[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of neobladder-rectal fistula that developed as an early postoperative complication of radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder construction procedures. A 75-year-old man underwent a radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder construction using Studer's method for locally invasive bladder cancer (cT2N0M0). The patient had severe watery diarrhea on postoperative day 20, and was diagnosed with a neobladder-rectal fistula based on cystography findings. We inserted a Foley catheter into the neobladder, and performed conservative treatment. Four months after development of the fistula, cystography revealed that it had spontaneously closed. A neobladder-rectal fistula is an extremely rare complication, with no other known reports. Herein, we present this case of neobladder-rectal fistula and discuss its formation, diagnosis and treatment, along with reference to previous reports of neobladder-vaginal fistulas.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Nippon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with ostomy including urinary stoma often develop peristomal complications, especially skin damage. The patient in this case was a 69-year old female with a history of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and left ureter who underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor, nephroureterectomy and cystectomy combined with ureterocutaneostomy. Later, she had recurrence of urothelial carcinoma in the remaining ureter that spread to the peristomal epidermis, with a skin appearance resembling Paget's disease. We report this case based on its clinical significance since we believe it is the first description of this condition in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 66-year-old man with a history of sporadic von Recklinghausen' s disease was treated for pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation in the bladder. The patient had a history of repetitive recurrence of bladder carcinoma requiring transurethral resection (TUR) 4 times and 1 course of intravesical BCG instillation. Three months after the fourth TUR, an intravesical solid mass 4 cm in diameter was detected. Suspicion of recurrent bladder carcinoma led to a fifth TUR procedure. Pathological findings showed submucosal growth of myofibroblasts with myxoidal stroma and we made a diagnosis of Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation. The patient was well with no evidence of recurrence after 1 year.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Predicting the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) would be of clinical value in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that serum inflammatory markers are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC patients at favorable or intermediate prognostic risk treated with first-line sunitinib. Methods: Eighty-nine mRCC patients were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 0) during sunitinib treatment. Serum interleukin-6 and 8 levels were determined by CLEIA and ELISA, respectively. A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using laser nephelometry. Correlations between baseline interleukin-6, 8, hs-CRP levels and response to sunitinib, and progression-free survival (PFS) were examined. Results: Median PFS was 9.2 months. Clinical benefit rate (CBR; percent complete responses+partial responses +stable disease 24 weeks) was 57.3%. Baseline interleukin-8 (P=0.0240) and hs-CRP (P=0.0060) was associated with CBR. No association between baseline interleukin-6 and 8 with PFS was observed. However, baseline hs-CRP were associated with PFS (P=0.0016; unit risk 1.010; 95% CI 1.004 to 1.017). Conclusions: Baseline serum inflammatory markers could be of clinical interest in sunitinib-treated mRCC patiens to predict outcome. Baseline hs-CRP serum levels warrant further study. Clinical trial information: UMIN000009622.
No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bicalutamide is an anti-androgen that is used worldwide to treat prostate cancer (CaP). However, there are no data on blood bicalutamide concentrations in hemodialysis (HD) patients with CaP. Therefore, we investigated the plasma levels of bicalutamide during the peridialysis period in this population. The study group included 5 HD patients with CaP who had been treated with bicalutamide (80 mg/day) for at least 3 months. Blood samples were taken during and between HD sessions and the plasma concentrations of the active R enantiomer (R-bicalutamide) were assessed using an HPLC assay. The plasma R-bicalutamide levels on the non-dialysis day were measured in 2 patients (patients 1 and 2) immediately before dosing and 8 and 24 h after dosing. These levels were 18,730, 19,090 and 19,420 ng/ml (patient 1), and 4,522, 4,581, and 5,296 ng/ml (patient 2), respectively. The mean plasma levels of R-bicalutamide in all 5 subjects just before HD, and 2 and 4 h after the start of HD were 8,726, 9,354 and 10,068 ng/ml, respectively. These results show that bicalutamide does not accumulate and is not diluted in the blood circulation of HD patients when given at the normal dosage used in the general population.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Urologia Internationalis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease and (ii) to reveal perioperative management problems that are unique to these patients. Between June 2004 and June 2011, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed in 39 patients who had renal cell carcinoma and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease. The operative outcomes of these patients were compared with the operative outcomes of 104 non-end-stage renal disease patients with sporadic renal cell carcinoma who underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy during the same period. Laparoscopic surgery was completed in thirty-eight end-stage renal disease patients. One patient was converted to open surgery because of an intraoperative injury to the inferior vena cava. This patient was excluded from the analysis. The mean operative time was 240 min; blood loss, 157 mL; and postoperative hospital stay, 9.6 days. Postoperative complications were observed in six patients, as follows: retroperitoneal hematoma and abscess in one patient, thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in three patients, pneumonia in one patient, and gastrointestinal bleeding in one patient. Eleven patients required blood transfusions. There was no significant difference between the end-stage renal disease patients and the non-end-stage renal disease patients in the mean operative time or the amount of blood loss. In conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is feasible for dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease patients, as well as for non-end-stage renal disease patients; however, end-stage renal disease patients may have a higher probability of experiencing non-life-threatening complications.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The patient was a 22-year-old woman with a history of tuberous sclerosis who complained of abdominal distention. Computed tomography showed bilateral renal masses with minimal fat tissue that were unlike classical angiomyolipoma (AML), as well as enlargement of the paraaortic lymph nodes, pleural effusion, and ascites, similar to other advanced malignant neoplasms such as renal cell carcinoma and renal sarcoma. We performed a left nephrectomy to relieve the symptoms. A pathological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of polygonal epithelioid cells positive for both αSMA and HMB-45, as well as spindle-shaped cells, while immunoreactivity proved the tumor to be an eAML, a subtype of AML with malignant potential. Although the patient was scheduled for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, her condition worsened and she died on postoperative day 24 before receiving chemotherapy. We discuss this case with reference to previous reports.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axitinib (AG-013736) is an oral, selective and potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, 2 and 3. This phase II study investigated axitinib efficacy, safety and biomarkers in Japanese patients with cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
In an open-label, multicentre study, 64 patients received an axitinib starting dose of 5mg twice daily.
