[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip.
The microchip was made of cyclic olefin copolymer with straight microchannels that were 300 µm wide and 100 µm deep. For the construction of a sandwich ELISA for procollagen type I C-peptide (PICP), a biomarker for bone formation, we used a piezoelectric inkjet printing system for the deposition and fixation of the 1st anti-PICP antibody on the surface of the microchannel. After the infusion of the mixture of 2.0 µl of peroxidase-labeled 2nd anti-PICP antibody and 0.4 µl of sample to the microchannel and a 30-min incubation, the substrate for peroxidase was infused into the microchannel; and the luminescence intensity of each spot of 1st antibody was measured by CCD camera. A linear relationship was observed between PICP concentration and luminescence intensity over the range of 0 to 600 ng/ml (r(2) = 0.991), and the detection limit was 4.7 ng/ml. Blood PICP concentrations of 6 subjects estimated from microchip were compared with results obtained by the conventional method. Good correlation was observed between methods according to simple linear regression analysis (R(2) = 0.9914). The within-day and between-days reproducibilities were 3.2-7.4 and 4.4-6.8%, respectively. This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method.
This assay enabled us to determine serum PICP with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance multi-analysis system for genotypic mutation by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) involving endonuclease treatment of PCR-amplified DNA on a microchip and subsequent analysis by microchip electrophoresis for DNA sizing was developed. A Hitachi SV1210 system, with which 12 samples can be analyzed on a plastic chip with good accuracy as to DNA sizing between 25 and 300 bp, was employed for RFLP analysis. We performed RFLP analysis of the ABO genotypes of blood donors for whom the ABO type was known. Six blood samples were analyzed by PCR to amplify two different regions of the genomic DNA, each of the amplified DNAs containing a different nucleotide polymorphism. To analyze the genes at polymorphic sites 261 and 526, restriction endonucleases Kpn I and Ban I were employed, respectively. When an amplified DNA was digested with each endonuclease on a microchip for 20 min, sequential analysis revealed the presence or absence of the respective restriction site. This analysis was performed within 7 min using a 1/10 volume of a DNA sample in comparison with the conventional method, and the estimated DNA size differed from the predicted size by less than 10 bp. The results indicate the potential of microchip electrophoresis for RFLP with on-chip direct endonuclease digestion and sequential analysis, offering high resolution in a short time.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the possible usefulness of in vitro synthesized RNA as standards in microarray analysis, we prepared full-length mRNAs encoded by 3 rat metabolic genes for heart/muscle type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (M-CPTI), uncoupling protein (UCP1), and heart/muscle type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP). Artificial RNA samples were prepared by adding known amounts of these synthetic mRNAs to total RNA from rat liver, and transcript levels of various genes were compared between the prepared artificial RNA samples and total RNA samples of rat liver by using an Agilent oligo microarray system. Upon the addition of these synthetic RNAs, signals from the DNA spots corresponding to these 3 genes were elevated, but those from the DNA spots representing other genes were not markedly influenced. Using the ratio of the increase in signal intensity of DNA spot to the amount of added RNA, we estimated the expression levels of several genes and compared them with the absolute expression levels determined by calibrated Northern analysis. As a result, the absolute transcript levels of 3 genes encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0, type-1 voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1), and type-2 glucose transporter (GLUT2) were successfully estimated by this procedure. Furthermore, genes specifically expressed in certain tissues such as UCP1 were concluded to be good candidates as standards for use in microarray analysis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Housekeeping genes are often used as internal standards for gene expression analysis. When steady-state transcript levels of 4 typically used housekeeping genes, i.e., beta-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, cyclophilin, and acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (36B4), were evaluated in various rat tissues, the 36B4 gene seemed to be the most suitable as a standard to compare the expression levels of genes among different tissues. Next, for possible quantitative comparison of the expression level of this gene among different animal species, we compared the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA of 36B4 among rats, mice, and humans. As a result, highly conserved regions showing more than 97.5% identities were observed in the 5' portion of its open reading frame. When samples of synthesized mRNA encoding rat, mouse, and human 36B4 were hybridized with the entire cDNA encoding rat 36B4 as a probe, hybridization signals of mRNAs of mouse and human 36B4 were much weaker than those of mRNA encoding rat 36B4. However, when they were hybridized with an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the highly conserved regions, they showed similar signal intensities. Thus, these highly conserved regions of the cDNA encoding 36B4 were concluded to be an effective standard for use in gene expression analysis.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods