[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22-q24, 5q22-q31, 9q21-q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified novel target genes, termed forerunner (FR) genes, involved in early phases of cancer development.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used human bladder cancer as a model system and the whole-organ histologic and genetic mapping strategy to identify clonal genetic hits associated with growth advantage, tracking the evolution of bladder cancer from intraurothelial precursor lesions. Six putative chromosomal regions critical for clonal expansion of intraurothelial neoplasia and development of bladder cancer were identified by using this approach. Focusing on one of the regions, which includes the model tumor suppressor RB1, we performed allelotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphic sites and identified a 1.34-Mb segment around RB1 characterized by a loss of polymorphism associated with the initial expansion of in situ neoplasia. This segment contains several positional candidate genes referred to by us as forerunner genes that may contribute to such expansion. We subsequently concentrated our efforts on the two neighbor genes flanking RB1, namely ITM2B and CHC1L, as well as P2RY5, which is located inside RB1. Here, we report that ITM2B and P2RY5 modulated cell survival and were silenced by methylation or point mutations, respectively, and thus by functional loss may contribute to the growth advantage of neoplasia. We also show that homozygous inactivation of P2RY5 was antecedent to the loss of RB1 during tumor development, and that nucleotide substitutions in P2RY5 represent a cancer predisposing factor.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell lines have become an essential component for the investigation of cancer. We have developed a panel of cell lines derived from human urothelial cancers and we describe some of their important characteristics.
Ten human urothelial cancer cell lines were characterized by their growth in athymic nude mice, CAR expression and their susceptibility to adenoviral mediated transfer of the green fluorescence protein gene. TP53 mutation status and immunochemical analysis of p53, pRB and p16 were also examined.
Five cell lines rapidly produced tumors in athymic nude mice. Two cell lines produced tumors in 1 month, 1 produced them in 3 months and 2 were nontumorigenic. The cell lines varied in CAR expression and in their susceptibility to adenoviral mediated gene transduction. There was no direct correlation between CAR expression and susceptibility to adenoviral mediated gene transduction. Seven cell lines had TP53 mutations, of which 2 had large deletions and did not express p53 protein by immunostaining. All cell lines expressed abnormal pRB by immunochemical analysis (3 had no staining and 7 had homogenously strong staining) and 8 did not express p16 (7 showed homogeneously strong pRB staining).
Our panel of 10 human urothelial cell lines differed in genetic alterations, growth in nude mice, susceptibility to adenoviral mediated gene transduction, and expression of p53, p16 and pRB. The availability of various urothelial cancer cell lines with differing genotypic and phenotypic features will facilitate further research into bladder cancer.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present whole-organ histologic and genetic mapping studies using hypervariable DNA markers on chromosome 13 and then integrate the recombination- and single-nucleotide polymorphic sites (SNPs)-based deletion maps with the annotated genome sequence. Using bladders resected from patients with invasive urothelial carcinoma, we studied allelic patterns of 40 microsatellite markers mapping to all regions of chromosome 13 and 79 SNPs located within the 13q14 region containing the RB1 gene. A whole-organ histologic and genetic mapping strategy was used to identify the evolution of allelic losses on chromosome 13 during the progression of bladder neoplasia. Markers mapping to chromosomal regions involved in clonal expansion of preneoplastic intraurothelial lesions were subsequently tested in 25 tumors and 21 voided urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. Four clusters of allelic losses mapping to distinct regions of chromosome 13 were identified. Markers mapping to the 13q14 region that is flanked by D13S263 and D13S276, which contains the RB1 gene, showed allelic losses associated with early clonal expansion of intraurothelial neoplasia. Such losses could be identified in approximately 32% bladder tumor tissue samples and 38% of voided urines from patients with bladder cancer. The integration of distribution patterns of clonal allelic losses revealed by the microsatellite markers with those obtained by genotyping of SNPs disclosed that the loss within an approximately 4-Mb segment centered around RB1 may represent an incipient event in bladder neoplasia. However, the inactivation of RB1 occurred later and was associated with the onset of severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. Our studies provide evidence for the presence of critical alternative candidate genes mapping to the 13q14 region that are involved in clonal expansion of neoplasia within the bladder antecedent to the inactivation of the RB1 gene.