[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosis lesions of the breast, including sclerosing adenosis and adenosis tumors, are a group of benign proliferative disorders that may mimic the features of malignancy on imaging. In this study, we aim to describe the features of breast adenosis lesions with suspicious or borderline findings on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).
In our database, we identified 49 pathologically proven breast adenosis lesions for which the final assessment of the breast MRI report was classified as either category 4 (n=45) or category 5 (n=4), according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR). The lesions had a final diagnosis of either pure adenosis (n=33, 67.3%) or mixed adenosis associated with other benign pathologies (n=16, 32.7%).
Of the 49 adenosis lesions detected on DCE-MRI, 32 (65.3%) appeared as enhancing masses, 16 (32.7%) as nonmass enhancements, and one (2.1%) as a tiny enhancing focus. Analysis of the enhancing masses based on the ACR BI-RADS lexicon revealed that among the mass descriptors, the most common features were irregular shape in 12 (37.5%), noncircumscribed margin in 20 (62.5%), heterogeneous internal pattern in 16 (50.0%), rapid initial enhancement in 32 (100.0%), and wash-out delayed en-hancement pattern in 21 (65.6%). Of the 16 nonmass enhancing lesions, the most common descriptors included focal distribution in seven (43.8%), segmental distribution in six (37.5%), clumped internal pattern in nine (56.3%), rapid initial enhancement in 16 (100.0%), and wash-out delayed enhancement pattern in eight (50.0%).
Adenosis lesions of the breast may appear suspicious on breast MRI. Awareness of these suspi-cious-appearing features would be helpful in obviating unnecessary breast biopsies.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Breast Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and time-intensity curve (TIC) type analysis derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses.
47 patients with 56 adnexal masses (27 malignant and 29 benign) underwent DWI and DCE-MRI examinations, prior to surgery. DWI signal intensity, mean ADC value, and TIC type were determined for all the masses.
High signal intensity on DWI and type 3 TIC were helpful in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses (p<0.001). The mean ADC value was significantly lower in malignant adnexal masses (p<0.001). An ADC value<1.20?10-3 mm2/s may be the optimal cutoff for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. The negative predictive value for low signal intensity on DWI, and type 1 TIC were 100%. The pairwise comparison among the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of TIC was significantly larger than the AUCs of DWI and ADC (p<0.001 for comparison of TIC and DWI, p<0.02 for comparison of TIC and ADC value).
DWI, ADC value and TIC type derived from DCE-MRI are all sensitive and relatively specific methods for differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. By comparing these functional MR techniques, TIC was found to be more accurate than DWI and ADC.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate is the most common modality used to diagnose prostate cancer.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal number of cores at prostate biopsy, which have the most diagnostic value with least adverse effects.
Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided biopsy was performed in 180 patients suspicious for prostate cancer due to either abnormal rectal examination or elevated PSA. The patients were divided randomly into three groups of six-core, twelve-core and eighteen-core biopsies. The detection rate of prostate cancer in each group with the rate of post biopsy urinary infection and prostatitis were compared.
Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 8 (13.3%), 21 (35%) and 24 (40%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Urinary tract infection and prostatitis occurred in 17 (28.3%), 23 (38.3%) and 35 (58.3%) patients in six, twelve and eighteen core biopsy groups, respectively. Considering the detection rate of prostate cancer, there was a significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.006) and 12-core biopsies detected more cases of prostate cancer, but there was no significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.572). Considering the infection rate, there was no significant difference between 6 and 12 core biopsy groups (P = 0.254), but there was a significant difference between 12 and 18 core biopsy groups (P = 0.028) and infectious complications occurred more frequently in 18-core biopsy group.
The best balance between detection rate of prostate cancer and infectious complications of biopsies achieved in twelve-core biopsy protocol. Twelve-core biopsy enhances the rate of prostate cancer detection with minimum adverse effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In prostate cancer, detection of seminal vesicle involvement is important because it influences the treatment planning and prognosis of the patients.