Objective response rate (ORR) was 50.0% and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 months per independent review committee. Common treatment-related adverse events were hypertension (84%; 70% grade ≥3), hand-foot syndrome (75%; 22% grade ≥3) and diarrhoea (64%; 5% grade ≥3). Eighteen patients (28%) developed proteinuria ≥2g/24h and required dose reduction or treatment interruption/discontinuation. Proteinuria was a major cause for treatment discontinuation. Baseline urine protein levels were associated with development of proteinuria ≥2g/24h (hazard ratio [HR]=5.457, P=0.0035 in patients with baseline proteinuria ≥1+ versus <1+). Baseline urine protein levels correlated more strongly with axitinib-related proteinuria than other baseline renal function test values or blood pressure. Patients with greater decreases in soluble VEGFR-2 concentrations had significantly higher ORR and longer PFS than those with smaller decreases (ORR: 64.5% versus 37.5%, P=0.045; median PFS: 12.9 months versus 9.2 months, HR=0.42, P=0.01).
Axitinib showed significant antitumour activity and was well tolerated in Japanese mRCC patients. Baseline proteinuria and soluble VEGFR-2 levels may be key indicators of axitinib-induced proteinuria and efficacy, respectively.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed whether adequately functioning parenchyma is preserved in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) after partial nephrectomy (PN) compared with those who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN). A total of 95 patients with pre-existing CKD who underwent curative surgery for pathological T1a-T2N0M0 renal cell carcinoma with a follow-up period of 12 months or more were the subject of the present study. Of these, 51 patients underwent RN, and 44 PN. Renal function was assessed by using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR). We classified the subjects into two groups according to the preoperative e-GFR: preoperative e-GFR 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (68 patients); and 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (27 patients). In the former group, the probability of freedom from new onset of e-GFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) stemmed from the significant difference between the PN and RN groups (P = 0.006; PN: 2 years 64%; RN: 2 years 22%). In contrast, in the latter group, the probability of freedom from new onset of e-GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was not associated with a significant difference between PN and RN group (P = 0.80). Overall survival and the number of the patients who went on to develop end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy between PN and RN were not significantly different in each group. Death from renal cell carcinoma was not noted in either group. PN could significantly prevent development to late-stage CKD in patients with preoperative e-GFR 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) compared with RN. Patients with preoperative e-GFR 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) should be reviewed in a more strict study.
Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the safety and feasibility of sorafenib in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis by examining the influence of pharmacokinetic parameters to their benefit and also the occurrence of drug-related adverse events of sorafenib.
Ten patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing hemodialysis received sorafenib. Initial dose was 200 mg once daily, and the dose was increased up to the maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic study was performed after a steady state was reached with 200 mg twice daily in six patients.
Complete response occurred in one patient, partial response in three, stable disease in four and progressive disease in two. Median progression-free survival was 6.3 months. Serious adverse events were found in nine patients, including a Grade 5 subarachnoid hemorrhage and a Grade 4 cerebellar hemorrhage. In the pharmacokinetic study, the geometric mean of maximum concentration and area under the curve from 0 to 10 h of plasma concentration were similar on the day of hemodialysis and the day off hemodialysis. These data were lower than those from Japanese people with healthy kidneys and normal kidney function. There was no association between objective response or the occurrence of serious adverse events and pharmacokinetic parameters.