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · Laboratory Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have produced prolonged, high local concentrations of interferon in vivo by intravesical instillation of adenoviruses encoding interferon-alpha (Ad-IFNalpha) together with the gene transfer-enhancing agent Syn3. We found sustained interferon protein levels for days, both in normal mouse urothelium and in human bladder cancer cells growing as superficial bladder tumors in nude mice using an orthotopic bladder model developed by us. Tumor burden in the bladder was determined utilizing cancer cells containing the green fluorescent protein. Marked tumor regression was observed following two 1-h exposures of Ad-IFNalpha/Syn3 and little or no cytotoxicity was detected in normal cells. Similar intravesical instillation of clinically relevant concentrations of IFN protein alone or Ad-IFNalpha without Syn3 was ineffective. Surprisingly, in vitro, Ad-IFNalpha also caused caspase-dependent death of bladder cancer cell lines that were resistant to high concentrations of IFN-alpha protein, including the cell line used in vivo. These findings demonstrate that Ad-IFNalpha can overcome resistance to IFN-alpha protein both in vitro and in vivo and support evaluation of intravesical Ad-IFNalpha/Syn3 for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Molecular Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and molecular alterations commonly found in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and determined whether COX-2 immunoreactivity is associated with cancer stage, progression and survival in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.
Immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 was done in archival tumor specimens from 80 patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Immunoreactivity was categorized as positive (reactivity in greater than 10% tumor cells) or negative. Microvessel density, E-cadherin, pRB, p16, p21, p53 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and its receptors (types I and II) were also studied because evidence suggests a biological association between COX-2 and alteration of these molecules.
COX-2 was over expressed in 62 patients (78%). COX-2 over expression was associated with muscle invasive pathological stage (p = 0.022), TGF-beta1 over expression (p = 0.004), decreased E-cadherin expression (p < 0.001), and altered expression of pRB (p = 0.003) and p16 (p = 0.006). At a median followup of 101 months COX-2 over expression was associated with disease progression (p = 0.038) and bladder cancer specific survival (p = 0.042). However, when adjusted for the effects of standard pathological features, only lymph node metastasis was associated with bladder cancer progression (p = 0.027) and mortality (p = 0.042).
COX-2 is commonly expressed in patients with bladder TCC. Using the cutoff of 10% abnormal COX-2 expression is associated with the degree of invasiveness, alterations in TGF-beta1 and pRB/p16 pathways, and loss of cell adhesion. While COX-2 expression has limited prognostic value in patients with bladder TCC, it may serve as a target for therapy with selective COX-2 inhibitors.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orthotopic models of bladder cancer mimic the normal microenvironment and provide an opportunity to study new therapies for superficial bladder cancer. The use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transduced cells provides a sensitive way of monitoring this disease. We investigated whether examining voided urine for GFP expressing cells would indicate the presence of GFP producing tumors in an orthotopic bladder tumor model in nude mice.
The human bladder cancer cell lines KU-7, UM-UC-3 and UM-UC-14 were used. GFP transductants were generated after transfection with pEGFP-N3, followed by G418 selection. After the cells were inoculated in an orthotopic model of superficial bladder cancer voided urine was collected on slides weekly for 3 weeks and observed for GFP expressing cells by fluorescence microscopy. Bladder tumor imaging for GFP was performed in surgically exposed bladders to determine the tumor incidence.
KU-7 GFP cells produced tumors in all 16 mice on whole bladder GFP imaging. UM-UC-3 and UM-UC-14 GFP cells produced tumors in 8 of 12 (67%) and 18 of 25 (72%) mice, respectively. The rate of GFP positive cells in spontaneously voided urine varied by cell line and increased with time but it was generally less than the rate of detection by whole bladder GFP imaging. All mice with GFP expressing cells in the urine had GFP expressing bladder tumors.
