[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ERGO TM (http://ergo.integratedgenomics.com/ ERGO/) genome analysis and discovery suite is an integration of biological data from genomics, bio-chemistry, high-throughput expression profiling, genetics and peer-reviewed journals to achieve a comprehensive analysis of genes and genomes. Far beyond any conventional systems that facilitate functional assignments, ERGO combines pattern-based analysis with comparative genomics by visua-lizing genes within the context of regulation, expres-sion profiling, phylogenetic clusters, fusion events, networked cellular pathways and chromosomal neighborhoods of other functionally related genes. The result of this multifaceted approach is to provide an extensively curated database of the largest avail-able integration of genomes, with a vast collection of reconstructed cellular pathways spanning all domains of life. Although access to ERGO is provided only under subscription, it is already widely used by the academic community. The current version of the system integrates 500 genomes from all domains of life in various levels of completion, 403 of which are available for subscription.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus has evolved marked phenotypic changes during its 50-year history of culture in the laboratory environment, providing an excellent
system for the study of natural selection and phenotypic microevolution in prokaryotes. Combining whole-genome sequencing
with classical molecular genetic tools, we have comprehensively mapped a set of polymorphisms underlying multiple derived
phenotypes, several of which arose independently in separate strain lineages. The genetic basis of phenotypic differences
in growth rate, mucoidy, adhesion, sedimentation, phage susceptibility, and stationary-phase survival between C. crescentus strain CB15 and its derivative NA1000 is determined by coding, regulatory, and insertion/deletion polymorphisms at five chromosomal
loci. This study evidences multiple genetic mechanisms of bacterial evolution as driven by selection for growth and survival
in a new selective environment and identifies a common polymorphic locus, zwf, between lab-adapted C. crescentus and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that have adapted to a human host during chronic infection.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a representative of the group of lactic acid-producing bacteria, mainly known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. The genome sequence of this bacterium has been determined and shows the signs of ongoing specialization, with a substantial number of pseudogenes and incomplete metabolic pathways and relatively few regulatory functions. Several unique features of the L. bulgaricus genome support the hypothesis that the genome is in a phase of rapid evolution. (i) Exceptionally high numbers of rRNA and tRNA genes with regard to genome size may indicate that the L. bulgaricus genome has known a recent phase of important size reduction, in agreement with the observed high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination; (ii) a much higher GC content at codon position 3 than expected on the basis of the overall GC content suggests that the composition of the genome is evolving toward a higher GC content; and (iii) the presence of a 47.5-kbp inverted repeat in the replication termination region, an extremely rare feature in bacterial genomes, may be interpreted as a transient stage in genome evolution. The results indicate the adaptation of L. bulgaricus from a plant-associated habitat to the stable protein and lactose-rich milk environment through the loss of superfluous functions and protocooperation with Streptococcus thermophilus.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytoplasmas ("Candidatus Phytoplasma," class Mollicutes) cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafhoppers and psyllids. The 706,569-bp chromosome and four plasmids of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were sequenced and compared to the onion yellows phytoplasma strain M (OY-M) genome. The phytoplasmas have small repeat-rich genomes. This comparative analysis revealed that the repeated DNAs are organized into large clusters of potential mobile units (PMUs), which contain tra5 insertion sequences (ISs) and genes for specialized sigma factors and membrane proteins. So far, these PMUs appear to be unique to phytoplasmas. Compared to mycoplasmas, phytoplasmas lack several recombination and DNA modification functions, and therefore, phytoplasmas may use different mechanisms of recombination, likely involving PMUs, for the creation of variability, allowing phytoplasmas to adjust to the diverse environments of plants and insects. The irregular GC skews and the presence of ISs and large repeated sequences in the AY-WB and OY-M genomes are indicative of high genomic plasticity. Nevertheless, segments of approximately 250 kb located between the lplA and glnQ genes are syntenic between the two phytoplasmas and contain the majority of the metabolic genes and no ISs. AY-WB appears to be further along in the reductive evolution process than OY-M. The AY-WB genome is approximately 154 kb smaller than the OY-M genome, primarily as a result of fewer multicopy sequences, including PMUs. Furthermore, AY-WB lacks genes that are truncated and are part of incomplete pathways in OY-M.