromosomal complementation of the mutant with native bb0323 and phenotypic analysis in vivo indicated the substantial restoration of spirochete virulence and persistence throughout the mouse-tick infection cycle. The BB0323 protein may serve an indispensable physiological function that is more pronounced during microbial persistence and transitions between the host and the vector in vivo. Strategies to interfere with BB0323 function may interrupt the infectious cycle of spirochetes
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Publication Stats

322 Citations
115.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2016
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • • Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine
      CGS, Maryland, United States
  • 2010-2013
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States