[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are highly conserved transcription factors that play a crucial role in oxygen homeostasis. Intratumoral hypoxia and genetic alterations lead to HIF activity, which is a hallmark of solid cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcome. HIF activity is regulated by an evolutionary conserved mechanism involving oxygen-dependent HIFalpha protein degradation. To identify novel components of the HIF pathway, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Caenorhabditis elegans, to suppress HIF-dependent phenotypes, like egg-laying defects and hypoxia survival. In addition to hif-1 (HIFalpha) and aha-1 (HIFbeta), we identified hlh-8, gska-3 and spe-8. The hlh-8 gene is homologous to the human oncogene TWIST1. We show that TWIST1 expression in human cancer cells is enhanced by hypoxia in a HIF-2alpha-dependent manner. Furthermore, intronic hypoxia response elements of TWIST1 are regulated by HIF-2alpha, but not HIF-1alpha. These results identify TWIST1 as a direct target gene of HIF-2alpha, which may provide insight into the acquired metastatic capacity of hypoxic tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the BRCA1 and TP53 genes are early genetic events leading to (hereditary) ovarian carcinoma. The human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) is considered the tissue of origin of at least a subset of these tumours. Therefore, OSE cell cultures derived from women harbouring BRCA1 germline mutations can be a potential model to study hereditary ovarian carcinogenesis. In fact, previous in vitro studies indicate phenotypical differences between OSE from women with and without such germline mutations. Therefore, we have assessed whether differences in the expression of BRCA1 and p53 proteins in cultured OSE cells could contribute to these observations.
Thirty-two OSE cultures derived from women harbouring a BRCA1 mutation (Predisposed OSE [POSE]) and ten cultures from women without a cancer predisposition (Non predisposed OSE [NPOSE]) were grown under standard conditions. Immunocytochemistry was performed to assess the expression of the BRCA1- and p53 proteins. Ki67 immunocytochemical expression was assessed to determine possible differences in cell cycle status between the two groups. In addition, to study whether wild type p53 was expressed, induction of p53 by cis-platinum was assessed by Western blot.
On the basis of Ki67 expression, three different groups were analyzed. In the group with all cultures that expressed Ki67 no significant difference was observed in BRCA1 (P = 0.19) and p53 expression (P = 0.09). In the group with moderate to high Ki67 expression no difference in BRCA1 expression (P = 0.50) was observed. However, p53 expression was significantly lower in the case group (P = 0.01). The same observation for p53 was made in the group with only high Ki67 expression (P = 0.02). Furthermore, the expression of both BRCA1 and p53 positively correlates with Ki67 expression. In POSE and NPOSE, p53 was induced by cis-platinum to a similar extent.
Our study indicates differences in the expression of p53, but not in the expression of BRCA1 between POSE and NPOSE. In addition, our findings do suggest the absence of losses of the wild type BRCA1 and p53 genes in the studied OSE cultures. This indicates that losses in these genes cannot account for observed differences in phenotypical traits between POSE and NPOSE, but that differences in levels of p53 might contribute.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 and the key factor in cellular response to low oxygen tension. Expression of HIF-1alpha protein is associated with poor patient survival and therapy resistance in many types of solid tumors. Insight into HIF-1alpha regulation in solid tumors is important for therapeutic strategies. In this study, we determined the pathophysiological relevance of HIF-1alpha regulation by the oncogenic phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We modeled the physiology of hypoxic tumor regions by culturing carcinoma cells under low oxygen tension in the absence of serum. We observed that hypoxic induction of HIF-1alpha protein was decreased by serum deprivation. Overexpression of dominant-active Akt1 restored HIF-1alpha expression, whereas inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity reduced hypoxic HIF-1alpha protein levels to a similar extent as serum deprivation. Immunohistochemical analysis of 95 human breast cancers revealed that lack of Akt1 phosphorylation correlates with low HIF-1alpha levels. To our knowledge, this is the first reported comparison between HIF-1alpha expression and Akt phosphorylation in human carcinomas. We conclude that Akt activity is physiologically relevant for HIF-1alpha expression in breast cancer. This implies that HIF-1alpha function might be therapeutically targeted by inhibition of the PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia triggers the transcription of genes responsible for cell survival via the key player transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Overexpression of this protein has been implicated in cardiovascular disorders, carcinogenesis and cancer progression. For functional and diagnostic studies on the HIF-1alpha protein, we have identified single-domain antibody fragments directed against this protein by using a llama-derived nonimmune phage display library. This library displays the variable domains of the heavy-chain antibody subclass, found in these animals. Phage display selection with six recombinant HIF-1alpha proteins yielded five different antibody fragments. By epitope-mapping, we show that all five antibody fragments bind within the functionally important oxygen-dependent degradation domain of the HIF-1alpha protein. Two of these antibody fragments were engineered into bivalent antibodies that were able to detect human HIF-1alpha by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, and mouse HIF-1alpha by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. These are the first single-domain antibody fragments that may be used in exploration of HIF-1alpha as a possible therapeutic target through molecular applications.