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 8x draft genome was obtained and annotated for Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3B2) strain UW551, a United States Department of Agriculture Select Agent isolated from geranium. The draft UW551 genome consisted of 80,169 reads resulting in 582 contigs containing 5,925,491 base pairs, with an average 64.5% GC content. Annotation revealed a predicted 4,454 protein coding open reading frames (ORFs), 43 tRNAs, and 5 rRNAs; 2,793 (or 62%) of the ORFs had a functional assignment. The UW551 genome was compared with the published genome of R. solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 tropical tomato strain GMI1000. The two phylogenetically distinct strains were at least 71% syntenic in gene organization. Most genes encoding known pathogenicity determinants, including predicted type III secreted effectors, appeared to be common to both strains. A total of 402 unique UW551 ORFs were identified, none of which had a best hit or >45% amino acid sequence identity with any R. solanacearum predicted protein; 16 had strong (E < 10(-13)) best hits to ORFs found in other bacterial plant pathogens. Many of the 402 unique genes were clustered, including 5 found in the hrp region and 38 contiguous, potential prophage genes. Conservation of some UW551 unique genes among R3B2 strains was examined by polymerase chain reaction among a group of 58 strains from different races and biovars, resulting in the identification of genes that may be potentially useful for diagnostic detection and identification of R3B2 strains. One 22-kb region that appears to be present in GMI1000 as a result of horizontal gene transfer is absent from UW551 and encodes enzymes that likely are essential for utilization of the three sugar alcohols that distinguish biovars 3 and 4 from biovars 1 and 2.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp. israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · FEMS Microbiology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the draft genome sequence and its analysis for Fusobacterium nucleatum sub spp. vincentii (FNV), and compare that genome with F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 (FN). A total of 441 FNV open reading frames (ORFs) with no orthologs in FN have been identified. Of these, 118 ORFs have no known function and are unique to FNV, whereas 323 ORFs have functional orthologs in other organisms. In addition to the excretion of butyrate, H2S and ammonia-like FN, FNV has the additional capability to excrete lactate and aminobutyrate. Unlike FN, FNV is likely to incorporate galactopyranose, galacturonate, and sialic acid into its O-antigen. It appears to transport ferrous iron by an anaerobic ferrous transporter. Genes for eukaryotic type serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase, transpeptidase E-transglycosylase Pbp1A are found in FNV but not in FN. Unique ABC transporters, cryptic phages, and three types of restriction-modification systems have been identified in FNV. ORFs for ethanolamine utilization, thermostable carboxypeptidase, gamma glutamyl-transpeptidase, and deblocking aminopeptidases are absent from FNV. FNV, like FN, lacks the classical catalase-peroxidase system, but thioredoxin/glutaredoxin enzymes might alleviate oxidative stress. Genes for resistance to antibiotics such as acriflavin, bacitracin, bleomycin, daunorubicin, florfenicol, and other general multidrug resistance are present. These capabilities allow Fusobacteria to survive in a mixed culture in the mouth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the presence of plasmid-borne specific toxins (B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis) and capsule (B. anthracis). But phylogenetic studies based on the analysis of chromosomal genes bring controversial results, and it is unclear whether B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are varieties of the same species or different species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579. The complete genome sequence of B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A2012 enables us to perform comparative analysis, and hence to identify the genes that are conserved between B. cereus and B. anthracis, and the genes that are unique for each species. We use the former to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ERGOTM (http://ergo.integratedgenomics.com/ERGO/) genome analysis and discovery suite is an integration of biological data from genomics, biochemistry, high-throughput expression
profiling, genetics and peer-reviewed journals to achieve a comprehensive analysis of genes and genomes. Far beyond any conventional
systems that facilitate functional assignments, ERGO combines pattern-based analysis with comparative genomics by visualizing
genes within the context of regulation, expression profiling, phylogenetic clusters, fusion events, networked cellular pathways
and chromosomal neighborhoods of other functionally related genes. The result of this multifaceted approach is to provide