The objective of this study was to determine the value of prostate MRI with endorectal coil in the detection of seminal vesicle involvement in patients with prostate cancer.
A total number of 238 biopsy-proven prostate cancer patients were examined by 1.5 Tesla MRI with a combination of pelvic and endorectal coils to detect seminal vesicle involvement. After radical prostatectomy, the MRI results were compared with pathology results.
Seminal vesicle involvement was detected in 67 (28.1%) patients. Pathology confirmed the involvement of seminal vesicles by prostate cancer in 63 patients. In two patients, seminal vesicle involvement was diagnosed by pathology but not detected by MRI. The sensitivity was 0.97 [95% confidence interval = 0.89-0.99], the specificity was 0.98 [95% confidence interval = 0.94-0.99], the positive predictive value was 0.94 [95% confidence interval = 0.85-0.98], and the negative predictive value was 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99].
MRI with endorectal coil is a valuable imaging technique with suitable accuracy in detecting seminal vesicle involvement in prostate cancer.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Iranian Journal of Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management of intracranial aneurysms has made debates about the best treatment modality in recent years. The aim of this study was to compare the interventional outcomes between two groups of patients, one treated with endovascular coiling and the other treated with surgical clipping.
This prospective study included 48 patients with intracranial aneurysms who underwent endovascular coiling (27 patients) or surgical clipping (21 patients) from July 2011 to August 2013. A neurologist examined patients in admission and followed them by phone call 1-year after intervention.
Mean modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score at the time of admission in endovascular group was 2.86 ± 0.974 whereas it was 3.81 ± 1.078 in surgical clipping group (P = 0.0040). Focal neurologic signs were higher in clipping during procedures (P = 0.0310). Of 37 patients who followed up for a year, 19 were in endovascular group and 18 in surgical clipping group. At 1 year follow-up, MRS improvement was statistically significant in coiling group (P = 0.0090), but not in clipping group (P = 0.8750). Mean difference of MRS score at the time of admission and at one year later, was 0.947 ± 1.224 in endovascular group and 0.111 ± 2.083 in surgical group (P = 0.3000).
There was no statistically significant difference at 1 year outcome between two groups. We recommend further interventional studies with larger sample sizes for better evaluation of the modalities.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Iranian Journal of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemangioma, a congenital vascular malformation, is the most common benign liver lesion that is usually remain stable subsequently requiring not treatment; however, complications such as abdominal pain or fullness, coagulation disturbances, and inflammatory syndrome may occur, demanding a specific treatment of hemangioma.
To assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of trans-catheter arterial embolization (TAE) for the treatment of Liver hemangioma.
TAE was performed on 20 patients with liver hemangioma. The embolic agent used was polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles (300-400 micron, Jonson and Johnson Cordis, USA). All patients were followed up for 6 months. Imaging was carried out and patients were also evaluated symptomatically through telephone interview by a physician.
Twenty patients aged from 21 to 63 years (mean: 46.8, SD: 10.26) were included in this study. Post embolization syndrome, including abdominal pain, fever, and leukocytosis occurred in one patient 1 week after TAE and lasted for 3 days. No serious adverse event and TAE-related death was observed. None of the patient underwent another intervention including surgery. During follow up interval, decreased episode of abdominal pain was documented in all patients who had pain. Tumor enlargement was also stopped during the follow up. The average diameter of tumors was 97.00 mm (range: 25-200 SD: 47.85) and 88.95 mm (range: 23-195 SD: 43.27) before and after embolization, respectively. Comparison of images before and after TAE revealed statistically significant decrease in the size of lesion (P value: 0.004, t: 3.31).
Our findings indicate that TAE is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of liver hemangioma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to support therapeutic effects of TAE.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Hepatitis Monthly
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery calcification which is determined quantitatively by coronary calcium scoring has been known as a sign of coronary stenosis and thus future cardiac events; hence it has been noticed on spotlight of researchers in recent years. Developing different method for early and optimal detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is really essential as CAD are the first cause of death in population.