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in cellular responses to hypoxia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate which genes are induced by hypoxia, and whether this induction is mediated by HIF-1, by expression microarray analysis of wt and HIF-1alpha null mouse fibroblasts. Forty-five genes were up-regulated by hypoxia and 40 (89%) of these were regulated by HIF-1. Of the 114 genes down-regulated by hypoxia, 19 (17%) were HIF-1-dependent. All glycolytic enzymes were strongly up-regulated by hypoxia in a HIF-1-dependent manner. Genes already known to be related to hypoxia, such as glucose transporter 1, BNIP3, and hypoxia-induced gene 1, were induced. In addition, multiple new HIF-1-regulated genes were identified, including genes involved in metabolism (adenylate kinase 4, galactokinase), apoptosis (galectin-3 and gelsolin), and invasion (RhoA). Genes down-regulated by hypoxia were involved in cytoskeleton maintenance (Rho kinase), mRNA processing (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 and splicing factor), and DNA repair (REV3). Furthermore, seven cDNAs from genes with unknown function or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were up-regulated and 27 such cDNAs were down-regulated. In conclusion, hypoxia causes down- rather than up-regulation of gene expression and HIF-1 seems to play a major role in the regulation of hypoxia-induced genes.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · The Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intratumorous hypoxia triggers a broad cellular response mediated by the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1alpha concentrations increase during breast carcinogenesis, and are associated with poor prognosis. An earlier study noted two HIF-1alpha overexpression patterns: diffuse scattered throughout the tissue and confined to perinecrotic cells.
To investigate the prognostic impact of these different HIF-1alpha overexpression patterns in relation to its downstream effectors carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1).
HIF-1alpha, CA IX, and GLUT-1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry, including double staining for CA IX and HIF-1alpha. Clinical data included disease free survival, lymph node status, and tumour size.
HIF-1alpha overexpression (44% of cases) had a perinecrotic (13.5%) or diffuse staining pattern (30.5%). CA IX expression was detectable in 12.5% of breast cancers, whereas GLUT-1 expression was seen in 29%, with both showing perinecrotic membrane staining. Perinecrotic HIF-1alpha overexpression was highly associated with CA IX and GLUT-1 overexpression, and double staining for HIF-1alpha and CA IX showed strong expression in the same cells. Diffusely overexpressed HIF-1alpha was not associated with CA IX or GLUT-1 expression. Patients with diffuse HIF-1alpha staining had a significantly better prognosis than patients with perinecrotically overexpressed HIF-1alpha.
Different regulation pathways of HIF-1alpha overexpression exist in breast cancer: (1) hypoxia induced, perinecrotic HIF-1alpha overexpression with strong expression of hypoxia associated genes (CA IX and GLUT-1), which is associated with a poor prognosis; and (2) diffuse HIF-1alpha overexpression lacking major hypoxia associated downstream effects, resulting in a more favourable prognosis.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia has clinically been associated with resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypoxia induces resistance to doxorubicin and mitoxantrone, two common drugs in cancer treatment, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and SW1573 non-small lung cancer cells. In addition, the role of drug transporters P-gp, BCRP and MRP1 was analysed. Hypoxia induced resistance in MCF-7 cells to mitoxantrone shifted the IC(50) value from 0.09 microM (+/-0.01) to 0.54 microM (+/-0.06) under hypoxia, whereas survival of MCF-7 and SW1573 cells in the presence of doxorubicin was not altered. Accumulation of mitoxantrone and daunorubicin, a doxorubicin fluorescent homologue, appeared to be 5.3 and 3.2 times lower in MCF-7 cells, respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed no increased functionality of the drug transporters P-gp, BCRP and MRP1 under hypoxia. In addition, protein levels of these drug transporters were not changed. Medium of the MCF-7 cells became more acidic under hypoxia thereby causing a decreased uptake of mitoxantrone. Hypoxia induces mitoxantrone resistance in MCF-7 cells not mediated by the three major MDR transporters. Hypoxia-induced acidification may cause this resistance by decreased cellular uptake together with a lowered cytotoxicity due to pH-dependent topoisomerase type II activity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Cellular oncology: the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that functional intratumorous lymph vessels may be absent from some human cancers. This could result from either the failure of tumours to induce lymphangiogenesis, or the collapse of lymph vessels, caused by high interstitial tumour pressure.