an extensively curated database of the largest available integration of genomes, with a vast collection of reconstructed cellular
pathways spanning all domains of life. Although access to ERGO is provided only under subscription, it is already widely used
by the academic community. The current version of the system integrates 500 genomes from all domains of life in various levels
of completion, 403 of which are available for subscription.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Draft sequencing is a rapid and efficient method for determining the near-complete sequence of microbial genomes. Here we report a comparative analysis of one complete and two draft genome sequences of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes serious disease in plants, including citrus, almond, and oleander. We present highlights of an in silico analysis based on a comparison of reconstructions of core biological subsystems. Cellular pathway reconstructions have been used to identify a small number of genes, which are likely to reside within the draft genomes but are not captured in the draft assembly. These represented only a small fraction of all genes and were predominantly large and small ribosomal subunit protein components. By using this approach, some of the inherent limitations of draft sequence can be significantly reduced. Despite the incomplete nature of the draft genomes, it is possible to identify several phage-related genes, which appear to be absent from the draft genomes and not the result of insufficient sequence sampling. This region may therefore identify potential host-specific functions. Based on this first functional reconstruction of a phytopathogenic microbe, we spotlight an unusual respiration machinery as a potential target for biological control. We also predicted and developed a new defined growth medium for Xylella.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes wilt disease in plants and is responsible for major economic and crop losses globally. Owing to the public importance of this phytopathogen we embarked on a comparative analysis of the complete genome of Xf pv citrus and the partial genomes of two recently sequenced strains of this species: Xf pv almond and Xf pv oleander, which cause leaf scorch in almond and oleander plants, respectively. We report a reanalysis of the previously sequenced Xf 9a5c (CVC, citrus) strain and the two "gapped" Xf genomes revealing ORFs encoding critical functions in pathogenicity and conjugative transfer. Second, a detailed whole-genome functional comparison was based on the three sequenced Xf strains, identifying the unique genes present in each strain, in addition to those shared between strains. Third, an "in silico" cellular reconstruction of these organisms was made, based on a comparison of their core functional subsystems that led to a characterization of their conjugative transfer machinery, identification of potential differences in their adhesion mechanisms, and highlighting of the absence of a classical quorum-sensing mechanism. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of comparative analysis strategies in the interpretation of genomes that are closely related.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2002 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a complete DNA sequence and metabolic analysis of the dominant oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum. Although not considered a major dental pathogen on its own, this anaerobe facilitates the aggregation and establishment
of several other species including the dental pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacteroides forsythus. The F. nucleatum strain ATCC 25586 genome was assembled from shotgun sequences and analyzed using the ERGO bioinformatics suite (http://www.integratedgenomics.com). The genome contains 2.17 Mb encoding 2,067 open reading frames, organized on a single circular chromosome with 27% GC content.
Despite its taxonomic position among the gram-negative bacteria, several features of its core metabolism are similar to that
of gram-positive Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp., and Lactococcus spp. The genome analysis has revealed several key aspects of the pathways of organic acid, amino acid, carbohydrate, and
lipid metabolism. Nine very-high-molecular-weight outer membrane proteins are predicted from the sequence, none of which has
been reported in the literature. More than 137 transporters for the uptake of a variety of substrates such as peptides, sugars,
metal ions, and cofactors have been identified. Biosynthetic pathways exist for only three amino acids: glutamate, aspartate,
and asparagine. The remaining amino acids are imported as such or as di- or oligopeptides that are subsequently degraded in
the cytoplasm. A principal source of energy appears to be the fermentation of glutamate to butyrate. Additionally, desulfuration
of cysteine and methionine yields ammonia, H2S, methyl mercaptan, and butyrate, which are capable of arresting fibroblast growth, thus preventing wound healing and aiding
penetration of the gingival epithelium. The metabolic capabilities of F. nucleatum revealed by its genome are therefore consistent with its specialized niche in the mouth.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Journal of Bacteriology