Treatment with sorafenib of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing hemodialysis appears to be feasible, but we express some concern about the higher incidence of serious adverse events even with the reduced dose. However, clinical efficacy was not compromised.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although human γδ T-cells that express Vγ2Vδ2-bearing T-cell receptor (Vγ2Vδ2 T-cells) have recently received considerable attention in the development of novel cancer immunotherapies, consensus has not yet been reached regarding the physiological relevance of this T-cell subset in the context of cancer immunosurveillance. Clinical trials of adoptive immunotherapy using autologous Vγ2Vδ2 T-cells have been applied to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and some clinical benefits have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between the proportion of γδ T-cells in peripheral before surgery in patients with locally advanced RCC and those clinical outcomes.
Of 41 patients who underwent surgery for RCC, 13 patients had stage III disease without metastasis. These stage III patients were stratified into two groups based on the peripheral γδ T-cell proportion being greater or less than 8.7% before surgery and were followed up for up to 137 months (median 129 months).
Remarkably, an obvious difference was found in the overall survival and cause-specific survival rate between the two groups. In 6 patients with a higher proportion of γδ T-cells, one patient had lung metastasis, but there were no cancer-related deaths. In contrast, 5 out of 7 patients with a lower proportion of γδ T-cells died during the study and 4 out of 7 patients died due to RCC.
An increase in the proportion of peripheral γδ T-cells is a favorable prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced RCC.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefit of lymphadenectomy (LND) in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UCUUT) has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the LND template and the total number of lymph nodes (LN) when increasing the number of patients undergoing complete dissection of regional nodes (CompLND).
A total of 109 UCUUT patients with clinically negative nodes underwent nephroureterectomy with concomitant lymphadenectomy at our center. Patients' survival was examined according to the type of LND and the number of removed LN. Univariate analysis was performed to find the cut-off value of LN influencing survival.
Seventy-eight patients underwent CompLND. Incomplete lymphadenectomy was performed in an additional 41 patients. In the patients with pT2 or higher who were clinically negative for nodal metastasis, any cut-off value for the total number of LN removed showed no statistical significance. In contrast, CompLND had a significant impact on patient survival. The Cox proportional hazard model showed that CompLND was a significant factor after adjusting for adjuvant chemotherapy. The total number of removed LN was not significant.
In patients with muscle-invasive clinical node-negative UCUUT, the number of LN removed shows minimal influence on their survival. In contrast, the influence of the particular type of lymphadenectomy is statistically significant. These findings suggest that the extent of lymphadenectomy should be determined by the template and not by the number of removed LN.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the prognosis of patients with sporadic bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
From January 1979 to December 2007, 984 patients with sporadic RCC underwent surgery at our department. Of these, 53 patients (5.7%) presenting with bilateral RCC were included in this retrospective analysis.
Thirty-one of the 53 bilateral RCC patients had synchronous RCC, and 22 had metachronous RCC. Distant metastases by the time of the bilateral tumor occurrence were found in four patients (13%) in the synchronous group and in 10 patients (48%) in the metachronous group. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of overall survival. In contrast, survival after the second surgery in the metachronous group was significantly lower than that after the first surgery (P < 0.001) in the synchronous group (P = 0.02). In addition, the incidence of local recurrence after partial nephrectomy was higher in the metachronous group (26%) compared to the synchronous group (4%, P = 0.04) or the unilateral RCC patients (0.4%, P < 0.01).
Metachronous occurrence of RCC in the contralateral kidney is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, suggesting that metachronous contralateral tumors might be metastasis of the original tumors. A stricter follow-up schedule is advisable for metachronous bilateral RCC patients.
Preview · Article · Jul 2010 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Close examination of a 67-year-old Japanese man, who complained of persistent nocturia, revealed that a semitransparent polypoid tumor had developed from the bladder neck to the prostatic urethra obstructing the internal urethral meatus, which resulted in excessive urinary retention and post-renal dysfunction. The tumor was resected by a transurethral procedure and a pathological examination of specimens revealed aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) of the prostate. AAM usually develops in the intrapelvic and perineal organs of females. So far as we know, this is the second case of primary prostatic AAM reported in the English literature, and is the first case where the patient encountered urethral obstruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 78-year old man was diagnosed with a left bleeding renal cyst from CT scan results. Serial CT scans revealed the left kidney mass to be increasing in size and a new lesion in the liver. Renal cell carcinoma with liver metastasis was diagnosed and a radical nephrectomy performed. The initial pathological diagnosis was a benign chronic hematoma. However, the liver mass increased in size and multiplied, while another mass emerged in the twelfth thoracic vertebra with spinal paralysis and was immediately removed. Pathological findings for that specimen showed malignancy of stromal cell origin but low atypia. The renal specimen was re-evaluated using whole cross-section analysis and immunohistochemistry, and diagnosed as a primary renal angiosarcoma. Recombinant interleukin-2 therapy was started immediately; however, the patient died of metastatic disease 13 months after the initial operation. Although contrast imaging depicted the primary lesion as a non-specific hematoma with little focal pooling, and low-grade cytological atypia was shown pathologically, the angiosarcoma was extremely aggressive.