To evaluate predictive value of vessel specific coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease.
In this diagnostic test study we evaluated patients with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and CAC score which had been referred to two referral radiology center in Tehran, Iran and finally we selected 2525 patients in a single and sequential pattern to create a diagnostic study. The whole-heart CAC scores and vessel specific CAC scores were calculated individually for the 4 major epicardial coronary arteries in 2 distinct group; group A ( patients with previous history of CABG) and group B (patients without history of CABG). For evaluation of obstruction tree cut off points were described: 0 > ; at least 1 segment with any kind of stenosis, ≥ 50; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 50, ≥ 70; at least 1 segment with stenosis ≥ 70.
Mean of coronary calcium scores in terms of each coronary artery vessel increase by increasing coronary stenosis grade in group B; LAD, RCA, LCX respectively have mean CAC score 6.06, 6.21 and 5.04 in normal patients and 221.6, 226.7 and 106.6 in patients with complete stenosis. As expected these findings don't work for group A. Also By increasing calcium score cutoff in all four vessels sensitivity decreased and specificity increased but steal LAD had higher sensitivity than other vessels and LM had higher specificity. Thus using calcium score method is useful for ruling out stenosis in LAD while calcium score of LM can predict existence of stenosis in LM. However none of the vessel specific CAC can reach to 100% sensitivity and specificity of CCTA method.
CCTA is highly superior than vessel specific CAC score thus to minimize patients radiation does maybe we can eliminate CAC scan as a routinely perform procedure at the beginning of the CCTA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies on the diagnostic efficacy of MRI has not real consensus for the accuracy of MRI characteristics in non mass like breast lesions, and the number of malignant lesions in different studies is insufficient.
In this study we aimed to analyze the diagnostic role of MRI BIRADS features for diagnosis of malignancy in non mass like breast lesions.
All patients with positive findings (BIRADS 3, 4, 5), which had either biopsy proved pathology or follow-up MRI data at least for 12 months were included in the study. Finally, 213 breasts MRI that showed non mass like enhancing lesions among our patients were assessed in study. One experienced breast radiologist who was unaware of any clinical information or the histopathologic diagnosis evaluated all images retrospectively. The morphologic parameters evaluated consisted of distribution modifiers and pattern of internal enhancement. The kinetic enhancement parameters were assessed as showing washout, plateau, or persistent patterns. In the enhancement kinetic analysis, thew most worrisome curve type in each lesion was considered for interpretation, if it was more than 2% enhancement. We have evaluated the visual findings by comparison of the signal intensity on the first and third dynamic series. Data for the study were extracted from the breast MRI database and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software.
Totally 188 patients had 213 non mass like lesions. Mean age of the patients was 44.9 ± 8.3 years (24-63). Totally 46 of lesions were malignant (21.6%). The most common BIRADS score was 4 (116; 54.5%). The most prevalent feature of distribution, internal enhancement and curve type were focal (59.2%), clumped (27.2%) and washout (34.3%). Distribution of different subgroups of MR BIRADS features was different among benign and malignant lesions (All Pvalues < 0.05). Regarding association with malignancy, odds ratio of lesions with segmental or ductal linear distribution was 3.4 (95% CI = 1.7-6.8), Clumped, Reticular and Dendritic internal enhancement was 2.5 (95% CI = 1.3-5) and wash out curve type was 5.4 (95% CI = 2.7-10.9). Sensitivity of higher MR BIRADS (4,5) for diagnosis of malignancy was 100%. Specificity of segmental or ductal linear distribution in diagnosis of malignancy was 81%. Specificity of BIRADS 5 for diagnosis of malignancy was 98%. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis for diagnosis of malignancy in which distribution, internal enhancement and curve type were considered as independent variables, distribution and curve type remained significant in the model while the internal enhancement showed a borderline P-value.