To differentiate between these two hypotheses, paraffin wax embedded clinical specimens from normal breast (n = 13), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 11), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 21), and invasive breast cancer (n = 40) were compared for lymphatic and blood vessel density by immunohistochemistry with antibodies to the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and CD31, respectively.
Lymph vessel density was lower than blood vessel density in normal breast tissue. Within breast lobuli, lymph vessels were absent. In premalignant lesions blood microvessel density increased, whereas no increase in lymph vessels could be seen intralesionally. In invasive cancers, lymph vessels were absent in all but a few cases, where probably some pre-existing lymph vessels remained, although blood microvessel density was once again increased.
Unlike angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis is absent during breast carcinogenesis. This, and not rising interstitial pressure caused by an increase in the size of lesions, explains the absence of intratumorous lymph vessels in invasive breast cancer.
Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past decades, much has been learnt about the genes that contribute to oncogenic transformation of primary cells in vitro. However, much less is known about the genes that contribute to the later stages of tumor progression, in which cells of ever increasing malignancy arise through clonal selection in vivo. To search for genes that confer a tumor progression phenotype in vivo, we have used a functional genetic approach. We used adenovirus-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts, which are tumorigenic in immunodeficient nude mice, but not in immunocompetent mice, due to strong cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immune rejection. We infected these cells in vitro with several high-complexity retroviral cDNA expression libraries and selected rare variants that formed tumors in immunocompetent mice. Using this approach, we identify here the TRK-T3 oncogene as a tumor progression gene. TRK-T3 does not inhibit T-cell reactivity towards the tumor cells. Instead, we find that cells expressing TRK-T3 enhances in vivo growth rate, most likely by stimulating anchorage-independent proliferation in growth factor-limiting conditions. Our data indicate that cDNA expression libraries can be used to identify tumor progression genes in vivo that cannot be readily identified using in vitro cell culture systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Previous studies showed that concentrations of its subunit HIF-1alpha, as a surrogate for HIF-1 activity, are increased during breast carcinogenesis and can independently predict prognosis in breast cancer. During carcinogenesis, the cell cycle is progressively deregulated, and proliferation rate is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer. In this study we undertook a detailed evaluation of the relationships between HIF-1alpha and cell cycle-associated proteins.
In a representative estrogen receptor (ER) group of 150 breast cancers, the expression of HIF-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, the ER, HER-2/neu, Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, p21, p53, and Bcl-2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry.
High concentrations (5% or more) of HIF-1alpha were associated with increased proliferation as shown by positive correlations with Ki-67 (P < 0.001) and the late S-G2-phase protein cyclin A (P < 0.001), but not with the G1-phase protein cyclin D1. High HIF-1alpha concentrations were also strongly associated with p53 positivity (P < 0.001) and loss of Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.013). No association was found between p21 and HIF-1alpha (P = 0.105) in the whole group of patients. However, the subgroup of ER-positive cancers was characterized by a strong positive association between HIF-1alpha and p21 (P = 0.023), and HIF-1alpha lacked any relation with proliferation.
HIF-1alpha overexpression is associated with increased proliferation, which might explain the adverse prognostic impact of increased concentrations of HIF-1alpha in invasive breast cancer. In ER-positive tumors, HIF-1alpha is associated with p21 but not against proliferation. This shows the importance of further functional analysis to unravel the role of HIF-1 in late cell cycle progression, and the link between HIF-1, p21, and ER.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Breast cancer research: BCR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting evidence exists on whether in vivo morphological characteristics can distinguish Ovarian Surface Epithelium (OSE) of ovaries obtained from women with and without a predisposition to develop female adnexal (ovarian and fallopian tube) carcinoma. This study aims to detect differences in growth potential and morphology that are maintained or specifically expressed in vitro.
Ovarian surfaces were scraped to retrieve OSE cells from 56 women at hereditary high risk for female adnexal carcinoma, of whom 33 are BRCA1 and four are BRCA2 mutation carriers (Predisposed OSE, POSE) and from 26 women without such risk (Non Predisposed OSE, NPOSE). Number of passages and total cell yield until last passage, as well as morphology was compared between both groups. To confirm morphology, the expression of epithelial, mesothelial, and fibroblast markers was assessed.