Examining urine for GFP expressing cells is less sensitive than imaging surgically exposed bladders but it is 100% specific.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · The Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma (RB)94, which lacks the NH(2)-terminal 112 amino acid residues of the full-length RB protein (RB110), is a more potent tumor and growth suppressor than RB110. In this study, Ad-RB94, but not Ad-RB110, produced marked growth inhibition, cytotoxicity, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and G(2)-M block in the human RB-negative, telomerase-positive bladder cancer cell line UM-UC14. This effect was completely inhibited by pretreatment with caspase inhibitors (P < 0.0001). Similar results were seen in RB-positive and other RB-negative bladder cancer cell lines. Ad-RB94 produced rapid telomere length shortening and loss of telomere signal, which was associated with polyploidy and chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.001). Ad-RB94, however, showed no cytotoxicity to telomerase-negative human normal urothelium cells but was highly cytotoxic to telomerase-positive human E6 and E7 immortalized urothelial cells (P < 0.0001). In addition, telomerase-negative cells, which maintain their telomere length through an alternative lengthening of telomeres DNA recombination pathway, showed no cytotoxicity to RB94. These results suggest that the induction of rapid telomere erosion and chromosomal crisis by RB94 in telomerase-positive cancer and in telomerase-expressing immortalized human cells is a major factor in its selective and potent tumor suppression and cytotoxic activity. The lack of cytotoxicity to normal cells should also provide a high therapeutic index when used in gene therapy protocols for the treatment of bladder and other cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been no reliable orthotopic model available to visualize the growth of human superficial bladder cancer over time and to evaluate the efficacy of intravesical therapies. We have developed a novel approach to accomplish this task by generating human superficial bladder tumor cells to stably express high levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in vivo. Superficial bladder tumors were produced in athymic mice by intravesical instillation. In our initial studies tumors were quantitated by image analysis at a single time point, and the results compared to the estimation of the percentage of GFP cells present using flow cytometry after obtaining single cell suspensions of normal and tumor cells in the same bladder. A high correlation between the two methods was seen. Therefore, in subsequent studies, approximately 1 week after the intravesical instillation of the GFP expressing cancer cells a small incision was made to expose the bladder. The anterior, posterior, and lateral images of each bladder were captured to visualize GFP-expressing tumors. The ratio of green fluorescence pixel area, which represented the tumor burden, to the total area of the bladder was then calculated. A similar procedure was performed at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after instillation of the tumor cells. Using this procedure tumor progression over time could be measured in each mouse. By using this approach, it will now be possible to monitor the initial tumor sizes in the bladder of each mouse and then to evaluate the efficacy of various intravesical therapy protocols including intravesical gene therapy alone or in combination with other treatment modalities.
Preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Cancer Gene Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using our model to grow superficial human bladder cancer in the mouse bladder, we have found that the polyamide compound, Syn3, when injected intravesically for 1 hour at 1 mg/mL on two consecutive days, markedly increases rAd-beta-gal intravesical gene transfer and expression. This enhanced transgene expression was much greater than obtain by the use of 22% ethanol, which had previously been shown to increase intravesical adenoviral gene transfer, whereas little or no gene expression was seen with exposure to only rAd-beta-gal. beta-Galactosidase staining was seen in virtually every normal urothelial and superficial tumor cell present, including tumors that express little or no coxsackie-adenovirus receptors when Syn3 was present. High adenoviral-mediated gene transfer was also documented in the pig bladder using Syn3 in a similar protocol. Therefore, Syn3 may overcome the limitations of adequate intravesical adenoviral-mediated gene transfer and, when combined with an appropriate adenoviral-mediated gene, could offer an effective approach to the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and perhaps even genetically altered precursor lesions.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Cancer Gene Therapy