Although in our study washout pattern was the most powerful indicator for malignant pathology in non mass like enhancing lesions, more studies with larger sample size needs in this regard.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been widely used as a palliative treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its actual efficacy and prognostic usefulness have not been clarified in past studies.
The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy, complications, and prognostic factors of the TACE in unresectable HCC patients.
Thirty-two patients with unresectable HCC were treated with TACE. The procedure was performed with a combination of Lipiodol, doxorubicin, and cytomycin followed by gelatin-sponge particles embolization. CT-scan imaging and liver function tests (AST, ALT, ALP, BIL, and PT) were performed before and after the TACE. All patients were followed-up for 6-months.
Of all patients, 1 and 11 patients respectively, exhibited a complete response (CR) and a partial response (PR) (response rate, CR+PR, 44%). Data have shown that tumor size, number of lesions and number of involved segments are significantly reduced after the TACE performance (P < 0.05). No significant clinical adverse effect was observed in patients after the intervention. Also, liver function tests including AST, ALT, ALP, BIL, and PT did not significantly differ before and after the intervention (P > 0.05). The 6-month cumulative survival rates of the 32 patients were 78.1 %, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that survival correlated significantly with the following factors: tumor size; ≥ 8 cm versus < 8 cm (P < 0.010), serum ALP level; < 300 versus ≥ 300 (P < 0.043), and number of liver involved segments; < 2 versus ≥ 2 (P < 0.020).
We showed that in treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, TACE significantly improved the disease and the overall survival rate. Also, we introduce the tumor size, serum ALP level, and number of liver involved segments as prognostic factors of the procedure. Finally, TACE can be recommended as the initial treatment for unresectable HCC patients.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Hepatitis Monthly
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Pre-operative differentiation of salivary gland neoplasms is of great importance. This study was designed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for differentiation between malignant, Warthin and benign non-Warthin (BNW) neoplasms of major salivary glands.
46 major salivary gland tumours (SGTs) underwent pre-operative DCE-MRI. Post-surgical histopathological evaluation showed 30 BNW, 6 Warthin and 10 malignant tumours. Time-signal intensity curves (TICs) were categorized as (a) Tpeak >43 s and washout ratio at 180 s (WR180) <4.6%; (b) Tpeak <43 s and WR >22%; (c) Tpeak >43 s and WR180 = 4.6-22.0%
Accuracy of Tpeak was 98.9% for differentiation between BNW and Warthin tumours, 83.7% between BNW and malignant and 80% between malignant and Warthin tumours. All Warthin tumours showed Tpeak ≤43 s, while one BNW had Tpeak <43 s. A Tpeak <63.5 s differentiated 8/10 (80%) malignant tumours from BNW tumours, whereas 4/30 of BNW tumours had a Tpeak <63.5 s. Two malignant tumours had Tpeak <43 s. WR180 had an accuracy of 100% for differentiation between Warthin and BNW tumours, 87.3% between BNW and malignant, and 93.3% between Warthin and malignant tumours. 29 (96.7%) BNW tumours had a washout <4.60%, while 8 (80%) malignant tumours had a washout >4.60%. All Warthin tumours had a WR180 >22%, while two malignant tumours had a WR180 >22%. 29/30 of BNW tumours demonstrated TIC curve Type A and 1 tumour demonstrated Type C. 6/10 of malignant tumours had TIC Type C, 2 had TIC Type A and 2 Type B. All Warthin tumours were categorized as Type B.
This study showed that DCE-MRI could be helpful in pre-operative differentiation of SGTs; especially for discrimination between Warthin and BNW tumours.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Dento-maxillo-facial radiology. Supplement
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
It has been established that presence of lean umbilical cord with reduced Wharton's jelly in sonographic scans is a fetal marker for risk of small for gestational age at birth. With improvement of ultrasound techniques, more studies have been investigating the alterations of the umbilical cord on pregnancy outcomes.
To determine the reference ranges of the umbilical cord area during pregnancy and to find out the association between umbilical cord morphometry and fetal anthropometric measurements.