Both POSE and NPOSE cultures displayed similar growth potential and morphology. The expression of epithelial markers cyto-keratins 7 and 8 was similar between both groups. Only in cultures in which cells did not uniformly exhibit these markers, the percentage of cells expressing these markers was significantly lower at last passage when compared to the initial culture. In these latter cultures, cells that were morphologically indistinguishable from fibroblasts were observed. Mesothelial marker calretinin was expressed in 75% of cells of both POSE and NPOSE cultures and correlates with cyto-keratins 7 and 8 expression. CA 125 expression was equally low in POSE and NPOSE cultures (4.3%). Fibroblast markers FSM and vimentin were expressed in 100% and collagen IV was expressed in 16% of cells in all cultures.
OSE cells derived from women with a hereditary predisposition to develop female adnexal cancer possess similar in vitro characteristics as OSE from women without this predisposition. On basis of our results, it seems advisable to study only 100% cyto-keratins 7 and 8 positive OSE cultures, since contamination of fibroblasts in some primary OSE cultures cannot be ruled out.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-cell lymphoma gene (BCL-6) upregulation contributes to immortalization of mouse embryo fibroblast and primary B cells via upregulation of cyclin D1. As cyclin D1 overexpression is a common phenomenon in different cancers, BCL-6 protein overexpression may not be restricted to lymphomas. In this study, expression of BCL-6 was investigated by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded specimens from 150 breast cancer patients and 10 specimens of normal breast tissue. The results showed BCL-6 overexpression (10% of cells) in 24/150 (16%) breast cancer patients, whereas in normal breast low expression (<1%) of BCL-6 was observed. In linear regression analysis BCL-6 expression was associated with cyclin D1 (r=0.197, P=0.016). Further, in 2 analyses, BCL-6-positivity was associated with overexpression of p53 (P=0.016), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (P<0.001). Involvement of BCL-6 in breast carcinogenesis is further underscored by comparative genomic hybridization analysis that showed gains at the BCL-6 locus (3q27) in 14/86 (16%) breast cancer tissues. The cases with amplification in BCL-6 showed an increased (25%) incidence of BCL-6 protein overexpression. Thus, this study is the first to show that BCL-6 oncogene activation plays a role in cancers other than lymphomas.Keywords: BCL-6, HIF-1, cyclin D1, oncogenes, breast cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Senescence limits the proliferative capacity of primary cells in culture. We describe here a genetic screen to identify genes that allow bypass of this checkpoint. Using retroviral cDNA expression libraries, we identify BCL6 as a potent inhibitor of senescence. BCL6 is frequently activated in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but its mechanism of action has remained unclear. BCL6 efficiently immortalizes primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cooperates with RAS in oncogenic transformation. BCL6 overrides the senescence response downstream of p53 through a process that requires induction of cyclin D1 expression, as cyclin D1 knockout fibroblasts are specifically resistant to BCL6 immortalization. We show that BCL6 expression also dramatically extends the replicative lifespan of primary human B cells in culture and induces cyclin D1 expression, indicating that BCL6 has a similar activity in lymphoid cells. Our results suggest that BCL6 contributes to oncogenesis by rendering cells unresponsive to antiproliferative signals from the p19(ARF)-p53 pathway.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2002 · Genes & Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary fibroblasts respond to activated H-RAS(V12) by undergoing premature arrest, which resembles replicative senescence. This irreversible 'fail-safe mechanism' requires p19(ARF), p53 and the Retinoblastoma (Rb) family: upon their disruption, RAS(V12)-expressing cells fail to undergo senescence and continue to proliferate. Similarly, co-expression of oncogenes such as c-MYC or E1A rescues RAS(V12)-induced senescence. To identify novel genes that allow escape from RAS(V12)-induced senescence, we designed an unbiased, retroviral complementary DNA library screen. We report on the identification of DRIL1, the human orthologue of the mouse Bright and Drosophila dead ringer transcriptional regulators. DRIL1 renders primary murine fibroblasts unresponsive to RAS(V12)-induced anti-proliferative signalling by p19(ARF)/p53/p21(CIP1), as well as by p16(INK4a). In this way, DRIL1 not only rescues RAS(V12)-induced senescence but also causes these fibroblasts to become highly oncogenic. Furthermore, DRIL1 immortalizes mouse fibroblasts, in the presence of high levels of p16(INK4a). Immortalization by DRIL1, whose product binds the pRB-controlled transcription factor E2F1 (ref. 8), is correlated with induction of E2F1 activity. Correspondingly, DRIL1 induces the E2F1 target Cyclin E1, overexpression of which is sufficient to trigger escape from senescence. Thus, DRIL1 disrupts cellular protection against RAS(V12)-induced proliferation downstream of the p19(ARF)/p53 pathway.