Patients and methods:
A cross sectional study was carried out on a study population of 278 low-risk pregnant women between 15 and 41 weeks of gestational age. Fetal anthropometric measurements including biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were calculated. The measurements of the cross-sectional area (CSA) and circumference of the umbilical cord, vein and arteries were done on an adjacent plane to the insertion of umbilical cord into the fetus's abdomen. The mean and standard deviation of the CSA of the umbilical cord and the 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th percentiles of it were calculated for each gestational age. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the measures of the cord and fetal anthropometric measurements. Polynomial regression analysis was performed for curves.
The values of the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and Wharton's jelly (WJ) increase consistently until 30 weeks of gestation, after which they reach a plateau. There was a significant correlation between anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord measurements especially with the CSA of the umbilical cord, umbilical vein and WJ. The regression equation for the umbilical cord CSA according to gestational age up to 30 weeks was y = -0.2159 x(2) + 23.828x-325.59 (R(2) = 0.6334) and for the WJ area according to gestational age up to 30 weeks, it was y = -0.2124 x (2) +17.613x-221.66 (R(2) = 0.4979).
Reference ranges for umbilical cord CSA have been generated. The CSA of the umbilical cord and other components of it increase as a function of gestational age. These measurements correlate with fetal size.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Iranian Journal of Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists' attempt to access these achievements.
In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology.
Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries.
Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%.
To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Iranian Journal of Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to important role of nutrition research in understanding of relevant health subjects and lack of periodic situation analysis of nutrition articles in Iran, this study was conducted to assess nutrition publications in two time intervals of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 in Farsi scientific journals. A title to title search was performed in all medical, basic science, agricultural and veterinary journals in a 10-year period. All the article titles were placed in techniques, foods, nutritional biochemistry and physiology, nutrition and health, and clinical nutrition subject headings based on Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews Series A (NARA) database. The publication type and the study design were also determined. Statistical analysis was carried out by chi square to test temporal changes. There were 2127 Farsi publications. The original articles consisted 98.1% of the articles. Interventional and survey articles composed 28.1% and 20.8% of the publication types, respectively. Researchers were mostly interested in descriptive articles. Regarding subject, nutrition and health, and clinical nutrition were of the first and second time period interests, respectively. In comparison between the two time periods, regarding subject heading, the proportion of nutrition and health publications showed a significant decline; while, the proportion of clinical nutrition publication showed a remarkable rise. The publication type, subject and study design of the article do not follow coordinated planning and policy making. Therefore, these researches are not efficient enough to solve nutritional problems in our community properly. Planning of the research priorities in the field of food and nutrition with the agreement and participation of all stakeholders is a necessity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroids are the most common benign tumors of the uterus during female reproductive age. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) using embolic particles (PVA, Gelfoam) to occlude the uterine arteries, have been reported as a relatively safe, effective, and durable nonsurgical alternative to hysterectomy in diminishing fibroid-related symptoms. To block the arterial blood supply to the fibroid completely, UAE is typically performed in both uterine arteries by an experienced interventional radiologist. Reduction in menorrhagia has been reported as 80-93 percent and the mean decrease in fibroid size varies from 50-78% in the literature. In our center improvement in menstrual bleeding after 6 months was 80.3%, and uterine fibroids underwent shrinkage of 63.7±33.7% after12 months. Complication rate including amenorrhea ranges from 1% - 7% in the literature. UAE may be followed by menopause in 1% of cases. Nevertheless, it is usually encountered in women in their late 40s. It seems that the future of UAE depends on optimal selection of patients according to volume-shrinkage prediction and fertility outcome. Although pregnancy is possible after embolization, however neither fertility preservation nor improvement can be guaranteed following UAE. Indeed, Women who desire to become pregnant should be cautioned about potential complications during pregnancy. The aim of this review is to discuss about the efficacy, safety, technique, and choice of embolic agent. Also we present the effects of this technique on fertility and pregnancy outcome and also methods for dose reduction during this procedure.