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2002 · Nature Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple adenovirus (Ad) early proteins have been shown to inhibit transcription activation by p53 and thereby to alter its normal biological functioning. Since these Ad proteins affect the activity of p53 via different mechanisms, we examined whether this inhibition is target gene specific. In addition, we analyzed whether the same Ad early proteins have a comparable effect on transcription activation by the recently identified p53 homologue p73. Our results show that the large E1B proteins very efficiently inhibited the activity of p53 on the Bax, p21
, cyclin G, and MDM2 reporter constructs but had no effect on the activation of the same reporter constructs by p73, with the exception of some inhibition of the Bax promoter by Ad12 E1B. The repressive effect of the E1A proteins on p53 activity is less than that seen with the large E1B proteins, but the E1A proteins inhibit the activity of both p53 and p73. We could not detect significant inhibition of p53 functions by E4orf6, but a clear repression of the transcription activation by p73 by this Ad early protein was observed. In addition, we found that stable expression of the Ad5 E1A and that of the E1B protein both caused increased p73 protein expression. The large E1B and the E4orf6 proteins together do not target the p73 protein for rapid degradation after adenoviral infection, as has previously been found for the p53 protein, probably because the large E1B protein does not interact with p73. Our results suggest that the p53 and p73 proteins are both inactivated after Ad infection and transformation but via distinct mechanisms.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1999 · Molecular and Cellular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently reported the identification of a mouse cDNA encoding a new p53-associating protein that we called Mdmx because of its structural similarity to Mdm2, a well-known p53-binding protein. Here we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding the human homolog of Mdmx. The ORF of the cDNA encodes a protein of 490 amino acids, 90% similar to mouse Mdmx. The homology between Mdmx and Mdm2 is most prominent in the p53-binding domain and the putative metal-binding domains. The Mdmx protein, which, based on SDS-PAGE, has a MW of 80 kDa, can bind p53 in vitro. The human MDMX gene is transcribed in all tissues tested, with high levels in thymus. By fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis we mapped the mouse mdmx gene to chromosome 1 (region F-G) and the human MDMX gene to chromosome 1q32.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) encodes a transcription factor of the zinc-finger family. As a result of alternative RNA splicing, the gene can be expressed as four polypeptides that differ in the presence or absence of a stretch of 17 amino acids just NH2 terminal of the four zinc fingers and a stretch of three amino acids (+/-KTS) between zinc fingers 3 and 4. In this study, cDNA constructs encoding the four human Wilms' tumor 1 splice variants were transiently transfected into the p53-negative Hep3B and the p53-positive HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. Morphological assessment of the WT1-expressing cells showed that the WT1(-KTS) splice variants induced apoptosis in both cell lines, whereas the WT1(+KTS) isoforms did not. The induction of apoptosis by the WT1(-KTS) isoforms appears to be p53 independent in the hepatoma cell lines. Furthermore, it was found that the WT1(-KTS)-induced apoptosis could not be suppressed by coexpression of either the Mr 21,000 E1B, the Bcl-2, or the BAG-1 protein. Coexpression of either the epidermal growth factor receptor or the insulin receptor, however, partially rescued the cells from apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: E2F transcription factors are key regulators of transcription during the cell cycle. E2F activity is regulated at the level of transcription and DNA binding and by complex formation with the retinoblastoma pocket protein family. We show here that free E2F-1 and E2F-4 transcription factors are unstable and that their degradation is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Both E2F-1 and E2F-4 are rendered unstable by an epitope in the carboxyl terminus of the proteins, in close proximity to their pocket protein interaction surface. We show that binding of E2F-1 to pRb or E2F-4 to p107 or p130 protects E2Fs from degradation, causing the complexes to be stable. The increased stability of E2F-4 pocket protein complexes may contribute to the maintenance of active transcriptional repression in quiescent cells. Surprisingly, adenovirus transforming proteins, which release pocket protein-E2F complexes, also inhibit breakdown of free E2F. These data reveal an additional level of regulation of E2F transcription factors by targeted proteolysis, which is inhibited by pocket protein binding and adenovirus early region 1 transforming proteins.
Full-text · Article · Jan 1997 · Genes & Development